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Metric System of tweights and Measures.

THE METRIC SYSTEM has been adopted by Mexico, Brazil, Chue, Peru, etc., and except Russia and Great Britain, where it is permissive, by all European nations. Various names of the preceding systems are, however, frequently used : In Germany, 4 kilogram = 1 pound ; in Switzerland, 3-10 of a metre 1 foot, etc. If the first letters of the prefixes deka, hrcto, kilo, myria, from the Greek, and deci, centi, mili, from the Latin, are used in preference to our plain English, 10, 100, etc., it is best to employ capital letters for the multiples and small letters for the subdivisions, to avoid ambiguities in abbreviations: dekam tre or 10 metres 1 Dm.; 1 decimetre or 1-10 of a metre 1 dm.

The METRE, unit of length, is nearly the ten-millionth part of a quadrant of a meridian, of the distance between Equator and Pole. The International Standard Metre is, practically, nothing else bilt a length defined by the distance between two lines on a platinum-iridium bar at 00 Centigrade, deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Paris, France.

'The LITRĖ, unit of capacity, is derived from the weight of one kilogram pure water at greatest density, a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a metre and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a metric ton.

The GRAM, unit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge is one-hundredth of a metre, and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a kilogram, and the one-millionth part of a metric ton.

The Metric System was legalized in the United States on July 28, 1866, when Congress enacted as follows:

"The tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts, and in all legal proceedings, as establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric system, and the tables may lawfully be used for computing, determining, and expressing in customary weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system.

The following are the tables annexed to the above:

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Kilolitre or stere. 1,000'1 cubic metre....

1,308 cubic yards... Hectolitre...

100 1-10 of a cubic metre. 2 bush, and 3.35 pecks... Dekalitre.

10 10 cubic decimetres.. 9.08 quarts.............. Litre 11 cubic decimetre.

0.908 quart. Decilitre..

1-10 1-10 of a cubic decimetre. 6.1022 cubic inches. Centilitre...

1-100 10 cubic centimetres. 0.6102 cubic inch. Millilitre 1-10001 cubic centimetre..

0.061 cubic inch

264. 17 gallons.
26. 417 gallons.
2. 6417 gallons.
1.0567 quarts.
0.845 gill,
0.338 Auid ounce,
0.27 fluid dram.

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TABLES FOR THE CONVERSION OF METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES INTO

CUSTOMARY UNITED STATES EQUIVALENTS AND THE REVERSE. From the legal equivalents are deduced the following tables for converting United States weights and measures:

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METRIC SYSTEM-Continued.

WEIGHT (AVOIRDUPOIS).

1_0.15431-35,274 1- 2. 20462 120.9842 220.3086 2 70.548 24 4.40924 2-1.9684 3_0.4630 3–105.822 3= 6.61386 3=2.9526 4-0.61734-141. 096 48.81849 4_3.9368 5-0.7716 5=176.3705_11.02311 5_4.9210 6_0.92596=211.6446_13. 22773 6_5. 9052 7_1.08037=246.918 7_15, 43235 7-6.8894 8_1.2346 8=282.1928_17.63697 8–7.8736 921.3889 | 9=317.466 9–19.841599-8.8578

1- 6.47991- 28.3495 1.0.45359 121. 0161 2_12.9598 2–56.6991 2-0.90719 22.0321 3–19.4397 385. 0486 3-1.36078 33.0482 425.9196 4-113.3981 4–1.81437 4–4.0642 5-32,3995 5-141, 7476 5-2.26796 5_5.0803 6=38.8793 6–170.0972 1 6_2.72156 6x6, 0963 7-45.35927–198. 446773.17515 77.1124 8=51.8391 8_226.79628_3.62874 8.8. 1284 9_58.3190 19_255, 1457 1 94.08233 99, 1445

THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. The following tables of the metric system of weights and measures have been simplified as much as possible for THE WORLD ALMANAC by omitting such denominations as are not in practical, everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively.

TABLES OF THE SYSTEM. Length.-The denominations in practical use are millimetres (mm.), centimetres (cm.), metres (m.), and kilometres (km.).

10 mm. = 1 cm. ; 100 cm. - 1m. ; 1,000 m. - 1 km. NoTE. -A decimetre is 10 cm.
Weight. The denominations in use are grams (g.), kilos* (kg.), and tons (metric tons).
1,000 g. 1 kg. ; 1,000 kg.-1 metric ton.
Capacity. The denominations in use are cubic centimetres (c.c.) and litres (1.).
1,000 c. c.-11. NOTE.- A hectolitre is 100 1. (seldom used).

Relation of capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs a kilo.

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS, A metre is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a litre is about a quart; a centimetre is about 4 inch; a metric ton is about same as a ton; a kilometre is about 2 mile; a cubic centimetre is about a thimbleful; a nickel weighs about 5 grams.

PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 1 acre.........

.40 hectar..
40471 mile.......

1.6 kilometres........ 1.609 1 bushel..........

35
litres ...........35.24 1 millimetre...

.039 inch........... .0394 1 centimetre

.39 inch......
3937 1 ounce (av'd)...

= 28

grams...............28. 35 1 cubic centimetre .061 cubic inch... 0610 1 ounce (Troy)... =31 grams.........

.31.10 1 cubic foot....... .028 cubic metre. 0283 1 peck......

8.8 litres........

8. 809 1 cubic inch.... 16 cubic cent. + 16.39 1 pint...

.47 litre...........

.4732 1 cubic metre... 35 cubic feet.....35.31 1 pound.

.45
kilo.............

4536 1 cubic metre. 1.3 cubic yards... 1.308 1 quart (dry).. 1.1 litres.........

1.101 1 cubic yard.... .... .76 cubic metre... .7645 1 quart (liquid).. .95 litre..

9464 1 foot..... 30 centimetres 30.48 1 sq. centimetre. .15 sq. inch...

1550 1 gallon........

3.8

litres........... 3.785 1 sq. foot............ .093 sq. metre.... .0929 1 grain.. .065 gram.. 0648 1 sq. inch..

6.5 sq. c'timetr's. 6. 452 1 gram.. grains ..15.43 1 sq. metre...

1.2 sq. yards....... 1. 196 1 hectar.

2.5

acres...... 2.471 1 sq. metre.. 11 sq. feet..............10,76 1 inch.. 25 millimetres. 25.40 1 sq. yard.

sq. metre.. 1 kilo.... pounds ....... 2. 205 1 ton (2,000 lbs. )

metric ton...... 9072 1 kilometre.

.62 mile.

62141 ton (2, 240 lbs.) = 1 metric ton... 1.017 1 litre...

.91 quart (dry)... 9091 1 ton (metric)..... = 1.1 ton (2,000 lbs.) 1.102 1 litre

1.t

quarts (liq’d) 1.057 1 ton (metric).....-- .98 ton (2, 240 lbs.) 9842 1 metre...

3.3
feet.
3.281 1 yard.

.91 metre.........

9144 * Contraction for kilogram. Centimetres.

15

.84
.91

.8361

2.2

Minimum weights of produce. The following are minimum weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the United States : Per Bushel. Per Bushel.

Per Bushel. Wheat... .60 lbs. White Potatoes..

.60 lbs. Hungarian Grass Seed......50 lbs. ('oru, in the ear.... .70 Sweet Potatoes..

..55 Timothy Seed........... 45 Corn, shelled..

.56
Onions....
.57 Blue Grass Seed..

44 Rye.. 56 Turnips.. .55 Hemp Seed....

44 Buckwheat.........

48
Dried Peaches.

33 Salt (see note below). Barley...

48
Dried Apples.

Corn Meal........

48 Oats....................

32
Clover Seed.
.60 Ground Peas

24 Peas...

60
Flax Seed

56
Malt..

3+ White Beans... 60 Millet Seed..

.50
Bran......

20 Castor Beans...

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SALT.-Weight per bushel as adopted by different States ranges from 50 to 80 pounds. Coarse salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and in Tllinois at 50 pounds per bushel. Fine salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 62 pounds, in Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per bushel,

Measures and weights of Great Britain. The measures of length and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the United States. The English ton is 2, -40 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping ton of the United States. The Euglish 'hundredweight is 112 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long hundred weight of the United States. The metre has been legalized at 39.37079 inches, but the length of 30 370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used.

The Iinperial gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part in 1,836: 10lbs. of water 277.123 cubic inches. The English statute mile is 1,760 yards or 5, 280 feet.

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
NAMES.
Pounds of

United States
Water.
Cubic Inches, Litres.

Equivalents. 4 gills - 1 pint

1. 25

34.66

0.56793 1. 20032 liquid pints. 2 pints -1 quart.

2.5

69.32

1. 13586 1.20032 quarts. 2 quarts 1 pottle

5
138.64

2.27173 2. 40064 2 pottles 1 gallon

277.27

4.54346 1.20032 gallons. 2 gallons - 1 peck....

20

551.55

9.08692 1.03152 dry pecks. 4 pecks - 1 bushel..

SO
2218. 19

36.34766 1.03152 bushels. bushels -1 coomb..

320

8872. 77 145.39062 4.12606 2 coombs 1 quarter....

640

17745.54 290.7813 18.2521 A cubic foot of pure gold weighs 1,210 pounds; pure silver, 655 pounds; cast iron, 450 pounds; copper, 530 pounds; lead, 710 pounds; pure platinum, 1,220 pounds; tin, 456 pounds; aluminum, 163 pounds.

10

Domestic vuieights and Measures. Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains - 1 scruple; 3 scruples 1 dram; 8 drams=1 ounce; 12 ounces 1 pound.

Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11-32 grains - 1 dram; 16 drams=1 ounce; 16 ounces - 1 pound; 25 pounds=1 quarter; 4 quarters=1 cwt. ; 20 cwl. =1 ton..

Avoirdupois Weight (long ton): 27 11-32 grains = 1 dram; 10 drams=1 ounce; 16 ounces - 1 pound; 112 pounds - 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. =1 ton.

Troy Weight: 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights=1 ounce; 12 ounces- 1 pound.

Circular Neasure: 60 seconds=1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 degree; 30 degrees - 1 sign; 12 signs -1 circle or circumference.

Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches =loubic foot; 27 cubic feet =1 cubic yard.
Dry Measure: 2 pints=1 quart; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks == 1 bushel.
Liquid Measure: 4 gills - 1 pint; 2 pints=1

quart; 4 quarts-1 gallon; 31% gallons -1 barrel; 2 barrels = 1 hogshead,

Long Measure: 12 inches –1_foot; 3 feet=1 yard; 544 yards = 1 rod or pole; 40 rods -1 furlong; 8 furlongs = 1 statute mile (1,760 yards or 5,280 feet); 3 miles=1 league.

Mariner's Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 1:0 fathoms=1 cable length; 774 cable lengths - 1 mile; 5,280 feet-1 statute mile; 6,085 feet = 1 nautical mile.

Paper Measure: 24 sheets=1 quire; 20 quires = 1 ream (480 sheets); 2 reams = 1 bundle; 5 bundles - 1 bale,

square Measure: 144 square inches = 1 square foot; 9 square feet-1 square yard; 3044 square yards=1 square rod or perch; 40 square rods=1 rood; 4 roods=1 acre: 640 acres-1 square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square)=1 township.

Time Measure: 60 seconds 1 minute; 60 minutes=1 hour; 24 hours - 1 day; days - 1 week; 365 days=1 year; 366 days = 1 leap year.

MEDICAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS. R (Lat. Recipe), take; āă, of each; it, pound; } , ounce; 3, drachm; , scruple; m, minim, or drop; O or o, pint; f 3, fuid ounce; fj, fluid drachm; as, žss, half an ounce; zi, one ounce; 3 iss, one ounce and a haif; ij, two ounces; gr., grain; Q. S., as much as sufficient; Ft. Mist., let a mixture be made; Ft. Haust., let a draught be made; Ad., add to; Ad lib. , at pleasure; Aq., water; M., mix; Mac., macerate; Pulv., powder; Pil., pill; Solv., dissolve; St., let it stand; Sum., to be taken; D., dose; Dil., dilute; Filt. , filter: Lot., a wash; Garg., a gargle; Hor. Decub., at bed time; Inject. , injection; Gtt., drops; ss, one-haif; Ess., essence.

TEXAS LAND MEASURE.

(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. ) 26,000,000 square varas (square of 5, 099 varas) 1 league and l labor - 4,605,5

acres. 1,000,000 square varas (square of 1.000 varas) =1 labor

177.136 acres. 25,000,000 square varas (square of 5,000 varas) 1 league

= 4,428.4 acres. 12,500,000 square varas (square of 3,535.5 varas) - league

= 2,214.2 acres. 8,333, 333 square varas (square of 2,886.7 varas) 13 league

1, 176.13 acres. 6,250,000 square varas (square of 2,500 varas) = 14 league

= 1, 107.1 acres, 7,225, 600 square varas (square of 2,688 varas)

1,280 3,612,800 square varas (square of 1,960.8 varas 1 section

640

acres. 1, 806, 400 square varas (square of 1,314 varas) - a section

320 903, 200 square varas (square of 950.44 varas)

4 section

160 acres. 451, 600 square varas (square of 672 varas) = 48 section

80

acres. 225, 800 square varas (square of 475 varas) = 1-16 section

40

acres. 5, 645.376 square varas (square of 75.137 varas) = 4,840 square yards

1 acre. To find the number of acres in any number of square varas, multiply the latter by 177 (or to be more exact, by 1774), and cut off six decimals. 1 vara 3343 inches.

1,900.8 varas El mile. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES. 1 pulgada (12 linea)

.927 inch.
1 libra (16 onzo)

1.0144 lb. av. 1 pie 11.125 inches. 1 arroba

25. 360 lb. av. 1 vara 33.375 inches. 1.catty (16 tael)

1.. 94

lb. av. 1 gantah .8796 gallon. 1 pecul (100 catty)

139,482 lb. av. 1 caban

21.991 gallons,

acres.

acres,

Knots and Miles.
THE Statute Mile is 5,280 feet.
The British Admiralty Kuot or Nautical Mile is 6,080 feet.

The Statute Knot is 6.082. 66 seet, and is generally considered the standard. The number of feet in a statute knot is arrived at thus: The circumference of the earth is divided into 360 degrees, each degr e containing 60 knots or (360x60), 21,600 knots to the circumference. 21,600 divided into 131,385,456—the number of feet in the earth's circumference--gives 6,082.66 feet-the length of a standard mile. 1 knot - 1.151 miles 4 knots 4.606 miles | 20 knots — 23. 030 miles | 600 feet

1 cable 2 knots 2.303 miles

5 knots 5.757 miles 25 knots = 28.787 miles 10 cables 1 knot 3 knots = 3.454 miles | 10 knots = 11.515 miles 6 feet =1 fathom

Ancient Greek and Roman WWeights and Measures,

WITH AMERICAN EQUIVALENTS.

WEIGHTS.
The Roman libra or pound 10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 5-7 gr.,

Troy.
The Attica mina or pound ll oz. 7 pwt. 16 2-7 gr., Troy.
The Attica talent (60 minæ) - 56 lbs. 11 oz. O pwt. 171-7 gr., Troy.
DRY MEASURE.

The Grecian furlong = 504 ft. 41-5 inches.
The Roman modus -1 pk. 2-9 pint.

The Grecian mile = 4030 ft. The Attic chenix - nearly 1% pints.

MONEY.
The Attic medimnus = 4 pk. 61-10 pints.

The quadrans=11-10 mills.
LIQUID MEASURE.

The as=13-10 mills.
The cotyle = a little over 12 pint.

The sestertius = 3.58 + cents. The cyathus = a little over 12 pints.

Thesestertium (1,000 sestertii) $35.80+.
The chus = a little over 6% pints.

The denarius = 14.35 + cents.
LONG MEASURE.

The Attic obolus = 2.39 + cents.
The Roman foot = 11 3-5 inches.

The drachma = 14.35 + cents. * The Roman cubit = 1 ft. 5% inches.

The mina (100 drachmæ) $14.35+. The Roman pace = 4 ft. 10 inches.

The talent (60 minæ) = $861.00+. The Roman furlong 604 ft. 10 inches.

The Greek stater - aureus (same as the Romant) The Roman mile=4,835 feet.

= $3.58, 79, The Grecian cubit = 1 ft. 648 inches.

The stater - daricus = $7.16,66. *The modern drachma equals 19.3 cents. † Did not remain, at all periods, at this value, but this is the value indicated by Tacitus.

BIBLICAL WEIGHTS REDUCED TO TROY WEIGHT.

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Foreign Moneys.
English Money: 4 farthings = 1 penny (d); 12 pence-1 shilling (s); 20 shillings - 1 pound (£).

21 shillings - one guinea; 5 shillings = one crown.
French Money : 10 centimes - 1 decime; 10 decimes - 1 franc.
German Money: 100 pfennig-1 mark.
Russian Money: 100 copecks -1 ruble.
Austro-Hungarian Money : 100 kreutzer=1 florin.
For United States equivalents, see table of “Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money."

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