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Latitude and Longitude Table.

(LONGITUDE RECKONED FROM GREENWICH.) Specially prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC. H. M. S.

H. M. S. Acapulco, Mex..... ..16 50 56 N. 6 39 41.8 W. Madison, Wis. *

.43 437 N. 557 37.8 W. Adelaide, s. Australia*..34 55 38 S. 914 20.3 E. Madras, India*

13 4 8 N. 5 20 59.4 E. Aden, Arabia.... .12 46 40 N. 2 59 55.8 E. Madrid, Spain*. .40 24 30 N. 014 45. 4 W. Albany, N. Y. * .42 39 13 N. 4 55 6.8 W. Manila, Lt

.14 35 25 N. 8 3 50.0 E. Algiers* ..36 4750 N. 0 12 11.4 E. Marseilles*

43 18 18 N. 021 34,6 E. Allegheny, Pa. 40 27 42 N. 520 2.9 W. Melbourne, Vic.

..37 49 53 S. 9 39 54.1 E. Alexandria, Egypt. ...31 11 43 N. 1 59 26.7 E. Mexico (city)*

.19 26 2 N. 6 36 26.7 W. Amherst, Mass. 42 22 17 N. '4 50 4.7 W. Monrovia, Liberia.. 619 5 N. 043 15.7 W. Ann Arbor, Mich. * 42 16 48 N. 534 55.2 W. Montreal, Que. * .45 30 17 N. 454 18.7 W. Annapolis, Md. * .38 58 54 N. 5 5 56.5 W. Moscow*

.55 45 20 N. 2 30 17.2 E. Antipodes Island .49 42 OS, 11 54 52.3 E. Mount Hamilton, Cal. * 37 20 24 N. 8 634,1 W. A pia, Samoa.. 13 48 56 S. 11 26 59.7 E. | Munich.

48 8 45 N. 0 46 26.1 E. Archangel, Russia.. ..64 32 6 N. 2 42 14.0 E. Nain, Labrador. .56 32 51 N. 4 6 42.7 W. Armagh, Ireland*. ..54 21 13 N. 0 26 35. 4 W. Naples*

.40 51 46 N. 0 57 1.8 E. Aspinwall, S.A.,Lt.... 9 22 9 N. 519 39.0 W. Nashville, Tenn. *. .36 8 54 N. 5 47 12.0 W. Astoria, Ore...... .46 11 19 N. 8 15 18.8 W. Nassau, Bahamas .25 5 37 N. 5.927.8 W. Athens, Greece* ..37 58 21 N. 134 54.9 E. Natal, S. Africa* .29 50 47 S. 2 4 1.2 E. Attu Island, Alaska......52 56 1 N. 11 32 49.6 E. New Haven, Ct. * .41 18 36 N. 451 42.1 w. Bahia, Brazil....

13 037 S. 2 34 8.4 W. New Orleans (Mint).. .29 57 46 N. 6 0 13.9 W. Baltimore, Md... .39 17 48 N. 5 6 26.0 W. New York(Colu, Col.)* 40 45 23 N. 4 55 53.6 W. Batavia, Java.. 6 7 40 S. 7 713. 7 E. Nice, France*...

.43 43 17 N. 0 29 12,2 E. Belize, Honduras... .17 29 20 N. 552 46.7 W. Norfolk, Va. (Navy Yd) 36 49 33 N. 5 5 11.0 W. Belle Isle, Lt..... 51 53 0N, 341 29.5 W, North Cape.

71 11 ON, 142 40.0 E. Berlin, Prussia* ..52 30 17 N. 0 53 34.9 E. Northfield, Minn.*. 44 27 42 N. 612 35.8 W. Bermuda, Dock Yard...32 19 24 N. 4 19 18.3 W. Odessa, Russia*. ..46 28 37 N. 2 3 2.2 E. Bombay* ..18 53 45 N. 451 15.7 E. Ogden, Utah*.

41 13 8 N. 727 59.6 W. Bonn, Germany*...........50 43 45 N. 0 28 23.3 E. Oxford, Eng. (Univ.)*...51 45 34 N. 0 5 0.4 W. Bordeaux, France*........44 50 17 N. 0 2 5.4 W. Panama, Colombia........ 857 6 N. 518 8.8 W. Boston State House......42 21 28 N. 4 44 15.3 W. Para, Brazil...

1 26 59 S. 314 0.0 W. Bridgetown, Barbadoes.13 5 42 N 3 58 29.3 w. Paris, France*

.48 50 12 N. 09 20.9 E. Brussels, Belgium*..... .50 51 10 N. 017 28. 6 E. Pensacola, Fla., Lt ......30 20 47 N. 549 14.1 w. Buenos Ayres.... .34 36 30 S. 3 53 28.9 W. Pernambuco, Brazil, Lt. 8 3 22 S. 219 27.8 W. Calcutta..

.22 33 25 N. 5 53 20.7 E. Port au Prince, Hayti... 18 33 54 N. 4 49 28. O W. Callao, Peru, Lt. .12 4 3 S. 5 9 3.0 W. Philadelphia, Pa.*.........39 57 7 N. 5 038.5 W. Cambridge, Eng. * .52 12 52 N. 0 0 22. 7 E. Point Barrowt.. .71 27 ON 1025 0.0 W. Cambridge, Mass. * ...42 22 48 N. 4 44 31.0 W. Portland, Me.

43 39 28 N. 441 1.2 W. Canton, China....

.23 6 35 N. 7 33 46.3 E. Port Louis, Mauritius...20 8 46 S. 3 49 57.7 E. Cape Cod, Mass., Lt......42 221 N. 440 14.6 W. Port Said, Egypt, Lt......31 15 45 N. 2 9 15.5 E. C. Hatteras, N. C., Lt.....35 15 14 N. 5 2 5.0 W. Port Spain, Trinidad.....10 38 39 N. 4 6 2.5 W. Cape Henry, Va.,Lt......36 55 29 N. 5 4 2.0 W. P. Stanley, Falkland Is. 51 41 10 S. 351 26.0 W. Cape Horn

55 58 41 S. 4 29 5.0 W. Prague, Bohemia* 50 519 N. 057 40.3 E. Cape May, N.J., Lt......38 55 56 N. 4 59 50.7 W. Princeton, N. J.*. .40 20 58 N. 4 58 37.5 W. Cape Good Hope, Lt.....34 21 12 S. 1 13 58.0 E. Providence, R.I.*. 41 49 46 N. 445 37.5 W. Cape Prince of Wales ...65 33 30 N. 11 11 56.8 W. Quebec, Qué.

.46 47 59 N. 4 44 52,6 W. Charleston, S.C., Lt........32 41 44 N. 519 32.0 W. Richmond, Va.. 37 32 16 N. 5 9 44.0 W. Charlottetown, P.E.I...46 13 55 N. 412 27.5 W. Rio de Janeiro*.

.22 54 24 S. 2 52 41.4 W. Cherbourg, France..... .49 38 54 N. 'O 6 32.5 W. Rochester, N. Y. *. 43 917 N. 510 21.8 W. Chicago, Ill. * ..41 50 1 N. 550 26.7 W. Rome, Italy*

.41 53 54 N. 049 55.6 E, Christiania, Nor. * ..59 54 44 N. 042 53.8 E. Saigon, Cochin-China*..10 46 47 N. 7 6 48.7 E. Cincinnati, O. *

39 819 N. 537 41.3 W. San Diego, Cal...... ..32 43 6 N. 748 38.7 W. Clinton, NY.

.43 317 N. 5 137.4 W. Sandy Hook, N.J., Lt...40 27 40 N. 456 0.6 W. Colombo, Ceylon. 6 55 40 N. 519 21.9 E. San Francisco, Cal.*......37 47 28 N. 8 9 42.8 W. Constantinople

.41 030 N. 1 56 3. 7 E. San Juan de Porto Rico. 18 28 56 N. 4 24 29.8 W. Copenhagen

.55 41 13 N. 0 50 18.8 E. Santiago de Cuba. .20 016 N. 5 3 22.0 W. Demerara (Geo'townLt) 6 49 20 N. 352 46.0 W. Savannah, Ga......... .32 452 N. 5 24 21.7 W Denver, Col.*. 39 40 36 N. 659 47.6 W. Seattle, Wash.

.47 35 54 N. 8 9 19.9 W. Dublin, Ireland*. .53 23 13 N. 0 25 21.1 W. Shanghai, China... .31 14 42 N. 8 5 55.7 E. Edinburgh*..

.55 57 23 N. 012 43. 1 W. Singapore, India..... 117 11 N. 6 55 25.0 E. Esquimault, B.C.,Lt.....48 25 40 N. 8 13 47.1 w. St. Helena Island. ..15 55 OS. 0 22 52.0 W. Father Point, Que., Lt...48 31 25 N. 4 33 49.2 W. St. John's, Newfo'land..47 34 2 N. 330 43.6 W. Fayal, Azores .38 32 9N. 154 16.0 W. St. Louis, Mo.*.

.38 38 4 N. 6 049.1 W. Fernandina, Fla... .30 40 18 N. 525 51.1 w. St. Petersburg, Russia*..59 56 30 N. 2 1 13.5 E. Florence, Italy* ..43 46 4 N. 0 45 1.5 E. Stockholm*

.59 20 33 N. 112 14,0 E. Funchal, Madeira. .32 38 4 N. 1 7 35.6 W. Suakim, E. Africa, Lt.....19 ? ON 2 29 16.6 E. Galveston, Tex....... ..29 18 17 N. 619 9.7 W. Sydney, N. S. W. ..33 51 41 S. 10 4 49.5 E. Geneva, Switzerland*...46 11 59 N. 0 24 36.8 E. Tokio, Japan*

.35 39 17 N. 918 58.0 E. Glasgow, Scotland .55 52 43 N. 017 10.6 W. Tunis (Goletta Lt. )........36 48 36 N. 041 14.5 E. Gibraltar

..36 630 N. 021 23.3 W. Utrecht, Netherlands*...52 510 N. 020 31.7 E. Greenwich, Eng. *. .51 28 38 N. 0 0 0.0 Valparaiso, Chile.... .33 1 53 S. 4 46 34.8 W. Halifax, N.S. ..44 39 38 N. 414 21.1 W. Venice, Italy*

.45 26 10 N, 049 22.1 E. Hamburg, Ger. * ..53 33 7 N. 039 53.8 E. Vera Cruz, Mex.,Lt......19 12 29 N. 6 24 31.8 W. Hanover, 'N H.*. 43 42 15 N. 4 49 7.9 W. Victoria, B.C., Lt. 48 25 26 N. 813 33.8 W. Havana, Cuba...

.23 921 N. 5 29 26.0 W. Vienna, Austria*. 48 13 55 N. 1 5 21.5 E. Hobart Town, Tas.........42 53 25 S. 949 20.5 E. Warsaw, Russia*. .52 13 6 N. 1 24 7.4 E. Hong Kong, China*. .22 18 12 N. 7 36 41.9 E. Washington, D.C. .38 55 15 N. 5 8 15.7 W: Honolulu (Reef Lt.)......21 17 55 N. 10 31 28.0 W. Wellington, N.Z.*. .41 18 1 S. 11 39 6.5 E. Key West, Fla. ,Lt.........24 32 58 N. 5 27 12.3 W. West Point, N. Y.*. 41 23 22 N 4 55 50.6 W. Kingston, Jam.. .17 57 41 N. 5 710.7 W. Williamstown, Mass. *.42 42 30 N. 452 50.4 W. Lisbon, Portugal*..

...........38 42 31 N. 0 36 44.7 W. Yokohama, Japan.........35 26 24 N. 918 36.9 E. Liverpoolk.

.63 24 5 N. 012 17.3 W. Zanzibar (E. Consulate) 6 9 43 S. 2 36 44.7 E. • Observatories. Lt. denotes a light-house. Highest latitude in U. 8. territory.

#

Facts About the Earth. ACCORDING to Clark, the equatorial semi-diameter is 20,926, 202 feet-3963. 296 miles, and the polar semi-diameter is 20, 854,895 feet-3950. 738 miles. One degree of latitude at the polo-69.407 miles. One degree of latitude at the equator-68. 704 miles.

POPULATION OF THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS.

(From Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.) CONTI

INHABITANTS.
CONTI-

INHABITANTS.
Area in
NENTAL

Area in
Per Sq.
Number.

NENTAL
Square Miles.
DIVISIONS.
Mile.

Per Sy.
Square Miles.
DIVISIONS.

Number,

Mile. Africa

11.514.000 127,000,000 11.00||Australasia 3, 288,000 4,730,000 1.40 America, N.. 6,446.000 89,250,000

13. 80 Europe.. ...

3,555,000 380, 200,000 106, 90 America, S.. 6.837.000 36, 420.000

5,30 Polar Reg... 4,888.800

300,000

0.07 Asia ...... 14, 710,000 850,000,000 57.70 Total......... 51,238,800 1,487,900,000 29.00

The above estimate was made by Ernest George Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., the geographer and statistician, and is for 1890. The population of North America, 1900, had increased to over 100,000,000.

An estimate of population of the earth, made by Drs. Wagner and Supan, editors of “Bevölkerung der Erde'' (Perthes, Gotha, 1891), is as follows: Europe, 357,379, 000; Asia, 825, 954,000: Africa, 163, 953,000; America, 121, 713, 000; Australia, 3, 230,000;

Oceanic Islands, 7, 420,000; polar regions, 80,400. Total, 1,479,729,400. The estimate of area of the continents and islands by the same authorities is 52, 821,684,

Ravenstein's estimate of the earth's fertile region, in square miles, is 28, 269, 200; steppe, 13, 901,000; desert, 180,000; polar regions, 4,888, 800.

The population of the earth at the death of the Emperor Augustus, estimated by Bodio, was 54,000,000. The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000,000 before the fifteenth century. - Mulhali,

The area and cubic contents of the earth, according to the data of Clark, given above, are: Surface, 196, 971,984 square miles; cubic contents, 259, 944,035,515 cubic miles.

Murray. (Challenger expedition) states the greatest depth of the Atlantic Ocean at 27,366 feet; Pacific Ocean, 30, 000 feet; Indian Ocean, 18, 582 feet; Southern Ocean, 25, 200 feet; Arctic Ocean, 9, 000 feet. The Atlantic Ocean has an area, in square miles, of 24,536, 000; Pacific Ocean, 50, 309,000; Indian Ocean, 17,084,000; Arctic Ocean, 4, 781,000; Southern Ocean, 30,592, 000. The highest mountain is believed to be Deodhunga or Everest, one of the Himalayas, 29,002 feet. For population of the earth according to creed, see RELIGIOUS STATISTICS.

POPULATION OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE.

(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S., Edinburgh.)
RACE
Location. Number.

RACE.

Location. Number, Indo - Germanic or Europe, Persia,

Hottentot and BushAryan (white)...

etc........ 545,500,000 man (black).. South Africa 150,000 Mongolian or Turain

Malay and Polynes- Australasia ian (yellow and Greater part of

ian (brown).

& Polynesia 35,000,000 brown)...

Asia.... 630,000,000 American Indian North & So. Semitic or Hamitic North Africa,

(red)..

America...... 15,000,000 (white).

Arabia

65,000,000 Negro and Bantu

Total...........

1,440, 650,000 (black)

Central Africa.... 150,000,000 The human family is subject to forty-nine principal governments. As to their form they may be classified as follows: Absolute monarchies, Abyssinia, Afghanistan, China, Korea, Morocco, Persia, Siam, Turkey ; Limited monarchies, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Servia, Sweden, Spain ; Republics, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Hayti, Honduras, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, Switzerland United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. ' Besides these are the undefined despotisms of Central Africa, and a few insignificant independent States.

The average duration of human life is about 33 years. One-quarter of the people on the earth die before age 6, one-half before age 16, and only about 1 person of each 100 born lives to age 65.

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN.
PROPOR-

PROPOR-
NUMBER OF PERSONS TION OF

NUMBER OF PERSONS TION OF
LAN-
SPOKEN BY.

LAN-
SPOKEN BY.

THE
GUAGES.
WHOLE. GUAGES.

WHOLE. 1801. 1890. 1801. 1890.

1801.

1890. 1801. 1890. English 20,520,000 111,100.000 12.7 27.7 Portuguese 7,480,000 13,000,000 4.7 3.2 French 31,450,000 51, 200,000 19.4 12.7 Russian 30,770,000 75,000,000 19.0 18.7 German. 30, 320, 000 75,200.000 18.7 18.7 Italian 15.070.000 33.400.000 9.3 8.3 Total ...... 161,800,000 401,700,000 100.0 100.0 Spanish 26,190,000 42,800.000 16.2 10.7

These estimates by Mulhall (1891) exhibit the superior growth of the English language in the last ninety years Another authority (see "English-Speaking Religious Communities") estimates the number using the English language in 1895 at over 124, 130,000.

THE

Earthquakes, Their Cause and Result.

(Prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC by J. Morrison, M. D. Ph. D.) THE seismic disturbances on the western coasts of the two Americas, resulting notably in the San Francisco and Valparaiso earthquakes in 1906, aroused fresh interest in the causes on these terrestrial phenomena. For å clear idea of their nature we must go back a long way and briefly review the geologic history of our planet as revealed in the structure and conformation of its rocky surface or crust.

There are good reasons for believing that the matter composing the earth once existed in a gaseous state--having been thrown off from the sun when its surface extended to the earth's present orbit-a condition in harmony with the nebular hypothesis now universally accepted by astronomers. At the very high temperature which must then have existed, all the known chemical elements were disassociated that is to say, existed in the gaseous state separately or uncombined. This gaseous mass would, of course, partake of the motion of the parent mass in accordance with well-known dynamical prindiples, and would also by the mutual attraction of its own particles assume an approximately spherical figure revolving about an axis passing through its centre of gravity. As the mass cooled by radiating heat into space, chemical affinity would eventually assert its power; oxygen and hydrogen would unite to form water in the form of vapor or steam; carbon and oxygen to form carbon dioxide; calcium and oxygen to form lime, and so on.

When the temperature still further declined, the steam would condense to water, which would be precipitated in showers on the hot surface, to be again sent back as steam. By a repetition of this process, the surface would become cooled down to a temperature at which water would remain as such on the surface, and thus would be formed a universal ocean of warm water highly charged with carbon dioxide and holding carbonate of lime and other similar substances in solution. In process of time as the temperature declined, the carbonate of lime would be precipitated to the bottom, and thus a solid crust of limestone would be formed.

THE BIRTH OF MOUNTAINS. As the cooling proceeded the interior molten mass would contract or shrink away from the crust just as the water of a frozen river recedes from the ice on its surface, a tremendous strain would thus be produced in the crust, which would collapse, and enormous rents or fissures would be formed through which prodigious masses of molten rock would exude, ani thus mountains were born.

This is well shown in the Laurentian Mountains of Northern Canada, This extensive range of granite reaching from the eastern coast of Labrador in a curve forming about one-third of a circle, to the mouth of McKenzie River, forms a watershed between the streams flowing into the Mississippi and the Great Lakes on the south and those flowing north into Hudson Bay and the Arctic Sea. The eastern portion of this range is a solid wall of granite against whose sides the ancient stratified limestone lies like the sloping roof of a house, but the western portion consists mostly of rounded hills and isolated peaks, the result of extensive glacial action in subsequent geologic ages. The Laurentian Mountains are the oldest portion of our continent; they have withstood all the mighty convulsions to which the earth was subjected in subsequent times, and they stand to-day an eloquent witness of the condition of the earth ages before the dawn of animal or vegetable life, and millions of years before the advent of man,

After the lapse of an immensely long period of time, comprising probably the greater part of what is called the palæzoic period, during which enormous deposits of sedimentary rocks were laid down at the bottom of the ocean, the Appalachian chain of mountains was born of the deep-an upheaval which must have shaken the earth to the very centre. This mighty range of mountains, extending under different names from near the mouth of the St. Lawrence to northern Alabama, was at first of great height--so high that in some places it toppled over.

EFFECTS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD. Again, after another long period which no man can determine, the glacial period arrived, at the close of which the Laurentian and Appalachian Mountains were planed down to their present dimensions, the debris of the former consisting of sand, pebbles and boulders was scattered for hundreds of leagues to the south and west, and that of the latter spread out to lay the foundation of what subsequently became the Atlantic Coast States,

Long after the Appalachian chain arose from the deep another tremendous convulsion shattered the crust for thousands of miles when the Rocky and Andes mountains emerged from beneath the briny

waves.

POINTS OF SEISMIC DISTURBANCE, The upheaval of these great mountain ranges must have caused very extensive cracks or fissures in the crust, and it is along these cracks-technically called faults--that seismic disturbances chiefly occur. One of these is believed to extend from New England along the Atlantic Coast to the West India islands, and probably into South America, and another along the Pacific Coast of the United States, Mexico, Central and South America to Tierra Del Fuego in southern Chile. The Charleston earthquake of 1886 and the recent earthquakes of San Francisco and Valparaiso were along these faults. Another extensive fault, no doubt, exists from Alaska and the Aleutian islands through Kamchatka, the Kuril islands. Japan, the Philippines, Formosa, Java and Sumatra, and another probably runs off from the Atlantic Coast through southern Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, Asiatic Turkey and Persia, Hot springs and active volcanoes a bound along all these regions,

These numerous outlets of subterranean heat must produce a decided effect in lowering the temperature of the molten interior with a corresponding contraction of volume, Cavities are thus formed beneath the crust, and when the strain on this crust becomes so great that it can no longer be borne a collapse occurs and a folding or overlapping of the edges of t. fault which would produce an oblique downward motion more than sufficient to wreck or twist the foundations of the strongest buildings man can erect. The fall of even a few inches of the solid crust, which may be 100 miles in thickness, would produce a shock or vibration which would be felt for 1,000 miles or more.

HISTORIC EARTHQUAKES. Seismic disturbances of a very violent character are continually occurring along the Pacific Coast of South America-the last being those of August, 1906. In 1730 Valparaiso was almost completely destroyed; in 1822 Santiago was partially destroyed and a long portion of the coast of Chile permanently raised, and in 1829 the same city was again visited and the raised coast depressed several feet below its normal level. In 1835, 1849 and 1851 violent earthquakes occurred in Chile-the last being especially destructive in Valparaiso, in which 400 houses were wrecked and several lives lost. In 1880 illapil, near Valparaiso, was destroyed, and over 200 persons perished.

In 1885 the islands of Santa Maria and Concepcion, of the coast of Chile, were uplifted and subsequently uepressed eight feet below the normal. This earthquake was felt for more than a thousand miles a long the coast. In June, 1773, Santiago, in Guatemala, Central America, was completely wiped out, together with all its inhabitants, On August 13-15, 1892, Peru was visited by one of the most destructive earthquakes on record, four cities and several towns were destroyed and over 25,000 persons perished. Submarine disturbances are probably three or four times more numerous than those on landone having very recently taken place near Hawaii

, when vast numbers of cooked tish were washed ashore, and another off the coast of A ska, where a new island has been heaved up, thus increasing the domains of Uncle Sam.

Another region notorious for its seismic disturbances is the south of Europ”, extending from the south of Portugal to Asiatic Turkey and, in fact, on through Persia and India. Vesuvius, Stromboli and Aetna have wrought frigatful destruction of life and property during the last 2,000 years. The fate of Pompeii and Herculaneum is well known. On February 26, 1531, Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. was partially destroyed, 1,500 houses were wrecked and about 30,000 peop!, lost thei· lives and, again on November 1, 1755, a large portion of the same city sank and 60.000 persons were engulfed beneath the Atlantic, This earthquake was felt for 5,000 miles and ships now sail over where a portion of ihe city once stood. During the early part of the last century Port Royal in Jamaica, West Indies, sank beneath the waves.

In 1851 the south of Italy was visited by an earthquake which caused the death of 19,000 people and again on December 16, 1857, several towns in Italy were partially ruined and over 10,000 people perished. In Pliny's time several monuments and columns which stood high above the Mediterranean are now wholly or partially submerged, the entire coast for many leagues having sunk several fect. Numerous shocks have been felt in Greece, Asia Minor, Persia, India and China, which were attended with great destruction of property and loss of life. Antioch on the Orontes in Asiatic Turkey was almost completely destroyed in the early part of the last century and about the same time an earthquake took place in southeastern Missouri, near New Madrid, en the ground sa and several small lakes were formed which still remain,

CREATION OF THE DEAD SEA. During the time of the Patriarch Abraham the plain on which Sodom and Gomorrah stood sank and the Dead Sea now remains. This sea, a considerable tract of country around it and the entire valley of the Jordan, are more than 1,000 feet below the level of the Mediterranean and a similar condition of things exists in the case of the Caspian and Aral S-as. There is also a large area of depression many feet lower than the Caspian in southeastern Russia. It is probable that large areas of the bottom of the Pacific Oceun are slowly settling down owing to the contraction of the intensely heated interior, due to the radiation of heat not only from the surface but chiefly to the prodigious expenditure or loss of heat from the numerous active volcanoes scattered all over the globe.

VOLCANIO AOTION, Beginning on the east coast of Greenland we have Jan Mayen, which has been furiously active sincz its discovery, Hecla in Iceland, numerous active volcanoes in Alaska and the Aleutian islands, while Kamchatka, the Kuril islands, Japan, the Philippines, Form sa, Java and Sumatra fairly bristle with these fiery outlets. Southern Europe has three active volcanoes, Mexico, Central America and the entire chain of the Andes are alive with volcanic activity, so a so are the West Indies, the Sandwich islands, New Zealand, the Canaries and numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean, and lastly we find two terrific volcanoes in the South Frigid Zone, viz., mountains Erebus and Terror which have been in a state of violent activity ever since their discovery by Ross in 1841.

THE DIAMETER OF THE EARTH DECREASING. In view then of these structural features of the earth's crust, it is certain that there must be going on continually a general subsidence of the surface or, in other words, the diameter of the earth must be decreasing. There is no means of determining what the actual contraction is, but after the lapse ot a few centuries the length of a degree of latitude will doubtless be "ound to be considerably less than it is now. The numerous faults which must always accompany mountain ranges permit a gradual subsidence which may be scarcely felt or registered by the most sensitive seismometers, but if the crust should bridge over cavities formed by the contracting and receding liquid or semi-liquid interior a sudden collapse of the crust must eventually take place with resulting depression and tremors or vibrations which may be transmitted through great distance.

Moreover, the additional pressure on the molten mass beneath would, by the laws of hydrostatics, be transmitted to every portion of the surface of the solid shell or crust. For instance, if a square mile of the surface of the molten mass were to receive an additional pressure of say 1,000,000 tons, then every square mile of the internal surface of the shell or crust would receive the same pressure and earthquake tremors or vibrations may occur anywhere at the point of least resistance; thus an earthquake in Italy may cause vibrations in South America or a volcanic eruption in New Zealand or Iceland,

Taking into consideration all the seisimic disturbances of the last 100 years, it is not too much to assume that the equatorial radius of the earth has been reduced by, say four feet, and the question which now confronts us is what effect will this reduction of the earth's radius have on the length of the day, or in other words on the duration of the earth's diurnal rotation. When the earth's surface extended to the moon, the duration of one revolution on its axis was the moon's present sidereal period, viz., twenty-seven days, but as the mass contracted the axial rotation was accelerated until it reached its present value, viz., one sidereal day or 86400 sidereal seconds.

SHORTENING OF THE SIDEREAL DAY. By the laws of dynamics it can be shown with mathematical pre ision that a reduction of four feet in the earth's radius will cause the earth to make a complete revolution on its axis in 863999-917522336 second instead of 86400 as formerly or a century ago, or in other words the sidereal day is now about 1-125 of a second shorter than it was in the year 1800. This small fraction of a second would appear to the layman as utterly insignificant, but not so to the astronomer to whom it is a subject of most absorbing interest and of the utmost importance. Astronomers have always believed

that the length of the sidereal day is invariable, but in the condition of things which have been considered this cannot be so. This slight variation in the length of the sidereal day will amour to about two minutes and thirty seconds in half a century, which will constitute a disturbing factor in our Lunar, Solar and Planetary Tables.

(Revised December, 1906, at the New York Post-Office, for THE WORLD ALMANAC.)

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Rates of letter postage to any part of the United States, its possessions, or the above named countries, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof.

Rates on loca, or drop letters at free delivery offices, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. At offices where there is no free delivery by carriers, and the addressee cannot be served by rural free delivery carriers, one cent per ounce fraction thereof.

Rates on postal cards, one cent (double or “reply'' cards, two cents). Nothing may be attached to a postal card, except a printed address slip not larger than 2'inches by 34 of an inch, pasted on the address or message side. The addition of anything else subjects the card' to letter postage. A card containing any threat, offensive dun, or any scurrilous or indecent communication will not be forwarded. Words on a postal card indicating the occupation of the addressee, used to better identify him, are regarded as a part of the address; anything more--as the repetition of the words on a postal card, etc., business or the several capacities in which the addressee serves, the various kinds of goods dealt in, and similar attempts at advertising-on the address side of the postal card is not regarded as a proper description of the person," and will subject the postal card to the letter rate. Cards that have been spoiled in printing or otherwise will be redeemed from the original purchasers at 75 per cent of their face value, if unmutilated.

Post CARDS—(Private Mailing Cards)-bearing written or printed messages are transmissible in the mails :

1. Post cards must conform to the following conditions :

(a) Each card must be an unfolded piece of cardboard, not larger in size than 3 9-16 by 5 9-16 inches, nor smaller than 2 15-16 by 4 inches.

(b) The form of card and the quality and weight of paper used in its manufacture must be substantially that of the Government postal card of like size.

(9) They may be of any color which does not interfere with the legibility of the address and postmark.

(d) Each card must bear the words “ Post Card” at the top of the address side, unobstructed by any other matter; sald words to be placed thereou conspicuous letters and in such manner as not to interfere with a perfectly distinct aildress and postmark.

(e) The address may be in writing, printing, or by means of a hand-stamp, or adhesive label of not more than % of an inch by 2 inches in size, and the sender may, in the same manner, place his name and address on the back or the face of the card. The message may ba'in writing or in print.

2. Cards conforming to the foregoing conditions are transmissible in the domestic mails (including the “Possessions of the Unite 1 States”), and to places in Cuba, Canada, Mexico, and the Republic of Panama at the postage rate of one cent each, and in the mails of the Postal Union at the postage rate of two cents each, prepaid by stamps affixed.

3. Any card of foreign origin which, from its title in any language, appears to be a post Card" and conforms to the requirements of these regulations as to size, form, quality, and weight, shall be admissible to the mails (domestic or international) when prepaid in United States postage stainps.

4. When post cards are prepared by printers and stationers for sale, they should, in addition to conformity with the requirements of these regulations, also bear in the upper right-hand corner of the face an oblong diagram containing the words "Place postag: stamp here," and across the bottoin the words “This side for the address."

5. Advertise nents ant illustrations in any color may be printed upon either or both sides of a post card, provided they do not, when placed upon the face thereof, interfere with a perfectly distinct address and postinark.

6. Carils bearing the words " Post Card” or otherwise purporting to be issued under authority of the act of May 19, 1998, but which do not conform to the conditions prescribed by these . regulations, when sent in the 'mails are charg-able with postage according to the character of the message--at the letter rate, if wholly or partly in writing, or the third-class rate, if entirely in print.

7. 'The privilege given by the act is not intended to work a discontinuance of the Government postal cards. These will be issue l and sold the same as heretofore ; and in all correspondence will be designated " postal cards," to distinguish them from post cards,” provi led for in these regulations.

Rates on specially delivered letters, ten cents on each letter in addition to the regular postage. This entitles the letter to immediate delivery by special messenger. Special delivery stamps are sold at post-offices, and must be affixed to such letters. An ordinary ten-cent stamp affixed to a letter will not entiile it to special delivery. The delivery, at carrier offices, extends to the limits of the carrier routes. At non-carrier offices it extends to one mile from the post-office. Postmasters are not obliged to deliver beyond these limits, and letters addressed to places beyond must await delivery in the usual way, notwithstanding the special delivery stamp.

Prepayment by stamps invariably required. Postage on all letters should be fully prepaid, but if prepaid one full rate and no more, they will be forwarded, and the amount of deficient

stage collected on delivery : if wholly unpaid, or prepaid with less than one full rate and deposited at a post-office, the addressee will be notified to remit postage, and if he fails to do so, they will be sent to the Dead Letter Office; but they will be returned to the sender if he is located at the place of mailing, and if his address be printed or written upon them.

Letter rates are charged on all productions by the typewriter or manifold process, and on all printed imitations of typewriting or manuscript, unless such reproductions are presented at post-office windows in the minimum number of twenty identical copies separately addressed.

Letters and other matter prepaid at the letter rate-two cents an ounce or fraction thereof, (but no other class of mail matter) will be returned to the sender free, if a request to that effect is printed or written on the envelope or wrapper. The limit of weight is four pounds.

Prepaid letters will be forwarded from one post-office to another upon the written request of the person addressed, without additional charge for postage. The direction on forwarded letters may be changed as many times as may be necessary to reach the person addressed.

Second-Class Matter.-This class includes all newspapers and periodicals exclusively in print that have been " Entered 49 second-class matter and are regularly issued at stated intervals as fre

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