« НазадПродовжити »
Che Simplified Spelling 'Movement. IV archi, 1906, an organization of prominent men of affairs and men of letters was formed in the United States to urge the simplification of English spelling. Andrew Carnegie furnished the funds to pay the expenses. The organization took the name of the Simplified Spelling Board. The following is its composition :
THE SIMPLIFIED SPELLING BOARD, Brander Matthers, Professor in Colunubia University, Chairman; E. Benjamin Andrews, Chancellor of the University of Nebraska; 0. C. Blackmer, Publisher, Oak Park, (hicago, D. ; David J, Brewer, Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States; Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University; Andrew Carnegie, New York; Samuel L. Clemens, New York, Melvil Dewey, lately Director of the New York State Library, Albany, N. Y.; Isaac K. Funk, Editor and Publisher of the Standard Dictionary; Lymant J. Gage, ex-Secretary of the Treasury, New York; Richard Watson Gilder, Editor of the Century Magazine; William T. Harris, Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C.; George Hempl, Professor in the University of Michigan; Thomas Wentworth ligginson, Cambridge, Mass., lienry Holt, Publisher: New York; William James. Professor in Harvard University; David Starr Jordan, President of Leland Stanford University; Thomas R. Lounsbury, Professor in Yale University, Francis A. March, Professor in Lafayette College; William W. Morrow, United States Circuit Judge, San Francisco, Cal.; Homer H. Seerley, President of the State Normal School, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Benjamin E. Smith, Editor of the Century Dictionary, New York; Charles E. Sprague, President of the Union Dime Savings Iustita ion, New York; Calvin Thomas, Professor in Columbia University; E. O, Vaile, Chicago, Ill.; William Hayes Ward, Editor of the Independent, New York; Robert S. Woodward, Pres dent of the Carnegie Institution; Charles P. G. Scott, Etymological Editor of the Century Dictionary, New York, Secretary.
CIRCULAR OF THE BOARD, NO. 1.
A FIRST STEP. All whose mother tongue is English believe that, if it is not unfairly handicapped, it will become the dominant and interuational language of the world. For this destiny it is filed by its use as the medium of the widest commerce and the most progressive civilization, by its cosmopolitan vocabulary, and by its grammatical simplicity. No other existing speech, and none of the proposed artificial international languages has the same adaptability to such a use. There is, however, a wide-spread and well-grounded conviction that in its progress toward this goal our language is handicapped by one thing and one only-its intricate and disordered spelling, which makes it a puzzle to the stranger within our gates and a mystery to the stranger beyond the seas. English is easy, waptable
and capable of a many-sided development; its spelling is difficult and cumbersome. Apart from its relation to the foreigner, our iutricate and disordered spelling also piaces a direct burden upon every native user of English. It wastes a large part of the time and effort given to the instruction of our children, keeping them, for example, from one to two years behind the school children of Germany, and condemning many of them to alleged “illiteracy!! all their days. Moreover, the printing, typewriting and hard writing of the useless letters which our spelling prescribes, and upon which its difficulty chiefly rests, waste every year millions of dollars, and time and effort worth millions more. If then, as is certain, the reasonable and gradual simplification of our spelling, will aid the spread of English, with the attendant advancement of commerce, of democratic ideal, and of intellectual and political freedom, will economize the time of our school children and make their work more ellicient, and will aid greatly in the chea pening of printing, is it not a matter which appeals to common sense, to patriotism, and to philanthropy ?.
Some of those who would like to see our spelling made gimpler fear that this will obscure the derivation of words, but all etymologists deny the statement and repudiate the argument. Etymology is history and is now secure in innumerable books. Some object to any change, not realizing that change--much of it of the nature of simplification has been almost continuous in the history of English spelling. We do not print Shakespeare's or Bacon's words as they were written, and surely no great catastrophe to English literature or to the literary character of the language will have happened if our successors tind-as they certainly will-as great or greater differences between their spelling and that of the present day. In famillar correspondence many simplified forms are now used which shock no one's nerves, and in the most emotional poetry forms such as dropt, stept, prest (Tennyson) are printed without attracting attention. So eminent a body as the National Educational Association, of many thousand members, has deliberately selected a number of simplified spellings to be used in its printed documents, and these spellings have been adopted by many periodicals and by hundreds of individuals. In fact, it is probable that if all English words were printed to-morrow in the simpler forms which they unquestionably will bear a hundred years hence, it would take a very little while for us all to become accustomed to them.
With the purpose of expediting this natural process of change which has been going on for centuries, and, as far as may be possible, of guiding it in the direction of simplicity and economy, an organization known as the Simplified Spelling Board (the members of which are named above) has been formed, which will urge educated people everywhere to aid in the gradual simplification of English spelling, and thus help to make the English language more and more easy to acquire and to use. The liberality of Mr. Andrew Carnegie has supplied this board with funds for its work, and plans for a campaign which will extend over a number of years have been formed.
The recommendations of the board will be announced from time to time as its plans mature. In this preliminary circularit desires merely to ask those who sympathize with its ainis to take a simple initial step. There is inclosed a list of three hundred of the commonest words (not the complete list, which amounts to thousands), of which different spellings are authorized by the leading dictionaries or by the usage of eminent men of letters, the more complex forms being printed in the first column and the simpler forms in the second,
THE 300 WORDS SELECTED FOR CHANGE.
Apothegm A pothem
Anapaest Anapest A pprisa Apprize
THE 300 WORDS SELECTED FOR CHANGE--Continued.
OLD FORM. NEW FORM Assise
Bark Behaviour Behavior Blessed
1 1.st Blushed
Braz in Brasier
(arest Catalogue Catalog Catechise
Center (happed Chapt Checque
(olter Commixed Conmixt ('ompressed ('omrest Comprise ('omprize Confessert Comptroller Controller (oquette
(utlas ('clopaedia ('yclonella Dacivie
Bachat Theatre Decalog Defence
Jefense l'emagogie Deniag'g Demeanour Demeanor Deposite
Deposit Depressed Deprest Develope
Die resis Dyke
Dipt discussed Biscuit Despatch Dispatch Distill
Di til Distressed Distrest Dolour
I 10pt Dropped
Dulness Oecumenical Ecumenical Aedile
Hamor Encyclpaedia Bicyclopedia Endeavour
Lon Ipaulette Epaulet Aponyme I ponym Aera
OLD FORM. New FORM. Omelette
Omelet Oppressed Oppret Orthopaedic Orthopedic Palaeography Paleography Pakeclithic Paleolitic Palaeontology Paleontology Palaeozoic l'enzoic l'arillin
Thenix l'haenomenon Pomenon Pygmy
Saber sal petre Saltpeter Saviour
THE 300 WORDS SELECTED FOR CHANGE-Continued. OLD FORM. NEW FORM. OLD FORM. NEW FORM. OLD FORM, NEW FORM. Theatre Theater Transgressed Transgrest
Wrapped Wrapt PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S ORDER TO THE PUBLIC PRINTER. President Roosevelt on August 27,1906, addressed a letter to the Public Printer, Charles A. Stillings, Washington, D.C., directing that the Government Departments adopt the system of spelling recommended by the Simplified Spelling Board in the preparation of all copy for publications to be printed at the Government Printing Office. The following was the letter:
"My Dear Mr. Stillings-I inclose herewith copies of certain circulars of the Simplified Spelling Board, which can be obtained free from the board at No. 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. Please hereafter direct that in all government publications of the executive departments the three hundred words enumerated in Circular, No. 5 shall be spelled as therein set forth. If any one asks the reason for the action refer him to Circulars 3, 4, and 6, as is nied by the Simplified Spelling Board,
"Most of the criticism of the proposed step is evidenily made in entire ignorance of what the step is, no less than in entire ignorance of the very moderate and common-sense views as to the purpo es to be achieved, which views are so excellently set forth in the circulars to which I have referred. There is not the slightest intention to do anything, revolutionary or initiate any far reaching policy. The purpose simply is for the Government iustead of lagging behind popular sentiment to advance abreast of it, and at the same time abreast of the views of the ablest and most practical educators of our me, as well as of the most profound scholars-men of the stamp of Professor Lounsbury and Professor Skeat.
". If the slight changes in the spelling of the three hundred words proposed wholly or partially meet popular approval, then the changes will become permanent without any reference to what public officials or individual private citizens may feel; if they do not ultimately meet with popular approval they will be dropped, and that is all there is about it. They represent nothing in the world but a very slight extension of the unconscious movement which has made agricultural implement makers and farmers write plow " instead of “plough" which has made most Americans write "honor'' without the somewhat absurd, superfluous “u,” and which is even now making people writes
program” without the "me," just as all people who speak English now write 'bat," "set," • sum," and "fish, instead of the Elizabethan "batte,"
"sette, "dimme, summe, and "fysshe''; which makes us write "public,' almanac, era, "fantasy,
and wagon, instead of the publick," "almanack,' "aera,'' phantasy, and “waggon," of our great-grandfathers.
It is not an attack on the language of Shakespeare and Milton, because it is in some instances a going back to the forms they used, and in others merely the extension of changes which, as regards other words, have taken place since their time. It is not an attempt to do anything far reaching or sudden or violent, or indeed anything very great at all. It is merely an attempt to cast what slight weight can properly be cast on the side of the popular forces whtch are endeavoring to make our spelling a little less foolish and fantastic. Sincerely yours,
"THEODORE ROOSEVELT." The board invites and will welcome the co-operation of any individual or of any organization who may wish to aid in the work. Address the Simplified Spelling Board, 1 Madison Avenue, New York,
Bryant's Endex Expurgatorius. WHEN William Culleu Bryant was editor of the New York "Evening Post,” the following list of words, which writers and reporters on the paper were forbidden to use, was posted in the editorial room.' Mr. Parke Godwin, in a letter to the editor of THE WORLD ALMANAC, several years ago, said: "Nr. Bryani's Index grew up gradually out of the bad habits of reporters, who in their haste were apt to make use of words and phrases that were offensive to a nicer taste. He did not exclude forms of expression that were incorrect or improper only, but others that had become almost nauseating as commonplaces or as slang. He did not like to see the vulgarisms of the street iutroduced into the newspaper, lest they might make their way into literature." Aspirant Humbug
Minister(for preacher??) Roughs
Obituary (for death", Rowdies **Being”' done, built, &c. Ik
States (for “says'') Bogus Illy
Pants (for “panta- Taboo Bagging (for “captur- Inaugurated (for “be- loons'')
Parties (for “persons'') Tapis Balance (for remain- Indorse (for approve'') Poetess
To progress der'')
Initiated (for "begun'') Portion (for part''). Transpire (for' occur'') Collided In our midst
Posted (ior informed'') The deceased Commenced (for “be- Jeopardize
Vicinity (for “neighborgun'') Jubilant (for "rejoic- Progressing
Quite (prefixer to Wall Street slang genCouple (for "two") Juvenile (for boy'') "good, "large,'&c.) erall v ("bulls.' Début Lady (for " wife') Realized (for "ob
""long, Donate and Donation Lengthy
"short,'' etc.) Employé Loafer
Reliable (for “trust- Would seem (for "is" “Esg. Loan or loaned (for worthy'')
appears'') Funeral obsequies (for “ lend" or "lent') Repudiate (for "reject" "obsequies") Located
or "disown'') Gents (for 'gentlemen'') Measurably (fox "in a Retire (for "withdraw!!) “Kon.'
Rðle (for “ part'')
Organizations for the Promotion of Education.
CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION. Chancellor-John H. Vincent. President of Thrustees-W. H. Hickman, Principal of InstructionGeorge E. Vincent. Secretary-Ira M. Miller. Treasurer--Warren F. Walworth. Chairman Erecutive Board-J. C. Neville. General Director-Scott Brown. Located at Chautauqua, N. Y.
The Chautauqua Assembly, now Chautauqua Institution, was organized in 1874 as a result of the joint plan of Lewis Miller and John H. Vincent. It holds annual sessions during July and August at Chautauqua, N. Y. The plan includes Summer school courses of instruction in language, literature, science, and art, open lectures, concerts, and recitals, and various forms of platform entertainment and out-of-door recreation. Local assemblies patterned after the mother Chautauqua convene in different places throughout the United States and number 194.
The Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle (Rate F. Kimball, Chantauqua, N. Y., Executive Secretary) was organized at Chautauqua in 1878, with the aim of continuing the influence of the Assembly throughout the year in all parts of the country. Since that time more than two hundred and sixty thousand members have been enrolled. The Circle aims to promote the habit of reading and study in history, literature, science, and art, in connection with the routine of daily life. Each year fonr books are specially published for the course, The Chautauquan Magazine (Frank Chapin Bray, Editor) and the membership book with review outlines. The essentials of the plan are: A definite course covering four years, each year complete in itself; specified volumes approved by the counsellors, allotment of time by the week and month, a monthly magazine with additional readings and notes, review outlines, and other aids. Individual readers may pursue the course alone, or local circles may be formed by three or four members. The time required is about one hour daily for nine months. Certificates are granted to those who complete the course. Seals are aflixed to the certificates granted for collateral and advanced reading. Any one may become a member of the C. L. S. C. by sending an application, together with $5 for the unit (four books, membership book, and magazine for oue year), to Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, , Y.
THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. In 1867 and 1869 George Peabody established a fund of $3,500,000, to be devoted to education in the Southern States of the Union. of this amount $1,380,000 being in Mississippi and Florida bonds was not available, those of Mississippi, having been repudiated and those of Florida issued while it was a Territory, never having been recognized as legal by its authorities. The fund was placed in the charge and control of fifteen trustees, of whom Mr. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, was the chairman. Mr. Peabody died in London in 1869. The trustees hold meetings annually, usually in New York. They fill vacancies caused by death or resignation. The present trustees are: Chief Justice Fuller, President of the Board; Joseph H. Choate, First Vice-President; D, C. Gilman, Second Vice-President; Dr. Samuel A. Green, General Agent; J. Pierpont Morgan, M. K. Jesup, of New York; President Theodore Roosevelt, of New York; Samuel A. Green, Richard Olney, and Right Rev. William Lawrence, of Massachusetts; ex-Mayor William A. Courtenay, of South Carolina; James D. Porter, of Tennessee ; Henderson M. Somerville, of New York; George Peabody Wetmore, of Rhode Island; Charles E. Fenner, of Louisiana; Hoke Smith, of Georgia, and Right Rev. William C. Doane. Dr. Green is General Agent of the fund, with headquarters at 1154 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass., and has charge of the distribution of the fund in the several Southern States. In its earlier history the chief aim of the fund was to encourage and secure the establishment of public school systems for the free education of all children. That having been accomplished, the income of the fund is now used for the training of teachers through Normal Schools and Teachers' Institutes. In the year ending October 1, 1905, the amount distributed was $92,000. Power was conferred by the deed of trust on the trustees to distribute the fund at the expiration of thirty years, which period ended in 1897. In January, 1905, the trustees decided, by a vote of 11 to 2, to dissolve the trust. It was expected to take two years to wind it up. The corporation will then cease to st.
THE JOHN F. SLATER FUND. In 1882 Mr. John F. Slater, of Connecticut, placed in the hands of trustees the sum of $1,000,000, for the purpose of “ uplifting the lately emancipated population of the Southern States and their posterity." For this patriotic and munificent gift the thanks of Congress were voted, and a medal was presented. Neither principal nor income is expended for land or buildings. Education in industries and the preparation of teachers are promoted in institutions believed to be on a permanent basis. The board consists of D. C. Gilman, of Johns Hopkins University, as President; Chief Justice Fuller, as Vice-President; Morris K. Jesup, as Treasurer, and Bishops Potter and Galloway, and Messrs. William A. Slater, John A. Stewart, Alexander E. Orr, Cleveland H. Dodge, Bishop Ellison Capers and Seth Low. Dr. Wallace Buttrick, 54 William Street, New York, is the General Agent of the fund. The fund is a potential agency in working out the problem of the education of the negro, and over half a million of dollars has already been expended. By the extraordinary fidelity and financial ability of the treasurer, the fund, while keeping up annual appropriations, has increased to $1,500,000. Schools established by States, denominations, and individuals are helped by annual donations. Among the most prominent are the Hampton Normal and Industrial, the Spelman, the Tuskegee, and schools at Orangeburg, S. C.; Tougaloo, Miss.; Marshall, Tex.; Raleigh, N.C. ; New Orleans, etc.
THE SOUTHERN EDUCATION.BOARD, The Southern Education Board of the Conference for Education in the South-the outcome of the Capon Springs and Winston-Salem Conferences-has been organized with these officers and members: Chairmrin, Robert C. Ogden, New York; Treasurer, George Foster Peabody, New York; Secretary and Executive Secretary. Edgar Gardner Murphy, Montgomery, Ala. ; Campaign Committee, Charles D. McIver, Chairman; Edwin A. Alderman, H. B. Frissell, W. B. Hill, Edgar Gardner Murphy. The object of this organization is to awaken and inform public opinion and secure additional legisla. tion and revenues for the betterment of the public schools," the supreme public need of our time."
THE GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD. The General Education Board was organized
in New York February 27, 1902, and incorporated by act of Congress, signed January 12, 1903. The following are members of the Board: Robert C. Ogden, Chairman; Geor e Foster Peabody, Treasurer: Wallace Buttrick and Starr J. Murphy, Secretaries; and Executive Officers, Frederick T. Gates, Daniel C. Gilman, Morris K. Jesup, Walter H. Page, J. D. Rockefeller. Jr., Albert Staw, Hugh H, Hanna, E. Benjamin Andrews, Harry P. Judson, E. A. Alderman, and H. B. Frisse!l. The purposes of the Board are to promote education in the United States, without distinction of race, sex, or creed, and especially to promote, systema tize, and make effective various forms of educational beneficence.
623,707 28,469 415,622 16,495 811.919 27,860 407,977 16,823 290,743 14,004 280,508 13,320 375,563 29.619 470,666 17,385 67,883 5,714 75,289 5,150 185,172 9 680 264,034| 12,036
10,149 118 3,142 21,438 21 582 2,038 1897-98.
155 958 8,371 83 815 11,615 122 3,423 21,002 21 629 1,786 1898-99. 163 996 8,261 96 966 11,874 122 3,562 21,401 21 636
1,802 1899-1900.... 154 994 8,009 96 1,004 12,516 121
22,752 22 735 1.909 1900-1901.. 150 988 7,567 100 1,106 13,642 123 3,876 24,199 21 639 1,812 1901-1902. 148 1,034 7,343 102 1,155 13,912 123 4,084 24,447 20 649 1,551 1902-1903... 153 1,051 7 372 99 1,158 14,057 118 4,025 24,847 19 666 1,462 1903-1904. 153 1,055 7,392 95 1,167 14,302 122
24,694 19 666 1,283 1904-1905.... 156 1,094 7,411 96 1,190 14,714 120 4,532 24,012 18
1,129 Dental Schools.
Schools of Pharmacy. Nurse Training Schools. Veterinary Schools. 1896-97. 48 826 6,460 43 362 3,426 299
7,263 12 153 364 1897-98. 50 961 6,774 45 401 3,538 377
8,805 14 173 326 1898-99. 50 948 7,354 51
316 1899-1900.... 54 1,118 7,928 53 493 4,042 432
13 124 362 1900-1901. 57 1 184 8,308 58
11,599 12 189 461 1901-1902..... 56 1,197 8,420 59 5.90 4,427
13,252 11 174 576 1902-1903.... 54 1,164 8,998 61 5.95 4,411
13,779 11 168 671 1903-1904.. 54 1.191 7,325 63 611 4,457 724
17.713 11 165 795 1904-1905... 54 1,161 7,149 67 629 4,914 862
19,824 12 217 1,269 * There were also 11 Eclectic schools and Physiomedical Schools, with 333 instructors and 966 students in 1903-1904.
School and College Enrolment in 1904-1905.
NUMBER OF PUPILS.
NUMBER OF PUPILS. Public. Private. Total.
Public. Private. Total. Schools for feeble-minded...
15,530 7101 16,240 15,772,311 1,166,939 16,939,250 Government Indian schools... 30,106
30,106 Indian schools (five civilized 695,989 180,061 876,050 tribes)....
12,432 292,319 292,319 Schools in Alaska
6,283 46,824 91,720 138,541 Orphan asylums and otirer 10,671 50,751 61,22 benevolent institutions..
15,000 15,000 54,521 10.779 05,300 Private kindergartens..
105,932 105,932 146,086 146,086 Miscellaneous (art, music,etc.)
50,000 50,000 36,580
11,952 Total for United States...... 16,989,321 1,818,516 18,807,837 4,441