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THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. The following tables of the metric system of weights and measures have been simplified as much as possible for THE WORLD ALMANAC by omitting such denominations as are not in practical, everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively,

TABLES OF THE SYSTEM. Length.-The denominations in practical use are millimetres (mm.), centimetres (cm.), metres 10 mm. nonem$100 cm. - 1 m.; 1,000 m. - 1 km.

NOTE. -A decimetre is 10 cm. Weight. The denominations in use are grams (g.), kilos* (kg.), and tons (metric tons). 1,000 g. 1 kg. ;1,000 kg. 1 metric ton. Capacity. The denominations in use are cubic centimetres (c. c.) and litres (1.). 1,000 c.c. 11. NOTE. -A hectolitre is 100 1. (seldom used).

Relation of capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs a kilo.

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. A metre is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a litre is about a quart; a centimetre is about * inch; a metric ton is about same as a ton; a kilometre is about 2 mile; a cubic centimetre is about a thimbleful; a nickel weighs about 5 grams.

PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 1 acre.............. .40 hectar.. 4047,1 mile.........

1.6 kilometres....... 1.609 1 bushel........ 35 litres .......35, 24 1 millimetre...

.039 inch........

0394 1 centimetre

.39 inch...... .3937 1 ounce (av'd)... = 28 grams...............28.35 1 cubic centimetre .061 cubic inch... 0610 1 ounce (Troy). 31 grams...

31.10 1 cubic foot....... .028 cubic metre. 0283 1 peck....

8.8
litres..

8. 809 1 cubic inch..... 16 cubic cent. † 16.39 1 pint...

.47 litre............ 1cubic metre.. 35 cubic feet.....35.31 1 pound.

.45 kilo....

4536 1 cubic metre. 1.3 cubic yards... 1.308 1 quart (dry)....

1.1
litres.........

1.101 1 cubic yard. .76 cubic metre... . 7645 1 quart (liquid).. .95 litre....

.9464 1 foot.... 30 centimetres 30.48 1 sq. centimetre. 15 sq. inch.

1550 1 gallon.........

3.8
litres...... 3.785 1 sq. foot.....

.093 sq. metre.... .0929 1 grain....

.065 gram....
0648 1 sq. inch..

6.5 sq. c'timetr's. 6. 452 1 gram......

15
grains ..15.43 1 sq. metre..

1.2 sq. yards......... 1. 196 1 hectar.

2.5
acres..... 2.471 1 sq. metre... 11

sq. feet....... .10.76 1 inch. 25 millimetres. 25.40 1 sq. yard..

.84 sq. metre.

8361 1 kilo. pounds. 2. 205 1 ton (2,000 lbs. .91

metric ton...... 9072 1 kilometre.

.62 mile..

.6214 1 ton (2, 240 lbs.) 1 metric ton... 1.017 1 litre.....

.91 quart (dry)... 9081 1 ton (metric)..... 1.1 ton (2,000 lbs.) 1.102 1 litre

1.t
quarts (liq’d) 1.057 1 ton (metric)..... .98

ton (2,240 lbs. .9842 1 metre........... 3.3 feet. .... 3.281 1 yard..

.91
metre.........

9144 * Contraction for kilogram. Centimetres.

.4732

2.2

Minimum weights of Produce. The following are minimum weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the United States : Per Bushel. Per Bushel.

Per Bushel. Wheat... .60 lbs. White Potatoes.

.60 lbs. Hungarian Grass Seed......50 lbs. Coru, in the ear.

.70
Sweet Potatoes.
.55 Timothy Seed......

45 Corn, shelled.. .56 Onions.. .57 Blue Grass Seed.

44 Rye... 56 Turnips...

55
Hemp Seed....

44 Buckwheat.........

48
Dried Peaches......

33 Salt (see note below). Barley....

48
Dried Apples.
26 Corn Meal......

48 Oats....... 32 Clover Seed. .60 Ground Peas

24 Peas... .60 Flax seed.

:56
Malt....

34 White Beans.... 60 Millet Seed... 50 Bran...............

20 Castor Beans......

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SALT.-Weight per bushel as adopted by different States ranges from 50 to 80 pounds. Coarse salt in Penặsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and in Illinois at 50 pounds per bushel. Fine salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 62 pounds, ip Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per bushel,

Measures and Teights of Great Britain. The measures of length and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the United States. The English ton is 2 -10 lbs. avoir lupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping ton of the United States. The Euglish hundredweight is 112 lbs, avoirdupois, the same as the long bundred weight of the United States. The metre has been legalized at 39. 37079 inches, but the length of 38 370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used. The Imperial gallon,

the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part in 1,836: 10 lbs of water = 277.123 cubic inches. The English statute mile is 1,760 yards or 5, 280 feet.

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
NAMES.
Pounds of

United States
Water.
Cubic Inches. Litres.

Equivalents. 4 gills - 1 pint

1.25

31.66

0.56793 1. 20032 liquid pints. 2 pints -1 quart

2.5

69.32

1. 13586 1.20032 quarts. 2 quarts -1 pottle

5
138.64

2.27173 2. 40064 pottles -1 gallon

10

277.27

4.54346 1. 20032 gallons. 2 gallons - 1 peck.

20

551.55

9.08692 1.03152 dry pecks. pecks - 1 bushel...

SO
2218. 19

36.34766 1.03152 ** bushels. bushels -l coomb..

320

8872.77 115.39062 4.12606 " 2 coombs 1 quarter..

1610

17745.54 290. 7813 18 2521 A cubic foot of pure gold weighs 1,210 pounds; pure silver, 655 pounds; cast iron, 450 pounds; copper, 550 pounds; lead, 710 pounds ; pure platinum, 1,220 pounds; tin, 456 pounds; aluminumn, 163 pounds.

Domestic vicights and Measures. Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains =1 scruple; 3 scruples = 1 dram; 8 drams=1 ounce; 12 ounces=1 pound.

Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 2711-32 grains=1 dram; 16 drams - 1 ounce; 16 ounces - 1 pound; 25 pounds=1 quarter; 4 quarters=1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. = 1 ton.

Avoirdupois Weight (long ton): 2711-32 grains = 1 dram; 16 drams=1 ounce; 16 ounces - 1 pound; 112 pounds - 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. -=1 ton,

Troy Weight: 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce; 12 ounces - 1 pound.

Circular Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes=1 degree; 30 degrees = 1 sign; 12 signs -1 circle or circumference.

Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches-l cubic foot; 27 cubic feet=1 cubic yard.
Dry Measure: 2 pints=1 quart; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks--1 bushel.

Liquid Measure: 4 gills- 1 pint; 2 pints=1 quart; 4 quarts-1 gallon; 31% gallons-1 barrel; 2 barrels - 1 hogshead.

Long Measure: 12 inches - 1 foot; 3 feet-1 yard; 5% yards = 1 rod or pole; 40 rods - 1 furlong; 8 furlongs = 1 statute mile (1,760 yards or 5.280 feet); 3 miles=1 league.

Mariner's Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 1:0 fathoms=1 cable length; 7% cable lengths - 1 mile; 5, 280 feet-1 statute mile; 6,085 feet = 1 nautical mile.

Paper Measure : 24 sheets = 1 quire; 20 quires - 1 ream (480 sheets); 2 reams - 1 bundle; 5 bundles - 1 bale.

Square Measure: 144 square inches = 1 square foot; 9 square feet-1 square yard; 3044 square yards=1 square rod or perch; -40 square rods = l rood; 4 roods=1 acre; 64 acres 1 square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square)=1 township.

Time Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes=1 hour; 24 hours-1 day; 7 days - 1 week; 365 days=1 year; 366 days=1 leap year.

MEDICAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS. R (Lat. Recipe), take; āå, of each; tb, pound; , ounce; 3, drachm; o, scruple; m, minim, or drop; o oro, pint; f 3, fuid ounce; f3, fluid drachm; as, 3 ss, half an ounce; 3i, one ounce; siss, one ounce and a hair; 3ij, two ounces; gr., grain; Q. S., as much as sufficient; Ft. Mist., let a mix. ture be made; Ft. Haust., let a draught be made; Ad., add to; Ad lib. , at pleasure; Aq., water; M., mix; Mac., macerate; Pulv., powder; Pil., pill; Solv., dissolve; St., let it stand; Sum., to be taken; D., dose; Dil., dilute; Filt., filter: Lot., a wash; Garg., a gargle; Hor. Decub., at bed time; Inject. , injection; Gtt., drops; ss, one-half; Ess., essence.

TEXAS LAND MEASURE.

(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. ) 26,000,000

square varas (square of 5, 099 varas) =1 league and 1 labor = 4, 605.5 acres, 1,000,000 square varas (square of 1.000 varas) = 1 labor

177.136 acres. 25,000,000 square varas (square of 5,000 varas) =1 league

4, 428,4 acres. 12,500,000 square varas (square of 3, 535.5

league

= 2,214.2 8,333,333 square varas (square of 2,886.7 varas) = 13 league

1. 176. 13 acres. 6, 250,000 square varas (square of 2.500 varas) = 14 league

1.107.1 acres. 7, 225, 600 square varas (square of 2,688

1,280 3.612,800 square varas (square of 1,900.8 varas) = 1 section

640 1, 806, 400 square varas (square of 1,314 varas) == la section

320 acres, 903, 200 square varas (square of 950.41 varas) = 14 section

160 acres. 451, 600 square varas (square of 672 varas) == 18 section

80 225, 800 square varas (square of 475 varas) = 1-16 section

40

acres. 5,645.376 square varas (square of 75.137 varas) = 4,810 square yards

1

acre. To find the number of acres in any number of square varas, multiply the latter by 177 (or to be more exact, by 17748), and cut off six decimals. 1 vara = 3343 inches.

1,900.8 varas -l mile.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES
1 pulgada (12 ţinea)

9:7 inch.
1 libra (16 onzo)

1.0144 lb. av. 1 pie

11.125 inches.
1 arroba

25. 360 lb. ar. 1 vara 33.375 inches. 1.catty (16 tael)

1.. 94 1 gantah .8796 gallon. 1 pecul (100 catty)

139, 82 }b, av. | caban

1.991 gallons,

varas)

acres.

Varas)

acres. acres.

acres.

lb. av.

Knots and files.
The Statute Mile is 5,280 feet.
The British Admiralty Kuot or Nautical Mile is 6, 080 feet.

The Statute Knot is 6,082. 66 feet, aud is generally considered the standard. The number of feet in a statute knot is arrived at thus: The circumference of the earth is divided into 360 degrees, each degree containing 60 knots or (360x60), 21,600 knots to the circumference. 21,600 divided into 131,385,456—the number of feet in the earth's circumference-gives 6,082.66 feet-the length of a standard mile. 1 knot - 1.151 miles

4 knots 4.606 miles | 20 knots -- 23.030 miles | 600 feet - 1 cable 2 knots 2. 303 miles

5 knots 5.757 miles 25 knots = 28.787 miles 10 cables 1 knot 3 knots - 3.454 miles | 10 knots - 11.515 miles 6 feet =1 fathom

Ancient Greek and Roman Uweights and Measures,

WITH AMERICAN EQUIVALENTS.

WEIGHTS.
The Roman libra or pound = 10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 5-7 gr., Troy.
The Attica mina or pound -11 oz. 7 pwt. 16 2-7 gr., Troy.
The Attica talent (60 minæ) = 56 lbs. 11 oz. O pwt. 171-7 gr. , Troy.
DRY MEASURE.

The Grecian furlong = 504 ft. 41-5 inches.
The Roman modus -1pk. 2-9 pint.

The Grecian mile 4030 ft. The Attic chenix -- nearly 1% pints.

MONEY.
The Attic medimnus
= 4 pk. 61-10 pints.

The quadrans-11-10 mills.
LIQUID MEASURE.

The as -1 3-10 mills.
The cotyle = a little over 12 pint.

The sestertius = 3.58 + cents. The cyathus = a little over 1% pints.

Thesestertium (1,000 sestertii) $35.80+.
The chus = a little over 6%3 pints.

The denarius = 14.35 + cents.
LONG MEASURE.

The Attic obolus – 2.39 + cents.
The Roman foot -11 3-5 inches.

The drachma=14.35 + cents. The Roman cubit = 1 ft. 5% inches.

The mina (100 drachma) = $14.35+. The Roman pace - 4 ft. 10 inches.

The talent (60 minæ) = $861.00+. The Roman furlong - 604 ft. 10 inches.

The Greek stater - aureus (same as the Romant) The Roman mile=4,835 feet.

= $3.58, 79, The Grecian cubit = 1 ft. 648 inches.

The stater = daricus - = $7.16,66. *The modern drachma equals 19.3 cents. † Did not remain, at all periods, at this value, but this is the value indicated by Tacitus.

BIBLICAL WEIGHTS REDUCED TO TROY WEIGHT.

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Ohm R Resistance The electrical resistance of a col- 109 1 true ohm 1. 0112 Britumn of mercury 106 centimetres ish

Association ohms. long and of 1 square millimetre

section. Ampère C Current Is that current of electricity that 101 Deposits 1.118 milligrams

decomposes .01009324 gramme of of silver per second.

water per second. Volt

E Electromo- One ampère of current passing 108 .926 of a standard Daniel tive force through a substance having 1 ohm Cell.

of resistance =l volt. Coulomb

Quantity A current of 1 ampère during 1 101 Deposits 1.118 milligrams second of time.

of silver. Farad K Capacity The capacity that a current of 1 109 2.5 knots of D. U. S. cable.

am père for 1 second (=1 coulomb)

charges it to potential of 1 volt. Microfarad 1-millionth of farad.

1 Watt Pw. Power Power of 1 ampère current pass- 107 ing through resistance of 1 ohm.

horse power. Jou W.j. Work Is the work done by 1 watt of 107 .238 unit of heat (Therm).

electrical power in 1 second. *C. G. S. = Electro-magnetic units. Consult technical works in electricity.

Foreign Moneys.
English Money: 4 farthings-1 penny (d); 12 pence-1 shilling (8); 20 shillings - 1 pound (£).

21 shillings = one guinea; 5 shillings = one crown.
French Money : 10 centimes = 1 decime; 10 decimes - 1 franc.
German Money: 100 pfennig=1 mark.
Russian Money: 100 copecks=1 ruble.
Austro-Hungarian Money : 100 kreutzer = 1 florin.
For United States equivalents, see table of “ Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money."

Xnterest Laws and Statutes of Limitations.

Secrets
రెండు Saaho | 1

5(1)

STATUTES OF

STATUTES OF
INTEREST LAWS.

INTEREST Laws.
LIMITATIONS.

LIMITATIONS. STATES AND

STATES AND

Open

Judg. TERRITORIES.

TERRITORIKS.

Open

Judg-
Legal Rate Allowed

Notes,
ments,
AC-
Legal Rate Allowed

Notes,
ments,

Ac-
Rate, by Contract.

Years.
Years. counts,

Rate. by Contract.

Years.

Years. counts,
Years.

Years.
Perit
Per ct.

Per it. Per ct.
Alabama ..

8
20
3 Nebraska.

7

10 511 5 4 Arkansas.

6
10 10

Nevada...

Any rate. 6 Arizona 6 Any rate. 5

N. Hampshire

6

20 California Any rate. 5

New Jersey

6

20 Colorado Any rate. 20

New Mexico..

12

7 Connecticut

6 (0)
New York...

ott

20(n) Delaware.

6
10
3 North Carolina

6

10 3* D. of Columbia

10
12
3 North Dakota.

12 10 6 698 Florida....

10
20
Ohio.....

8 15(p) 15 Georgia.

8
Oklahoma.

12

5 Idaho...

12
6
Oregon...

10 10 6 Illinois..

7
20 10 5 Pennsylvania

6 5(1) 61 Indiana.

8
20 10
Rhode Island. Any rate.

20 6
Iowa...
8 20(d)/ 10 5 South Carolina

8 20 6 Kansas

10
5
3 South Dakota.

12 Kentucky

6
15 15 5(a) Tennessee.

6 10 Louisiana.

8 10 5
Texas.....

10 10+1
Maine....
Any rate. 20 6(0) 699 | Utah....

A ay rate. 8
Maryland

6
12 3 3 Vermont..

6

8 Massachusetts. Any rate. 20 6 6 Virginia.

6 20 Michigan

7
10
Washington

12

6 6 Minnesota.

10
10
West Virginia.

6

10 10 Mississippi

10
7
Wisconsin

10 20(n) Missouri

8
10 10 5 Wyoming

12 21 Montana

8 Aily rate. (10(b)| 8 5 * Under seal, 10 years. If made in State; if outside, 2 years. f Unless a different rate is expressly stipulated. Under seal, 20 years. [Store accounts; other accounts 3 years; accounts between mer. chants 5 years. It New York has by a recent law legalized any rate of interest on call loans of $5,000 orupward, on collateral security. It Becomes dormant, but may be revived. If six years from last item. (a) Accounts between merchants 2 years. (0) In courts not of record 5 years. (c) Witnessed 20 years. (d) Twenty years in Courts of Record; in Justice s Court 10 years. (e) Negotiable notes 6 years, non-negotiable 7 years. () Ceases to be a lien after that period. . (1) On foreign judgments 1 year. (i) Is a lien on real estate for only 10 years. (k) And indefinitely by having execution issue every 5 years. (1) Ten years foreign, 20 years domestic. (n) Not of record 6 years. (0) No limit. (0) Foreign Domestic 6 years.

Penalties for usury difter in the various States.

Arizona, California, Colorado, Indian Territory, Maine, Massachusetts (except on loans of less than $1,000), Montana, Nevada, Rhode Island, Utah, and Wyoming have no provisions on the subject.

Loss of principal and interest is the penalty in Arkansas and New York.
Loss of principal in Delaware and Oregon.

Loss of interest in Alabama. Alaska, District of Columbia, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Louisl. ana, Michigan, Minnesota Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina (double amount if paid), North Dakota (double amount if paid), Oklahoma Territory, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, Washington (double amount if paid), Wisconsin, and Hawaii.

Loss of excess of interest in Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, New Hampshire (three times), New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia.

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Simple Xnterest Table. (Showingat Different Rates the interest on $1 from 1 Monthtol year, and on $100 from 1 Day to 1 Year.)

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YEARS IN WHICH A GIVEN AMOUNT WILL DOUBLE AT SEVERAL RATES OF INTEREST.

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1..

42
.50 54 55 62 65 69

.77 2.

S5 .92 1.00 1.08 1.15 1.23 1.31 1.35 1. 46 1.54 3.

1.15 1.27 1.38 1.10 1. 62 1.73 1.85 1.96 2.08 2. 19 2.31 4.

1.54 1.69 1.85 2,00 2.15 2.31 2. 46 2. 62 2.77 2.92 3.08 5. 1.92 2.12 2.31 2.50 2. 69 2.88 3.08 3. 27

3.46

3. 65 3,85 6. 2.31 2.54 2.77 3.00 3.23 3.46 3.69 3.92

4. 15 4.38 4.62 7 2. 69 2.96 3. 23 3.50 3,77 4. 04 4.31 4.58 4 85 5.12

5.38 8. 3.08 3.38 3.69 4.00 4! 31

4.62 4.92 5. 23 5.54 5. 85 6.15 9.

3.46 3. 81 4.15 4.50 4.85 5.19 5.54 5.88 6, 23 6.58 6,92 10.

3.85 4.23
4.62 5.00 5.38 5. 77 6.15 6.54 6.92 7.31

7.69 11. 4.23 4.65 5.08 5.50 5.92 6.35 6.77

7.19 7.62 8.04 8. 46 12 4.62 5. OS 5.44 6.00 6. 46 6.92 7.38 7.85 8.31

8.77 9.23 13.

5.00 5. 50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 14.

5. 38 5.92

6.46 7.00 7.54 8. 08 8.62 9.15 9. 69 10.23 10.77 15.

5.77 6.3.) 6.92 7.50 8.08 8.65 9. 23 9.81 10.38 10.96 11.54 20.

7.69 8. 46 9.23 10.00 10.77 11.54 12.31 13.03 13.85 14.62 15.38 1 mouth

10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 2.

20.00 22.00 24.00 26.00 28.00 30.00 32.00 34.00 36.00 38.00 40.00 3.

30.00 33.00 36.00 39.00 42.00 45.00 48.00 51.00 54.00 57.00 60.00 4..

40.00 44.00 48.00 52.00 56.00 60.00 64.00 68.00 72.00 76.00 80.00 5.

50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 6.

60.00 66.00 72.00 78.00 84.00 90.00 96.00 102.00 108.00 114.00 120.00 7

70.00 77.00 84.00 91.00 98.00 105,00 112.00 119.00 126.00 133.00 140.00 8.

80.00 88.00 96.00 104.00 112.00 120.00 128.00 136.00 144.00 152.00 160.00 9

90.00 99.00 108.00 117.00 126.00 135.00 144.00 153.00 162.00 171.00 180.00 10.

100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 140.00 150.00 160.00 170.00 180.00 190,00 200.00 110.00 121. 00 132.00 143.00 154.00 165.00 176.00 187.00 198.00 209.00 220.00

120.00 132.00 144.00 156.00 168.00 180.00 192.00 204.00 216.00 28.00 20.00 *Six working days in the week,

Roman and Arabic Numerals.

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I
II
III
IV
V
VI.
VII
VIII

1 XI
2 XII.
3 XIII
4 XIV
5 XV
6 XVI
7 XVII
8 XVIII
9XIX
101X.X....

11 XXX

30cccc. 12 XL

40 D. 13 L.

50 DC. 1+1X

60 DCC.
15 LXX

70 DCCC
16 LXXX or XXC. 80 CM
17 X

90 M
180

100 MNE. 19 cc

200 MCMIV... 201700

......300)

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 1904

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