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AMERICAN LEARNED SOCIETIES-Continueit.

Scientific Alliance of New York.-President, C. F. Cox; Treasurer, E. G. Love; Secretary, N. L. Britton, New York Botanical Garden, New York City. Organized 1891. The Council of the Scieutific Alliance is composed of three delegates from each of seven scientific societies. Object-To promote co-operation among the constituent societies, the cultivation of popular interest, and particu. larly to procure a building in which all the societies shall be conveniently housed, and which shall become the scientific centre to the city.

Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science.-President, Dr. H. P. Armshy, State College, Pa.; Secretary, Prof. F. Win. Rane, State House, Boston, Mass. Organized 1882. Meinbership, 80.

Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education.-President, Dugall C. Jackson, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., Vice-Presidents, R. C. Carpenter, Cornell University, Ithica, N. Y.; Charles S. Howe, Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. Secretary, wm. T, Magruder, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Treasurer, Anson Marston, Iowa State College, Ames, iowa. Four hundred and nine members (1906), from 74 engineering colleges, 7 manual training schools, 31 corporations not engaged in teaching. Founded in the Engineering Education Section of World's Engineering Congress, 1893, Chicago. Annual fee, $3.

Society of Chemical Industry (New York Section). --Chairman, George C. Stone, Chemists' Club, New York City; Local Secretary, H. Schweitzer, 128 Duane Street. N w York City. Membership, 1,517. The Society is international, while the New York branch is its American representative. The officers of the general society are: President, Eustace Corey, Liverpool, Eugland; Secretary, Charles G. Cresswell, 9 Bridge Street, Westminster, London, S. W.

Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. --President, Francis T. Bowles; Secretary-Treasurer, William J. Baxter, 12 West Thirty-first Street, New York City. Object--The promotion of the art of shipbuilding, commercial and naval. Headquarters, 12 West Thirty-first Street, New York City. Membership fee for members and associates, $10;, annual dues, $10. Juniors, membership fee, $5; annual dües, $5. Has 885 members, associates and juniors.

The Forty Emmortals of the French Academy.*

YEAR
Name.

Born.
ELECTED.

Predecessor, 1 1870... Emile Ollivier

Marseilles, 1825. De Lamartine. 2 1874. Alfred Jean François Mezières.

Paris, 1826.

St. Marc-Girardin. 3 1876.. Marie Louis Antoine Gaston Boissier... Nimes, 1823.

Patin. 4 1877. Victorien Sardou ....

Paris, 1831.

Autran. 5 1881.. René François Armand Sully-Prudhomme.. Paris, 1839.

Duvergierde Hauranne 6 1884.. François Edouard Joachim Čoppée..

Paris, 1842.

De Laprade. 7 1884. Ludovic Halévy

Paris, 1834

Comte d'Haussonville. 8 1886.... Othénin P. de Ciéron Comte d' Haussonville. Gurey, 1843.

Caro. 9 1888. Jules Arnaud Arsène Claretie.

Limoges, 1840.

Cuvillier-Fleury. 10 1888 Eugène Marie Melchior, Vicomte de Vogué. Nice, 1848.

Désiré Nisard. 11 1890 Charles Louis de Saulses de Freycinet. Foix, 1828

Emile Augier. 12 1891. Louis Marie Julien Viaud (Pierre Loti). Rochefort, 1850. Octave Feuillet. 13 1892 Ernest Lavisse...

Nouvien, 1842. Jurien de la Gravière. 14 1893. Paul Louis Thureau-Dangin.

Paris, 1837.

Rousset. 15 1893. Marie Ferdinand Brunetiere

Toulon, 1849.. Lemoinne. 16 1894. Paul Bourget..

Amiens, 1852. Maxime Du Camp. 17 1894. Henri Houssaye........

Paris, 1858.

Leconte de Lisle. 18 1895. Jules Lemaitre.

Orleans, 1853.

Jean Victor Duruy. 19 1896. Jacques Anatole Thibault (Anatole France). Paris, 1844.

Comte de Lesseps. 20 1896 Marquis Marie C. A. Costa de Beauregard ... Nyotte, Savoy, 1839. Camille C. Doncet. 21 1896 Claude-Adhémar (André Thenriet).

Marly-le-Roi, 1833.. Alexandre Dumas. 22 1896. Louis Jules Albert Comte Vandal

Paris, 1861

Léon Say. 23 1897 Albert Comte de Mun

Lumigny, 1841

Jules Simon. 24 1897.. Gabriel Hanotaux..

Beaurevoir, 1853. Challemel-Lacour. 25 1898. Eugène C. Guillaume.

Montbard, 1822. Duc d'Aumale. 26 1899. Henri Leon Emile Lavedan....

Orleans, 1859. Henri Meilhac. 27 1899 Paul Deschanel..

Brussels, 1856, Hervé. 28 1900 Paul Hervieu.

Neuilly, 1857.

Pailleron. 29 1900. Augnste Emile Fagniet.

La Roche, 1847. Cherbuliez. 30 1900. Eugène Marcelius Pierre Berthelot.

Paris, 1827.

Bertrand. 31 1901. Charles Jean Melchior, Marquis de Vogué. Paris, 1829.

Duc de Broglie. 32 1901. Edmond Rostand..

Marseilles, 1868. Bornier. 33 1903. Frederic Masson.

Paris, 1847

Gaston Paris. 34 1903 René Bazin...

Angeres, 1863.

Legouve. 35 1905 Etienne Lamy

Cize, 1857.

Ge 36 1906. Alexandre Felix Joseph Ribot...

St. Omer, 1842. D'Andiffret Pasquier. 37 1906 Maurice Barrès.

Charmes, 1862 De Hérédia, 38 1906 Cardinal François Désiré Mathieu..

1839.. Perraud. 39 Vacant.

Rousse. 40 Vacant.

Sorel. The French Academy is one of five academies, and the most eminent, constituting the Institute of France. It was founded in 1635 hy the Cardinal Richelieu, and reorganized in 1816. It is composed of 10 members, elected for life, after personal application and the submission of their nomination 10 the head of the State, It meets twice weekly, at the Palace Mazarin, 23 Qual Conti, Paris, and is *the highest anthority on everything appertaining to the niceties of the French language, to grammar, rhetoric, and poetry, and the publication of the French classics.'' The chief officer is the secretary, who has a life tennre of his position. The present permanent secretary is Marie L. A. G. Boissier, who was elected an Academician in 1876. A chair in the Academy is the highest ambition of most literary Frenchmen.

The other academies of the Institute of France are: The Academy of Inscriptions and BellesLettres, with 40 members ; Academy of Sciences, with 68 members : Academy of Fine Arts, with 40 members (as follows: Painting. 14; scrlntore, 8; architecture, 8: engraving. 4; musical composition, 6), and Academy of Moral and Political Science, with 40 members. All members are elected for life.

Literature in 1906.

NOTABLE BOOKS OF TIIE Y CAR. DISASTERS at home and abrond unparalleled in recent times made 1906 an unforgettable year. Overshadowing allothers was the San Francisco earthquake, with its appalling loss of money and life. Earthquake also in Chile; volcanic destruction at Naples ; cyclones in China seas and latterly in our own Southern waters-all these have set the scientists thinking. Meanwhile, Russia was groping its way to political freedom with many mistakes and setbacks; France was dealing with the problem of disestablishment; Norway became a separate monarchy; Spain's boy king was married to an English princess; English politics became vitalized by the introduction of a large labor vote; and the United States had again to set Cuba s house in order. At home we continued to unmask corporation methods, and tried to free ourselves fron political bosses. Municipal ownership became a rallying ery of the New York State election. Direct evidences of these happenings may be discerned in the year's literature. Continued prosperity accompanied the publishing trade, with an average output of over 8,000 tooks,

FICTION. As estimated by the bookseller, the successful novels of the year were : "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair (exposing Chicago packing-house conditions and advancing socialism as the remedy for all social ills, which aroused President Roosevelt and led to far-reaching investigation); "Lady Baltimore," by Owen Wister (picturing present-day Charleston, unreconstructed, aristocratic and charming); "The House of a Thousand Candles,” by Meredith Nicholson, published late in 1905 (detective story); "The Spoilers,” by Rex E. Beach (strong portrayal of elemental passions in an Alaska mining town); "Fenwick's Career," by Mrs.' Humphry Ward (study of the artistic temperament based on the incidents of the Eaglish artist Romney's career); "Coniston," by Winston Churchill (evolution of the political boss,” emphasizing the difference between his private and his public character, for which the author was almost nominated Governor of New Hampshire); "The Awakening of Helena Richie, by Mrs. Margaret Deland (a wakening of a woman's soul through realization of the havoc wrought by her selfishness; another old Chester" tale); "The Wheel of Life," by E.len Glasgow (depicting society in old-fashioned New York, interest centering in several mismated couples); "Pam Decides, by Baroness Von Hutten (further developinent of a wayward, highly-wrought girl of good impulses); and "The Fighting Chance," by Robert W. Chambers (portraying the follies of New York's idle rich). Special excellence was discerned in W. B. Muxwell's "The Guarded Flame” (study of the brain of a great philosopher under the strain of a home tragedy), George Moore's "The Lake" (an erring Irish priest), Maartens' “The Healers” (cleverly satirizing the pretensions of modern medical experts), Eden Phillpotts' “The Portreeve" (a Devonshire tragedy, highly realistic), W, F. DeMorgan's “Joseph Vance" (autobiography of a middle-cla-s Englishman of fifty years ago), Robert Hichens' "The Call of the Blool" (laid in Sicily, depicting the awakening in an Englishman of inherited characteristics), and Jack London's "White Fang” (evolution of a wolf-dog from savagery to domestication). Important also were the translations of three books that had aroused much discussion when published abroad, viz , Sudermann's "The Undying Past," Frenssen's "Holyland” (German peasant life and religious doubts), and Fogazzaro's "The Saint" (third of a series of novels by a Catholic protesting against alleged Catholic narrown'ss and intolerance). Works of well-known novelists included Corelli's "The Treasure of Heaven," Crawford's "A Lady of Rome,” Crockett's “Fishers of Men" and “The White Plum?,” Doyle's "Sir Nigel,” Anthony Hope's “Sophy of Kravonia,” Weyman's "Chippinge Borough,” John Oliver Hobbes' "The am and the Business,” Kipling's "Puck of Pook's Hill” (fairy stories for adults), Quiller-Couch's "Sir John Constantine,” Castle's “If Youth but Knew,' and McCutcheon's "Jane Cable.'

American lite, its business and politics, figured in the year's fiction. "The Wire Tappers,” hy Arthur Siringer; “Richard Elliott, Financier," by Charles Carling; “Between Two Masters," þy Gamaliel Bradford, Jr.; and McIvor's "The Mechanic" deal with modern commercial metho ls. Wiliiam Sage's "The District Attorney” shows the seamy side of city polities; while national politics is the background of Mary Dillon's "The Leader,' recognized as an idealized portrait of William J. Bryan. The negro is the subject of "In the Shadow," by H. C. Rowland, and "The Stigma," by E. Selkirk; Russians in America, that of Cheney's “The Challenge;'' the American Indian of Remington's The Way of an Indian," and Cornell Hughes' "Kenelm's Desire.”

"The Bishop of Cottontown," by J. T. Moore, tells of conditions in a Tennessee cotton mill. Among many noveis picturing the West of yesterday and to-day, its mining camps, cattle ranches, railroade projects and early romance, ara Geraldine Bonner's “Rich Men's Children," A. H. Lewis' "The Tarowback,” Mrs. Dye's "McDonald of Oregon," Parrish's "Bob Hampton of Placer," A. B. Ward's “The Sage Brush Parson," C, M. Bowers' “Chip of the Flying U,” Andy Adams' Cattle Brands," Spearman's “Whispering Smith,” Bindloss' "The Cattle Baron's Danghter," Mrs. Ryan's "For the Soul of Rafael,'' and Mighels' "Dunny.” College lite is the background of "The Mayor, of Warwick,” by H. M. Hopkins, an "The Tower," by Mary T. Wright.

Rerations between the rich and poor were discussed in Whiteing's “Ring in the New" (London working giri's life) and Guy Thorn''s Made in flis Image" (ghostly prediction concerning London's arıny of the unemployed). A. G. Wells' "In the Days of the Comet" and D. M. Parry's "The Scarlet Empire” are ingenious prophecies of the future colored by socialism; Van Tassel Sutphen's “The Doomsman" pictures New York in the year 2015; and Vaux's “The Shock of Battle” portrays naval warfare of the future, Society life, its diversions, temptations and struggles, enters into Elinor Glyn's "Beyond the Rocks,” Mury 1. Taylor's "The Impersonator, " Frances A. Mathews' "The Undefiled,” and E. B. Frottingham's "I'ne Evasion." Seil-sacrifice is the motive of Mary Cholmondeley's “Prisoners," Mrs. Phelps' "The Man in the Case," Hopkinson Smith's “The Tides of Barnegat," and Mary E. Wilkins' "By the Light of the Soul." Snaith's "Henry Northcote'' is a legal romance. Foreign settings were chosen for G. B. Lancaster's "The Spur” (New Zealand sheep raising); Mrs. Cotes' "Set in Authority” (India); E. R. Williams, Jr.'s, “Ridolfo" (Middle Age Italy); James Hopper's “Caybigan” (Philippin tales); “Gray Mist," anonymous, and Vachell's "The Face of Clay'' (Brittany); Sidney McCall's "The Dragon Painter" and J. L. Long's The Way of the Gods” (Japan). Among historical novels may be mentioned Brudy's "The Patriots,” Weir Mitchell's "A Diplomatic Adventure,' Anna O. Ray's "Hearts and Creeds,” Mary C. Crowley's "In Treaty with Honor," and Elizabeth Ellis' "Barbara Winslow.” Aaron Burr is the central figure in Mrs. Tupper's "Hearts Triumphant" and the Washington family in Mrs. Fraser's "In the Shadow of the Lord

LITERATURE IN 1906-Continued.

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BIOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. While the year saw the publication of no one biography of commanding merit and importance, there were many works that because of their subject or literary style may be highly commended. England of the nineteenth century, political, social, literary, and artistic, was mirrored in Winston Churchill's life of his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, as well as in Lord Rosebery's study of his brilliant friend; the Duke of Cambridge's "Memoirs,” Emily M. Dickinson's “A Patriot's Mistake," dealing with the Parnell family, Reid's “Lord Durham," Frederic Harrison's “Memories and Thoughts,” Bram Stoker's “Reminiscences of Henry Irving," Lord Lytton's ("Owen Meredith's") "Letters," and Coates' "Life of General Booth." Glimpses of eighteenth century England were afforded in Sichel's "Emma Lady Hamilton" and the Correspondence of Elizabeth Montagu,” the Queen of Blue Stockings. Gibb's “Men and Women of the French Revolution," and Tschudi's “Eugénie, Empress of the French,” treated of two succeeding periods in French history, while " Tolstoy's Life,” edited by Birukoif, and Father Gapon's autobiography were briefs on Russian aggression. American life in retrospect was portrayed in Rothschild's analysis of Lincoln the Man and Hill's "Lincoln the Lawyer.” “ Alexander Hamilton,” by the Englishman, F. 8. Oliver; Harrison's "Washington,” Brady's “Andrew Jackson, J, W. Jones' Robert E. Lee,” and Burton's “Sherman." Mrs. S. H. Smith pictured "The First Forty Years of Washington Society;" Myrta L. Avary, “Dixie after the War;" Bishops Talbot and Tuttle the West of twenty-five years ago, with the life story of Geronimo, the Indian, told by himself, presenting another viewpoint. Bishop Potter's "Reminiscences of Bishops and Archbishops," and 0. W. Thompson's “ Party Leaders of the Time,” gave var ous aspects of church and state. Likewise American in interest is Mrs. Tweedie's “ Porfirio Diaz," the maker of modern Mexico. Biography and literature met in George Moore's "Memoirs of My Dead Life” (startling in its candor), Mrs, Penpell's life of her uncle, Charles Godfrey Leland (“Hans Breitmann"), Chesterton's "Dickens," Wright's "Sir Richard Burton,” Bisland's “Lafcadio Hearn, Brunetière's "Balzac, Sherard's “Oscar Wilde," Sterne's "Hawthorne,”' Quiller-Couch's and Mottram's "George Eliot,” the latter a study of the originals of her characters in "Adam Bede," and Lew Wallace's Autobiography.” There were fourteen works on Shakespeare, including Sidney Lee's and Lounsbury's, and two on the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy; four on Walt Whitman, notably that by Bliss Perry, and a useful estimate of "American Literary Masters,” by Vincent. John Wesley, George Herbert, Pater. Rabelais, Molière, Ihsen and Sir Leslie Stephen also received critical study. Cary's "Whistler," and Mrs. Barrington's "Lord Leighton” reflected modern artistic life, and Francis Wilson's “Joseph Jefferson,” Mrs. Parson's "David Garrick," and the Irving biographies įts dramatic history.

New volumes were added to historical works in process of publication--Hunt and Poole's "Political History of England,” Oman's "History of England,” Paul's "Modern England,” Rose's “ Development of European Nations, Johnston's "American Political History," McMaster's “People of the United States," Hart's American Nation," and Hill's "History of Diplomacy." Separate periods and movements were treated in Lindsay's. “Reformation,” Ļea’stwo works on the Inquisition, and Nielsen's “Papacy in the Nineteenth Century," while Lord Acton's : Lectures on Modern History," Mackinnon's “History of Modern Liberty (vols, 1 and 2), and Seignobos' "History of Civilization" (vol. 1) were of widerscope. Among almost a hundred books on American history may be mentioned those by Rhondes, Peck, Doyle and Avery, with Alexander's "Political History of the State of New York, as well as W, F. Johnson's most important and timely " Panama Canal." There were fifteen books on Japan; nine on Russia, notably by Nevinson and Joubert, and twelve on the San Francisco disaster. Besant's “Mediæval London" (vol. 1), Lang's History of Scotland,” Anderson's "Sidelights on the Home Rule Movement," and the last volume of Fortescue's “British Army” were important special studies, as were also Eltzbacher's "Modern Germany,” Howard's “German Empire," and Jane's "Heresies of Sea Power" (review of the world's naval battles).

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL The political and social unrest of the times was voiced in the season's books. America's national ideals and their realization found expression in Wendell's “Liberty, Union and Democracy," Dole's "Spirit of Democracy” and Hillis' "The Fortune of the Republic;" while Organized Democracy,”' by Stickney, suggested reforms in popular government; and Allen's “America's Awakening” and Steffens' "The Struggle for Self-Government” described the political house-cleaning in certain States and cities during the past five years. Reforms for existing laws were also suggested in Dougherty's "The Electoral System of the United States" and Haynes' “Election of United States Senators,” Theoretical local government was discussed by Fairlie and local government in England by Webb and Redlich, with an exhaustive survey, by Meyer, of the results of "Municipal Ownership in Great Britain," and & technical discussion, by Branch, of the utilization of municipal waste. New York City's government was described by Baker and Ware, supplemented by ex-Police Commissioner MeAdoo's a ccount of methods for "Guard ng a Great City" The conduct of international relations found treatment by J. W. Foster and the diplomacy of the Russo--Japanese war by Hershey.

Economics in general were considered by Jevons, Raper and Fisher: and competition by Reeve; while J. F. Johnson and Prendergast specialized on money and credit. Wealth as an ethical problem was treated by Jenks and Dr. Eliot. Discussion of the all-important railway rate question figurod in works by Pratt, Smalley, Noyes, Parsons, and Hendrick. Spelling's" Bossism and Monopoly” presented the worst side of trusts; Kirkbride and Sterrett described the business conduct of a trusi company, and Price the early English monopolies. Advice on buying life insurance was given by “Q. P.", and insurance in general examined in the Wharton School of Commerce papers. Recent inent scandals and railroad rates gave interest to Armour's account of packing-house methods. Modern business and legal proceedings were scored in Alger's "Moral Overstrain," British fiscal and industrial matters were threshed out hy Lord Brassey, Balfour and the French man, Bérard, and “Land Reform" by Collings,

Labor and its relation to capital from Roman days was reviewed in "The Battles of Labor" by Wright, who also compiled valuable matter relating to European coal mine labor. V.S, Clark carried the discussion to conditions in Australasia, and Fairchild discussed Factory Legislation in the State of New York.” Many-sided reports on child labor were given in the American Academy's collection of papers, and the effects of poverty on children were presented by Spargo, Hollander and Barnett edited a comprehensive series of "Studies on American Trade Unionism." while Holyoa ke revised and completed his "History of Co-operation.” Shadwell's “Industrial Efficiency" was a comparative study of the industrial lif: of England, Germany and America ; Laughlin limited his consideration to "Industrial America” and Dawson to "The German Workman," The literature of socialism' was augmented by

LITERATURE IN 1906-Continued.

works by Spargo and Jaurès. Social science, theoretical and applied, was the subject of “Man, the Social Creator," by Lloyd; while Devine, in Efficiency and Relief,” outlined a programme of social work, and Anderson presented the problems of "The Country Town." Two books on family relations were contributed by Mrs. Parsons and Bosanquet, Varying opinions on the immigrant were advanced by Hall, Steiner, Braun and Baskerville, and on the negro by Merriam and Eastman. The ethics of war found expression in "The Arbiter in Council" and in Walsh's book on the moral effects of the Boer war; while

Seamen recounted the progress in military hygiene shown recently by the Japanese. Racial appreciations were given in Boxall's "The Anglo-Saxon" (tracing the making of a great race), LeroyBeaulieu's "The United States in the Twentieth Century" (as seen by a Frenchman), Wells' "The Future of America" (as seen by an English socialist) and Russell's "A Hundred Years Hence.'

LITERATURE. Books of this class may perhaps be best represented by several collections of literary essays, such as Masterman's "In Peril of Change." Austin's “Points of View," Paul's “Stray Leaves,' Benson's

From a College Window,” Torrey's "Friends on the Shelf” and More's fourth series of "Shelburne Essays.” Hunt's "Literature, Its Principles and Problems" and Collins' “Studies in Poetry and Criticism” discussed the basic principles of writing, while certain special literatures were treated in Schofield's “English Literature," Riedl's “Hungarian Literature" and Kennard's "Italian Romance Writers." Books of reference included Colby and Sandeman's “Nelson's Encyclopædia" (vol. I), “Anglo-American Encyclopedia," Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary” and Rand's "Bibliography of Philosophy, Psychology and Cognate Subjects.”

MISCELLANEOUS. Travel books carried one far from the beaten track. Millard and Alfred Stead wrote on Japan; Hulbert on "The Passing of Korea;-' Holdich and Sherring on Tibet; Nevinson on the slavery in the Portuguese provinces in Africa; Johnston on Siberia; Skinner on Abyssinia; Moore on “The Balkan Trail;" Colquhoun on "The Africander Land” ani Pepper on South America; while Moncure D. Conway described his visit to India; Fiala gave an account of his Polar expedition and Bryan contrasted Eastern civilization with that of the West in "Letters to a Chinese Official.” Works descriptive of America and life in the open included those by Hornaday, Holder, White, Austin and James. Howell's "Certain Delightful English Towns” gave fresh views of old towns, Conrad's "The Mirror of the Sea" was a tine piece of descriptive work.

The Production of Books. American Publications, 1905 (including new editions)-Fiction, 1.362; literature and collected works, 749; juvenile, 511; education, 495; law, 561; theology, 698; poetry and drama, 598; biography, correspondence, 420, medicine, 356; physical and mathematical science, 446: history, 368; political and social science, 342;

geography, travel, 250; fine arts, 272; useful arts, 196; philosophy, 50; sports and amusements, 125; domestic and rural, 127; humor and satire, 62; works of reference, 92.

Total 1905, 8, 112; total 1904, 8, 291; total 1903, 7, 856; total 1902, 7.833; total 1901, 8,141; total 1900, 6,356; total 1899, 5,321; total 1898, 4,886; total 1897, 4,928.

of the production of 1905, there were 5, 719 books by American authors.

British Publications, 1905 (including new editions)-- Theology, sermons, 740: educational, classical, 734; novels and juvenile works, 2,363; law. 107; political and social economy, trade, 635; arts, sciences, and illustrated works, 571; travels, geographical research, 307; history, biography, 636; poetry and the drama, 473; year-books and serials. 458; medicine, surgery, 251; belles-lettres, essays, 381; miscellaneous, 589. Total 1905,8,252;1904,8,334; total 1903, 8,381 ; total 1902, 7,381.

German Publications, 1905 - Bibliography, encyclopaedias, 519; théology, 2, 490; law and political science, 2,554; medicine, 1,813; natural sciences, mathematics, 1,429: pbilosophy and theosophy, 581; education, juvenile books. 4,287; language and literature, 1,905; history, 1,077; geography: 1,431; military science, 667; commerce, industrial arts, 1,945; architecture and engineering, 885; domestic economy, agriculture, 960; drama and popular literature, 4.331: art. 913; year-books, 592; miscellaneous, 507. Total 1905, 28,886; total 1904, 28,378; total 1903, 27,606; iotal 1902, 26,906; total 1901, 25, 331.

French Publications-Total 1905, 12, +16; total 1904, 12, 139; total 1903, 12, 264; total 1902, 12,199; total 1901. 13,053; total 1900, 13,362.

The book productions' in the Netherlands in 1905 were 3,051; Switzerland in 1903, 7.816; Belgium in 1903, 2,639; Denmark in 1903. 1.514: Roumania in 1901, 1,739; Spain and Portugal in 1897, 1, 200: Austria-Hungary in 1899,5 000; Japan in 1899, 21, 255; Russia in 1901.5 935; British India in 1891, 7.700 Turkey in 1890, 940; Norway in 1903, 712; Sweden in 1900, 1,683; Poland in 1903. 934;'Italy in 1900, 9,975. The total book publications of the world annnally approximate 150,000. Paul Oilet the Secretary of the Brussels International Bibliographic Institute, estimates the number of printed books since the invention of printing to January, 1900, at 12,163,000 separate works, and the number of periodicals at between fifteen and eighteen millions.

Mr. A. Growoll, editor of The Publishers' Weekly,'' has furnished the statistics from which the above figures have been compiled.

The Dickens Fellowship. The Dickens Fellowship is a worldwide league of English-speaking men and women whose purpose is to exemplify the teachings of Charles Dickens and to cultivate and diffuse the spirit which pervades his writings-the spirit of innocent festivity and mirth, of religion without bigotry, of charity without coldness of universal philanthropy and human kinship. The society began its existence in London in October, 1902, and was designed by its founders not only to promote intellectual sociality but to serve as an agency for the performance of good works. Branches of the Fellowship have been formed not only throughout Great Britain but on the Continent, in the United States and Canada, India, Ceylon, the Transvaal, Cape Town, Gold Coast of Africa, Australia, Egypt and the Persian Gulf.

The officers of the Manhattan (New York) branch are: President-Charles H. Giovan. VicePresidents -- Miss Frances (arter, Mrs. Elizabeib A. Jerrick, Miss Helen Abdenroth, S. Chase Coh. Edwin L. Edgerly, John J. O' Rorka, General Secretary - - Mrs. Mary E. ('raigie. Treasurer- Alex, Elks Squire. Membership fees are $2 per annum. Secretary's oflice - 1.13 Linden Avenue, Brooklyn. 908

Statistics of the Press. RONELL'S American Newspaper Directory for 1906 reported the number of newspapers published in the United States and Canada as 23, 461. Of these, 1, 135 were Canadian publications. The following was the frequency of issue: Weekly, 16,782; monthly, 2,960; daily, 2, 465; semi-monthly, 287; semi-weekly, 588; quarterly, 195; bi-weekly, 57; bi-monthly, 69; tri-weekly, 55--total, 23, 461.

The following shows the number of papers printed in the States and Canada in 1905-06: Alabama 236 Indiana 831 Nebraska..

635 South Carolina... 163 Alaska 13 Indian Territory. 222 Nevada..

43 South Dakota... 330 Arizona 65 Iowa.. 1,086 Newfoundland.

13 Tennessee

320 Arkansas 309 Kansas

767 New Hampshire.. 90 Texas. California 760 Kentucky 342 New Jersey. 396 Utah

90 Canada. 1,135 Louisiana 231 New Mexico 73 Vermont

73 Colorado 359 Maine

158 New York.
1,937 Virginia.

256 Connecticut 164 Maryland 203 North Carolina.. 290 Washington

320 Delaware 34 Massachusetts 600 North Dakota.. 260 West Virginia..

217 Dis. of Columbia. 75 Michigan

811 Ohio
1,165 Wisconsin

725 Florida 177 Minnesota 806 Oklahoma 350 Wyoming

53 Georgia 394 Mississippi 265 Oregon

249 Idaho .... 113 Missouri. 1,079 Pennsylvania.

1,424

Total.. 23,461 Illinois. 1,693 Montana 115 Rhode Island.

561 In 1901 there were twenty-three papers published in Hawaii, eight in Porto Rico, and four (in English) in the Philippines.

The total number of newspapers published in the world at present is estimated at about 60,000, distributed as follows: United States and Canada, 23, 461; Germany, 8,049; Great Britain, 9, 500; France, 6,681 ; Japan, 1,000; Italy, 2, 757; Austria-Hungary, 2,958, Asia, exclusive of Japan, 1,000; Spain, 1,000; Russia, 1,000 Australia, 1,000; Greece, 130; Switzerland, 1,005; Holland, 980; Belgium, 956; all others, 1,000. Of these more than half are printed in the English language.

THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. The following are the officers and directors of this organization, elected September 20, 1905: Presiilent-Frank B. Noyes. First Vice-President-Charles Hopkins Clark, Hartford Courant. Second Vice-President-Rufus N. Rhodes, Birmingham (Ala. ) News. Secretary-Melville E. Stone. Assistant Secretary--Charles S. Diehl. Treasurer-Herman Ridder. Executive Committee-Adolph S. Ochs, Victor F. Lawson, Charles W. Knapp, Frank B. Noyes, and Charles H. Grasty. Directors-Adolph S. Ochs, New York Times; Clark Howell, Allanta Constitution; W. L. McLean, Philadelphia Bulletin; Albert J. Barr, Pittsburgh Post; Charles W. Knapp, St. Louis Republic; Victor F. Lawson, Chicago Daily News; H. W. Scott, Portland Oregonian; Frank B. Noyes, Chicago Record-Herald: Thomas G. Rapier, New Orleans Picayune: Herman Ridder, New York Staats-Zeitung; M. H. De Young, San Francisco Chronicle; Charles H. Grasty, Baltimore. Evening News; Gen. Charles H. Taylor, Boston (Mass.) Globe, and William R. Nelson, Kansas City Star.

INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE OF PRESS CLUBS. Officers elected at the annual meeting in 1906 : President-Edward Keating, Denver News: VicePresidents-George J. Brennan, Philadelpbia Inquirer; Elden Small, Detroit Times ; Mrs. Ada Cable, Bradford (Pa.) Herald; Jackson D. Haag, Pittsburgh, (Pa.) Post; Frank A. Burrelle, Burrelle's Bureau, New York. Secretary-Lewis G. Early, Reading (Pa.) Times. Treasurer-St. George Kempson, New York Insurance Journal. Executive Committee-T. J. Keenan, Pittsburgh (Pa. ) Publishers' Press; J. A. Rountree, Birmingham, (Ala.) Dixie Manufacturer; Upton S. Jefferys, Camden (N. J.) PostTelegram; H. B. Laufman, Pittsburgh (Pa.) Leader; George H. Rowe, Brooklyn (N. Y.) Times; Mrs. Harriet Hayden Finck, Pennsylvania Women's Press Association; Dariel L. Hart, Wilkes- Barre (Pa. ) Leader; Alfred E. Pearsall, Pearsall's News Agency, New York; Louis Allen Osborne, Scranton (Pa.), International Text Book Co.; Giles H. Dickinson, Binghamton (N. Y.) Republican; Harry Wilkinson, Omaha (Neb.) News; Alex. G. Anderson, Toledo (Ohio) Biude; Mrs. Belva A. Lockwood, Washington (D. C.) Peacemaker.

The Carnegie Institution of Washington. THE Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, January 28, 1902, when he gave to a board of trustees $10,000.000, in registered bonds, yielding

5 per cent. annual interest. In general terms, he stated that his purpose was to "found in the City of Washington an institution which, with the co-operation of institutions now or hereafter established, there or elsewhere, shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation, researchand discovery, show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind, and provide such buildings, laboratories, books, and apparatus as may be needed.''

By an act of Congress, approved April 28, 1904, the institution was placed under the control of a board of twenty-four Trustees, all of whom had been members of the original board referred to above.

The Trustees meet annually, and during the intervals between such meetings the affairs of the Institution are conducted by an Executive Committee, chosen by and from the Board of Trustees, acting through the President of the Institution as chief executive officer.

The offices of the Institution are in the Bond Building, Fourteenth Street and New York Avenue, Washington, D. C.

Trustees of the Institution-Chairman, John S. Billings; Vice-Chairman, Elihu Root; Secretary, Charles D. Walcott, John D. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, Henry L. Higginson, E. A. Hitchcock, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchins son, S. P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, D). O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, John C. Spooner, Andrew']). White, Carroll D. Wright.

President of the Institution, Robert S. Woodward.

Executive Committee-Chairman, Carroll D. Wright; Secretary, Charles D. Walcott; John S. Billings, Daniel C. Gilman, S. Weir Mitchell, Elihu Root, Robert S. Woodward.

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