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Periodic Comets.

Perihel.

Perihel.
Perihelion Period Dist. Eccen
NAME.

Perihelion

Dist.

Period
NAME,

Eccen-
l'assage.
(Years). Earth's tricity.

Passage. (Years). Earth's tricity. Orbit=1.

Orbit 1. Encke.

1885, Mar 7 3.3 0.34 0.846 Biela.. 1882, Sept.23 6. 6 0.86 0.755 Tempel 188 Nov, 20 5. 2 1.34 0.553 D'Arrest.... 1884, Jai. 13 6.7 1.33 0. 626 Barnard. 1890, Feb,

5. +
1.28 0.582 Faye.. 1881, Jan, 22 7 6

1.74 0,549 Tempel-Swift 1886, May 9

5.5

1.07 0.656 Tuttle... 1885, Sept. 11 13 8 1.02 0.821 Brorsen. 1879, Mar. 30 5.5 0.59 0.810 Pons-Brooks. 1894, Jan. 25 71 5 0.77 10. 955 Winnecke. 1886, Sept. 1 5.5 0.88 0.727 Olbers.. 1887, Oct. 8 726 1.20 0.931 Tempel.. 1885, Sept. 251 6 5 2.07 10.405 Halley.. 1835, Nov. 15 76 4 0.59 10. 967

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Pole Star.

MEAN TIME OF TRANSIT (AT WASHINGTON) AND POLAR DISTANCE OF POLARIS.

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sin
p

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From June 16 to August 1 both the upper and lower transits take place during daylight. The azimuth at the time of greatest eastern or western elongation can be easily computed from the formula:

sin A= where A denotes the azimuth, p the polar distance, and I the latitude of the place.

DATE OF GREATEST ELONGATION. To find the time of greatest eastern or western elongation, let H denote the hour angle, and I and p as before, then we shall have

cos H= tan p tan l. And the hour angle in mean time is

Im = Ho X 0.0664846. This quantity, Hili, added to or subtracted from the time of transit given above, according to the elongation required, will give the mean time of the greatest elongation at any place whose north latitude is l.

Star Table.
FOR IDENTIFYING THE PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS.

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Upper. Lower.

Upper. Lower.
H. M.
H. M.

H. M.

H. M. a Andromeda.

N 28 31 1 18.0 +10 40.0 la Leonis (Regulus). N 12 28 + 8 40.1 +20 38.1 y Pegasi (Algenib). N 14 37 1 13.2 +10 44.8' a Virginis (Spica).

S 10 37 +11 56.5 +23 54, 5 6.Cassiopeiæ.

N 55 58 -- 0 42.2 +11 15. 8 a Bootis (Arcturus) N 19 43 1+12 47.5 + 0 45, 5 a Arietis N 22 59+ 0 40.0 +12 38.0 Bursæ Minoris..

N 74 35 +13 27.5 + 1 25, 5 BPersei (Algol)

N 40 34 + 1 39.9 +13 37.9 a Corona Borealis. N 27 4 +13 49.7 + 1 47.7 a Tauri (Aldebaran) N 16 18 + 3 8.2 +15 6.2 aScorpii (Antares) S 26 12 +14 59,3 + 2 57.3 u Aurigæ (Capella). N 45 54 + 3 47.1 +15 45.1 (Lyrå (Vega)

N 841 +17 9.3 + 5 7.3 BOrionis (Rigel).

S 8 19 + 3 47.6 +13 45.6 a Aquilæ (Altair). N 8 36 +18 21.4 + 6 19.4 a Orionis (Betelguese). N 7 23 + 4 27.6 +16 25.6 aCygni (Deneb)

N 44 55 +19 13, 5 + 7 11. 5 aCanis Majoris (Sirius). S 16 35 + 5 18.4 +17 16. 4 aCephei

N 62 9 +19 51.5 + 7 49.5 aGeminorum (Castor). N 32 7 + 6 5.7 +18 3.7 a Aquarii

S 049 +20 35.8 + 8 33. 8 BGeminorum (Pollux) N 28 16 + 6 16.6 +18 14.6 a Piscis Aus.

S 30 10 +21 27.1 + 9 25. 1 aCanis Minor.

N 5 29 + 6 11.6 +18 9.6 la Pegasi (Markab). N 14 39 +1 34. 7 + 9 32.7 To find the time of the star's transit add or subtract, according to the sign, the numbers in the second column of figures to the date of the transit of the pole star given above. Thus, for a Andromeda February 1. Lower Transit of Polar Star is 4 h. 43 m. 36 s. AM, to which add 10 h. 40 m. and we have 3 h. 23 m. 36 8. P, M.; for December 1, we find 7 h. 29. 388. P. m.. etc.

STAR TABLE-Continued.

APPROXIMATE PARALLAX AND DISTANCE IN LIGHT-YEARS OF SOME OF TỤE

PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS. By light-years is to be understood the number of years light requires to travel from the star to us. Light

Light-
Parallax

Parallax.
Ye rs.

Years.

Polaris (Pole Star)

0.073
45 a Lyra (Vega)..

0.140

23 a Auriga (Capella)..

0.046
71 61 Cygni..

0.348 -0.564 6-8 a Canis Majoris (Sirius).

0.233
15 B Cassiopeia.

0.187

17 a Canis Minoris (Procyon)...

0.123
27 y Draconis

0.127

26 a Boötis (Arcturus)..

0.127
28 85 Pegasi.

0.054

60 a Centauri

0.216

3.6 The determination of stellar parallax is one of the most difficult and refined problems in practic I or observational astronomy. It is to find the angle which the semi-diameter of the earth's orbit subtends at the star-an angle always very small as seen from the above table and which cannot be measured directly but by various processes too complicated to be explained here.

Thermometers. Rules for Foretelling the weather. COMPARATIVE SCALES.

ADAPTED FOR USE WITH ANEROID BAROMETERS.

A RISING BAROMETER. Real- Centi- Fahr

A RAPID rise indicates unsettled weather, mur, grade, enheit,

A gradual rise indicates settled weather. 100- 2120 WATER BOILS

A rise with dry air and cold increasing in Summer indicates

AT S E A-wind from the northward; and if rain has fallen, better weather 76 95 203 LEVEL. may be expected. 72 90 194

A rise with moist air and a low temperature indicates wind and 68 85 185

rain from the northward. 63. 1 78.9 174

A rise with southerly winds indicates fine weather, 60 75 167 Alcohol Boils.

A STEADY BAROMETER. 56 70 158

With dry air and seasonable temperature indicates a continuance 52 65 149

of very fine weather. 48 60 140 44 55 131

A FALLING BAROMETER. 42.2 52.8 127 Tallow Melts.

A rapid fall indicates stormy weather. 40 50 122

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 36 45 113

the northward. 33.8 42.2 108

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with rain and hail 32 40 104

in Summer, and snow in Winter. 29.3 36.7 98 Blood Heat.

A fall with increased moisture in the air, and heat increasing, 28 35 95

indicates wind and rain from the southward. 25.8 32.2 90

A fall with dry air and cold increasing in Winterindicates snow. 24 30 86

A fall after very calm and warm weather indicates rain with 21.3 26.7 80

squally weather. 20 25 77

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north16 68

west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, for less 12.4 15.3 60 Temperate.

wind, or for more than one of these changes, except on a few 10. 2 12.8 55

occasions, when rain, hail, or snow comes from the northward with 8 10 50

strong wind. 5.8 7. 2 45

The barometer falls for southerly wind, including from south4 41

east by south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind 1.3 1.7 35

or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, 0 0 32 WATER

when moderate wind, with rain or snow, comes from the north- 0.9 - 1.1 30 FREEZES.

ward. 4 23

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka-Corin- 5.3 - 6.7 20

thian Yacht Club of New York, - 8

-10 - 9.8-12.2 10

DURATION OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF WEATHER IN THE SEVERAL -12 -15 5

STORMS-VICINITY OF NEW YORK.
-14.2-17.8 O ZERO Fahr.
-16
- 4

Clear
Cloudy

Rain
CRITICAL WINDS.

Clearing -20 -25 -13

Hours. Hours. Hours. Hours. -24 -22 South to Southwest..

9 8 8.3

14 -28 -35 31 South to Southeast.

14 13.4

15.4 -32

15.6
40 -40
East to Northeast.....

20 17.6

20.6

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OBJECTS VISIBLE AT SÉA-LEVEL IN CLEAR WEATHER.
The following table shows the distance at sea-level at which objects are visible at certain elevations:
ELEVATION-FEST.

Miles.
ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.
ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.

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1.31 2.96 3. 24 3.49 3. 73 3. 96 4.18 5.92 6.61

30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80

7. 25 7.83 8. 37 8. 87 9.35 10. 25 11.07 11.83

90 100 150 200 300

8 9 10 20. 25

500 1,000 1 mile...

12.25 13. 23 16.22 18.72 22.91 29.58 33.41 96.10

Normal Temperature and Rainfall

IN THE UNITED STATES. TABLE SHOWING THE NORMAL TEMPERATURE FOR JANUARY AND JULY, AND THIC NORMAL

AVXUAL PRECIPITATION AT WOATHER BUREAU STATIONS IN EACH OF THE STATES AXD TERRITORIES, ALSO THE NIGHEST AND LOWEST TEMPERATURES EVER REPORTED FROM

EACH OF SAID STATIONS, TO DECEMBER 31, 1905. (Prepared in the office of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, U._$. Department of Agriculture, for

THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1907.)

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554.3

931.2

Mobile ....
50 82 102 - 162.2

North Platte......
Ala...

19 74 107 35 18.3 Montgomery. 48 82 107 - 552. Neb...... Omaha...

19 76 106 --32 31.7 Grant, Fort* 43 78103

7116.5

Valentine,

14 74 106 -38 19. i Ariz..... Prescott*

32 73100 -18 16.4 Nevada.. Winnemucca 28 72 104 28 8.5 Yuma

54 92 118
20 3.0

Charlotte...

51 79|102 - 552.0 Ark......... Fort Smith. 34 80 107 -15 44.7|N. C ....... Hatteras

44 78 92

866.4 Little Rock 40 81 106-1253.6

Wilmington 47 80 103
Red Blutr... 46 82 115

18 26.1
Bismarck

4 67 106 -44 18.4 Caul...... Sacramento.. 46 72 110

Y. Dak... 1920.9

Williston....

3 68 107

49 14.0 San Diego.

54 67 101

32 10.5 W. H. Manchester*.. 22 69 96-11 41.9 Denver. 27 72 105 -29 14.5

Atlantic City.... 32 72 99 - 742.7 Col. Las Animas* 22 76 105 31 13.5 N, J.... Cape May..... 3474 96

747.2 Montrose*.

2372 981
2018. 9

New Brunswick 28 74 100-1046.8 (o:in....... New llaven....... 2772100

14 50.3

(Santa Fé....

28 68 97

13 14.2 New London*..... 2871 95 -10 49.1

X. Mex...

Stanton, Fort* 34 68 95 1817.3 Tel..... Del, Br'kwater* 33 73 93 132.6

Albany

23 73 100 -2137.9 Dist. ot

N. Y
New York City.

30 74 100 - 644.8 Col. Washington 33 77 104 -15 43.5

Oswego

25 69 100 -23 35.0 S Jacksonville.. 55 821104 1054. 1

(Cincinnati

33 78 105-1739.9 Florida... Key West... 70 84 100 41 38.5 Ohio.... Columbus

28.75 104 -2038.9 Pensacola. 52 81 103 757. 1

Toledo

26 74 102 -1630.9 Atlanta 43 78100 -- 8 52.0 Okla.. Sill, Fort*.

35 82 107 Georgia. Augusta 47 82 1051 3 48.3

Portland

39.67 102 - 2 46.8 Savannah ...

51 82105
8 51.9 Oregon... Roseburg..

40 66 104

635.2 Idaho...... Boisé............ 28 733 111-28 13.2

Umatilla*

32 73 110-24 9.7 Cairo

34 79 106
1642.8

Erie

27 72 94

1641.3 Illinois ... Chicago 24 72 103 -23 34.8 Pa

Philadelpuja. 32 76 103 639.8. (Springfield.. 25 77 107 -24 38.0

Pittsburgh

30 74 103 2036.7 Indiana.. Indianapolis 28 76 106 25 43.0

Block Island 30 6989
R. I.........

444.2 Des Moines 17 75 109-30 33.1

Newport*

30 70 92 -- 850.0 Iowa........ Dubuque 17 75 106 32 35.5 S. C........ Charleston.

49 82104 756.7 Keokük... 23|77|108 -27134.71 S. Dak..... Yankton....

13 74107 - 3426.8 Dodge 2578 108-26 19.8

Chattanooga 41 78 101 -10 55.0 Kansas.. Concordia. 1977 106 -25 25.5 Tenn..... Memphis....

40 81 104 953.3 Leavenworth* 24 78 107 -2938.4

Nashville

38 80 104 -13 50.1 Louisville. 34 79 107 --20 45.8

(Elliott, Fort 30 77 108 14 24.5 La

New Orleans... . 54 83 102 7 60.5

57 84 102 1836.9 Brownsville*

Texas
Shreveport.
45 83 107 5 48. 6

El Paso.....

44182 113 5 9.3 20 60 93 Eastport Naine

-21 45,2

Palestine

43 82 104 6'46.5 { 23 69 97-17.42.3

Frisco*

30.73 Utah...

93 9 7.6 Baltimore. 34 78/104 -- 7143.8

Salt Lake

2876 102 2016.2 Nass. s Boston 26/71102 13 45.0 Vt.

Burlington* 1971 97 -25 28.9 Springfield* 26 73 94 1447.0

Va.......

(Lynchburg. 36 78 102 612.8 Marquette Micb.... 16 65 108 -27 32.4

Norfolk

40 79 102 252.1 Port Huron... 21 69 99 --25 31.6

Wash
Dayton*

30 69 109 --2627.8
Duluth
10 66 99 -4131.0

Olympia".

38 62 97 253.1 St. Paul ..... 11 72 104 -41 27.5 W. Val..... Morgantown 35 74 97 -25 46.9 (St. Vincent*. --865 103-54 16.6

La Crosse

15173 104 -43 30.7 Miss.

Wis.
Vicksburg
47 82 101 - 155.7

Milwaukee. 19 69 100-2532.1 s St. Louis..... 30 79 1071-22 41.1

Bridger, Fort*... 1964 89-42 8.7
Springfield. 32 75 106-29 45.7 Wyo. Cheyenne.. 25 67 100-3812.2
Havre
9|67108 -55 14.1

(Washakie, Fort* 1067 100 -54 11.0 Mont.......

Custer, Fort* 1471 107 -48 13.0

Poplar River*...-569 110-63 10.8 The minus (---) sign indicates temperature below Zero, * Not now a station of the Weather Bu. reau, and report is therefore for the period preceding its discontinuance as a station,

Ky...

Minn......

Mo....

TWeather Flags

OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

THE Weather Bureau furnishes, when practicable, for the benefit of all interests dependent upon weather conditions, the "Forecasts'' which are prepared daily at the Central Office in Washington, 1). C., and certain designated stations. These forecasts are telegraphed to stations of the Weather Bureau, railway officials, postmasters, and many others, to be communicated to the public by means of flags or steam whistles. The flags adopted for this purpose are five in number, and of the forms and colors indicated below:

No. 1. White Flag.

EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS.
No. 2.
No. 3.

No. 4,

No. 5.
Blue Flag. White and Blue Flag. Black Triangular Flag. White Flag with

black square in
centre,

Clear or fair weather. Rain or snow. Local rain or snow. Temperature.

Cold wave. When number 4 is placed above number 1, 2, or 3, it indicates warmer; when below, colder; when not displayed, the temperature is expected to remain about stationary. During the late Spring and early Fall the cold-wave flag is also used to indicate anticipated frosts.

WHISTLE SIGNALS. A warning blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds duration is sounded to attract atten. tion. After this warning the longer blasts (öf from four to six seconds duration) refer to weather, and shorter blasts (of from one to three seconds duration) refer to temperature; those for weather are sounded first. Blasts. Indicate.

Blasts.

Indicate.
One long....
Fair weather.

One short.. Lower temperature.
Two long.........
Rain or snow.

Two short..............

Higher temperature. Three long............... Local rain or snow.

Three short............Cold wave. By repeating each combination a few times, with intervals of ten seconds, liability to error in reading the signals may be avoided.

As far as practicable the forecast messages will be telegraphed at the expense of the Weather Bureau; but if this is impracticable, they will be furnished at the regular commercial rates and sent collect." In no case will the forecasts be sent to a second address in any place, except at the expense of the applicant.

Persons desiring to display the flags or sound the whistle signals for the benefit of the public should communicate with the Weather Bureau officials in charge of the climate and crop service of their respective States, the central stations of which are as follows: Alabama, Montgomery. Massachusetts, Boston

Oklahoma (for Indian TerriArizona, Phoenix.

(for New England).

tories, and Oklahoma). Arkansas, Little Rock. Michigan, Grand Rapids,

Oregon, Portland. California, San Francisco. Minnesota, Minneapolis,

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Colorado, Denver.
Mississippi, Vicksburg.

South Carolina, Columbia.
Fiorida, Jacksonville.
Missouri, Columbia.

South Dakota, Huron.
Georgia, Atlanta.
Montana, Helena.

Tennessee, Nashville.
Idaho, Boisé.
Nebraska. Lincoln.

Texas, Galveston.
Illinois, Springfield.
Nevada, Reno.

Utah, Salt Lake.
Indiana, Indianapolis.

New Jersey, Atlantic City. Virginia, Richmond.
Iowa, Des Moines.
New Mexico, Santa Fé.

Washington, Seattle.
Kansas, Topeka.
New York, Ithaca.

West Virginia, Parkersburg.
Kentucky, Louisville.
North Carolina. Raleigh.

Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
Louisiana, New Orleans.
North Dakota, Bismarck.

Wyoming, Cheyenne.
Maryland, Baltimore

Ohio, Columbus. (for Delaware and Maryland).

The Ancient and Modern Year. THE Athenians began the year in June, the Macedonians in September, the Romans first in March and afterward in January, the Persians on August 11, the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the Mohammedans in July: The Chinese year, which begins early in February, is similar to the Mohammedan in having 12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately; bit in every nineteen years there are seven years which have 13 months. This is not quite correct, and the Chinese have therefore formed a cycle of 60 years, in which period 22 intercalary months occur,

Storm and Hurricane varnings OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

STORM WARNINGS.

Northeasterly winds. Southeasterly winds. Northwesterly winds. Southwesterly winds. Red, black centre.

Storm Warnings. -A red flag with a black centre indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected,

The pennants displayed with the flags indicate the direction of the wind; red, easterly (from northeast to south); white, westerly (from southwest to north). The pennant above the flag indicates that the wind is expected to blow from the northerly quadrants; below, from the southerly quadrants.

By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white light above a red light westerly winds.

Hurricane Warnings. --Two red flags with black centres, displayed one above the other, indicate the expected approach of a tropical hurricane, and also one of those extremely severe and dangerous storms which occasionally move across the Lakes and Northern Atlantic Coast.

Velocity of Winds in the United States. AVERAGE hourly velocity of the wind at selected stations of the United States Weather Bureau, also the highest velocity ever reported for a period of five minutes. Prepared by W.L.

Moore, Chiel of the Weather Bureau, and revised to December 31, 1905, for THE WORLD ALMANAC.)

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Reported.

B Hourly

Velocity.
Highest

STATIONS.

Reported.

Ever
Reported.

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Average

Velocity. 010000100 Foro Hourly

90

Mi. Mi.
Mi. Mi.

Mi. Mi. Abilene, Texas

11 66 El Paso, Texas..... 5 78 Philadelphia, Pa... 10 75 Albany, N. Y

6 70
Fort Smith, Ark..

64
Pittsburgh, Pa.

6 60 Alpena, Mich 9 72 Galveston, Texas 10

*84 Portland, Me.

5 60 Atlanta, Ga... 9 56 Havre, Mont...... 11 76 Red Bluff, Cal.....

60 Bismarck, N. D... 8 74 Helena, Mont.......

60 Rochester, N. Y

78 Boisé, Idaho 4 55 Huron, S. D...

10 69

St. Louis, Mo.... 11 80 Boston, Mass.. 11 72 Jacksonville, Fla....

70 St. Paul, Minn.

7

102 Buffalo, N. Y.

11
Keokuk, Iowa....

8 60 St. Vincent, Minn.t.. 9 72 Charlotte, N.C. 5 55 Knoxville, Tenn.

84 Salt Lake City, Utah 5 60 Chattanooga, Tenn... 6 60

Leavenworth, Kan.t

66 San Diego, Cal..... 6 40 Chicago, Ill 9 84 Louisville, Ky..

58
Francisco, Cal...

60 Cincinnati, Ohio. 59 Lynchburg, Va.........

50
Santa Fé, N. M.....

51 Cleveland, Ohio.. 73 Memphis, Tenn..

75
Savannah, Ga...

80 Custer, Mont.t.. 72 Montgomery, Ala..

54 Spokane, Wash. Denver, Col.... 75 Nashville, Tenn.. 75 Toledo, Ohio

72 Detroit, Mich.. 9 76 New Orleans, La.......

60 Vicksburg, Miss......

60 Dodge City, Kan. 11 75 New York City, N.Y. 80 Washington, D. C.....

66 Dubuque, Iowa. 5 60 North Platte, Neb...

96 Wilmington, N.C..... 68 Duluth, Minn.. 7 78 Omaha, Neb..

64 Eastport, Me

9 78 ||Palestine, Texas....... 8 60 *Anemometer blew away, at a velocity of 84 miles per hour, September, 1900. tStations discontinued. STANDARD TABLE SHOWING VELOCITY AND FORCE OF WINDS. Miles Feet Feet Force in

Miles
Feet Feet

Force in DESCRIPTION

per
per
per

DESCRIPTION.
Square

per per
Hour.

per
Minute. Second.
Foot.

Hour. Minute. Second.

Square

Foot. Perceptible.............. 88 1.47 .005

30 2,640 44.0 4. 428 2 176 2.93

35 3,080 51.3 3

6.027 264 4.4

40 3,520 58.6 7.872 4 Gentle breeze ......... 352 5.87 :079|Very high wind..

45 3,960 66.0 9.963 5 440 7. 33 .123 Storm.

50
4,400

73.3 12.300 10 880 14.67 .492 Pleasant breeze......

88.0 15 1,320 22.0

17.712 Great storm.

{ 60 5.280 1.107

70 6,160 102.7 24. 108 29.3

20 1,760 Brisk wind...........

1. 968

80 25 2,200

7,040 117.3 31. 188 36.6

Hurricane 3. 075||

100 8,800 | 146.6 49. 200 From 1890 to 1898 the property loss by tornadoes in the United States was $26,633,750 (See THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1902, page 61). The number of persons killed by tornadoes 1889 to 1898 inclusive was 1,437.

Loss by Lightning in the United States. THE Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture in October, 1900, issued a bulletin giving these facts: In 1899 the total number of strokes of lightning which caused damage was 6,527; number of buildings injured, 6,256; value of property lost, $3,016,520: number of deaths by lightning during the year. 563; number of persons injured, 820; number of live stock killed in the fields, 4,251; value, $129,955. These are the latest available statistics,

The Chronicle Fire Tables record 3,012 fires caused by lightning in the United States in 1902, the property loss occasioned thereby being $3,396,810. These are the latest reported statistics on thesubject.

lbs. per

lbs. per

Just perceptible... {

.020 High wind .044

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