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Geographical Research in 1906.

AFRICA. Lateral lines of railway and telegraph, together with others, penetrating the interior, are rapidly opening up the Dark Continent to the civilization of the world. Of recent con. struction is a line from the Red Sea to 170 miles south of Khartoum. This railroad (the beginning of a system to the Abyssinian frontier) is already connecting the Soudan with the sea. The will of Alfred Beit, who died on July 16, leaves six millions as a fund to further communication and transportation in this part of the world, where good waterways and harbors are so few in number.

In August the death was reported of Capt. G. B. Gosling, one of the most active members of the Nigeria-Nile expedition. This expedition had been at work for two years in Nigeria, on Lake Chad, and elsewhere, intending to return down the Nile. An excellent map of part of Nigeria had already been made, but much remained to be done. Whilo exploring the Congo, Captains Gosling and Boyd-Alexander captured (by pit-trapping) a live okapi, the first ever seen by a white man. This animal, which the natives callidumba,” is remarkable for its acute hearing. It is nocturnal and solitary in its habits, and appears to make its home in swamps. In Congo Basin Herr Frobenlius, the German ethnologist, has been busy discovering traces of the mundaketa mentioned by Portuguese records of the sixteenth century.

Efforts are being made to open a new route to Lake Chad through the French Congo. An expedition of nine members under Commandant L'Enfant was despatched August 25 for the special purpose of investigating waterways. Lake Chad is of singular character. L'Enfant and others hold that it is rapidly drying up. Its color appears to be graded from gray to bright green and blue, and some have daimed that it was fresh water, and others salt.

Another expedition, under Surgeon-Major Martin, a specialist in tropical diseases, will study the malady known as the sleeping sickness in the French Congo. Captains Evans and Ommanney returned in June from a journey to North Nigeria after det mining the longitude of fifteen important towns, as well as completing their telegraphic operations, and on July 9 Hans Vischer, of the North Nigeria government service, left Tripoli to cross the Sahara and explore the Tibesti highlands on the way.

In October news was received that all of the five snow-covered ipeaks of the Ruwenzon had been climbed by the Duke of Albruzzi and his party, who sailed from Naples April 16. The peaks are situated northwest of Kiyanja, but are several hundred feet higher.

(A report on Kiyanja obtained earlier in the year by the British Museum placed its height at 16,379 feet.)

ASIA. Turning from Africa to Asia, we find that this great continent still contains areas that are unexplored. It is back to the cradle of civilization, and not to the New World, Australia, or South Africa, that explorers must turn their attention chiefly in these latter days.

Early in the year Dr. Stein, well known for his archaeological and geological work in Central Asia, set out for Chinese Turkestan with the intention af exploring the southern edge of the desert, his route lying via Chitral and the Pamirs. On May 19 Dr. Stein wrote that, in spite of heavy snowfall, he had successfully made the difficult pass of Lowari. In Chitral and Mastuj he made interesting studies of ancient Buddhist and preMohammedan remains. Ohitralis ethnologically important as having given shelter to tribes unable to hold their own elsewhere.

Interesting research has been made by Dr. Tafel in northwest China. By February 25 he had crossed the Hwang-'ho valley and reached the Ordos country, finding in many places the Chinese driving back the Mongols. Keaching the Great Wall (which is threatened hy advancing sands from the North), he experienced consideruble annoyance by reason of his conspicuous foreign costume. On reaching Lanchau and endeavoring to proceed northward, he was attacked by Tibetans and driven back. Col. Bruce, late of the Weihai-wei, travelled over western Tibet to Lon and across China to Peking, reaching that city, May 6.

The little known Irawadi (basin was traversed on a journey from Tong King to India by an English engineer, Mr. E. C. Good. The Russian expedition to the Khatanga com pleted its laibors and returned to St. Petersburg. As a result of its researches materiál alterations have been made in the map of the Khataniga, with its branches and various lakes of that region.

According to recent statistics, the tide of immigration to the Amur region amounts to 200,000 per annum.

Numerous settlements of gold miners are located in the most remote districts. The new Shanghai-Nanking Railway began operations on July 18. It will open up a fertile and populous district to twentieth century civilization.

EUROPE, For several (Summers Professor Ganwood has been investigating the Alpine tarns in the Canton Ticino, Switzerland. This, it is hoped, may help to settle the vexed question of ice-erosion.

On March 23 Europe wals visited by a remarkable snowfall, extending from East Ger. many, Hungary and the Adriatic to Denmark and Great Britain, and also to the south of France and Spain.

Dr. Venturino Salbatini gives the following data regarding the Vesuvian, eruption of Aipril 4: For thirty yeans the crater of 1872 has been quietly filling with lava. On April 4 a fissure opened on the northeastern side at an altitude olf 3,600 feet, and lava appeared flowing on the 5th nearly to Besco Trecase. On the 6th more lava followed, anil white-hot blocks were hurled out with loud detonations and flashes of light. It is ca! culated that 85,000,000 cubic feet of ashes and lapilli fell (ashes falling as far as Paris). The three principal Java streams were eight to ten feet high. The whole face and com. position of the mountain surface is changed.

The Founder's medal (for 1906) of the British Royal Geographical Society was awarded to M. Alfred Grandidier, the veteran French savant. who for forty years has devoted hiin. sell to exploration in Madagascar and the publication of results in a monumental work. The Patron's medal went to Dr. Robert Pell, who for forty-five years has mapped unknown Canadian regions, He is especially known for his work about Hudson Bay and Strait, The Victoria Research medal was awarded to Prof. W. M. Ramsay, a worker for thirty years in ancient geography, and whose researches in Asia Minor have been invaluable,

AMERICA. On April 18 the most disastrous earthquake recorded in the history of the United States Jaid waste the city of San Francisco, There were two distinot shocks, which were recorded by seismographs all over the world. It appears that the coast ranges of California are crossed olbliquely by a set of surface features due to a series of dislocations of the earth's crust. The earthquake crack, so-called, can be traced a distance of 375 miles, and shows every evidence of recurrent movement. The rift is 185 miles long, the land on the southeast side having moved northwest with an average dislocation of ten feet.

On August 16 another earthquake destroyed the great port of Valparaiso, Chile, the disturbance extending eastward to the Andes, and including Santiago and other points. Both earthquakes were followed by fire, and the destruction of life and property was enormous. Earlier in the year still another earthquake shook the western coast of Colombia and neighboring portions of Ecuador.

By the death of Prof. Israel Cook Russell America lost one of its foremost geographers on May 1.

The United States irrigation schemes are causing astonishing transformations in the West. The reclamation area of the great American desert is estimated at 50,000,000 acres, and the operations will cost $1,500,000,000.

OCEANOGRAPHY, Early in the year the Planet, a boat specially built by the German Admiralty for survey work, sailed from Kiel for the western Pacific under the command of Capt. Lebahn. The programme included soundings, the determining of temperatures and salinity, with wave measurement, and the study of conditions in the upper air. The Planet was equipped with special apparatus for photographic surveying. The cruise was to include a visit to the deep channels east of the Philippines.

On March 2 the Galike, engaged in the Carnegie Institute magnetic survey of the Pacific, started from San Diego on her second cruise, to be gone the rest of the year. The route was via Fanning (reached March 31), the Samoan group, Fiji, Yokohama, and tho Aleutian Islands, In September it was authentioally reported that an island had been created in Bering Sea by a singular submarine explosion not far from Boroslow Island upheaved in the same manner a century ago. Tisheimer reported the neighiboring sea as warm and the atmospheric heat too fierce to endure.

of the Indian Ocean we know probably less than of any other. There are indications that prior to the Eocene, India and South Africa were connected by a broad belt of land, which included the present areas of Madagascar and Ceylon.

POLAR EXPLORATION IN 1906. Representatives of scientific societies and countries interested in polar research met at Brussels in September and organized as the “International Commission for the Study of the Polar Regions." Membership will include representatives from each courtry that has participated in polar expeditions, also corresponding members from the ranks of explorers. At the session of September 11 Dr. Jean Charcot announced that he was ongantizing an expedition to the South Pole, and Charles Benand, President of the Belgian Oceanographical Society, stated that that society was organizing one to the North Pole. The two expeditions will operate simultaneously and in concert. Both Dr. Charcot and M. Benard are experienced in polar work. No less than five independent expeditions were working last year in the Arctic.

Capt. Ejnar Wikkelsen started in the Duchess of Bedford under the auspices of the Royal Geographical and American Geographical Societies. From the latter he was granted $3,000. His purpose was to explore Beaufort Sea, and, going west of the Perry Archipelago, to plot the formation of the "continental shelf," whose existence appears certain. In October news was received ifrom Capt. Wikkelsen of his work up to August 18.

He encountered unusual obstacles at the outset, in spite of which he reached Port Clarence, started again July 22, when his plans were deranged by the sickness of Mr. Detteosen and the desertion of sailors. By August he reached Point Barrow, the sole sailing vessel to arrive there by reason of the gales and fogs.

On June 24 the Danish expedition to East Greenland sailed from Copenhagen under Mr. Nyglius Ericksen, He proposed to explore East Greenland and push up toward the pole early in 1907.

Capt. Roald Amundsen in January had accomplished the Northwest passage. Amundsen left Christiania in June, 1903, with a crew of seven men in a walrus sloop, the Gjoa, propelled by a gasoline engine. With the exception of McClure, who went east from Bering Sea, Amundsen, gioling from east to west, is the first man to accomplish the passage, in the search for which so many lives, from Hendrick Hudson to Sir John Franklin, have been lost. Captain Amundsen had spent two years in magnetic observations near the north magnetic pole. This he has definitely located in King Williams Land, not far from the point assigned to it by Sir James Rosis in 1831. In October King Haakon received a telegram from Captain Amundsen announcing the safe arrival of the Gjoa at Cape Nonne, Alaska. The coast charted by the explorer is to be named for King Haakon and Queen Maud.

THE RECORD OF FARTHEST NORTH. From a report sent by Robert E. Peary from Hopedale, Labrador, to the Peary Arctic Club, it was learned that he had reached the latitude 87'0 6', planting the American colors 32' nearer to the goal of Arctic exploration than the point reached by his predecessor, or 203 miles from the Pole. The Roosevelt wintered on the northern coast of Grant Land, and Peary started North with sledges in February. Battling with impassable seas of ice and facing starvation, the party finally drifted eastward. returning to North Greenland, after killing eight of the dogs for food.

The Walter Wellman expedition was deferred owing to mechanical defects in the air ship, the largest dirigible salloon ever constructed. This, as planned, was 50 metres long, with two motors and two propellers, and carried a complete sledging outfit, with supplies for 75 dogs, besides fuel and food for five passengers, The construction included a comtortaible car and boat combined. It will be refashioned in Paris, France, the expedition is to cost at least $230,000. Mr. Wellman returned to New York in November for a brier sojourn,

American Learned societies. Artuarial Society of America.-President, Daniel H. Wells, Hartford, C't. First Vice. President, John K. Gore, Newark, N, J.; Second Vice-President, Arcluball A. Welch, Hartford, Ct. ; Secretary, Arthur Tunter, 3-16 Broadway, New York City; Treasurer, David G. Alsop, Philadelphia, PA ; Editor of the Transitions, Clayton ( Hall,' Baltimore, Md. The Actuarial Society of America was organized in 1990 for the purpose of promoting actuarial science. Applicants whose nominations are approved by the Council are admittd to membership on passing the requisite exulations. The e are two classes of members; fellows, now numbering 123, and associates, 78. Besides including the actuaries of life insurance companies and consulting actuaries of the United States and Canada, the membership embraces leading actuaries in Europe and Australasia,

Armerienn Academy of Medicine,-President, Dr. Casey A. Wood, Chicago, Ill. Secretary and Treasurer, Dr, Charles Mentire, Faston, Pa.; Editor of the “Bulletin, Charles Melntire, Easton, Pa. Ohject-To associate physicians who are also alumni of academic (or scientific) cola legis; to encourage intending physicians to pursue a regular course of study leading to a bachelor degree herore entering upon th Study of medicine; to investigate and discuss the various problems of medical sociology.'' Entranc.fee, $5; dues, $3 per anau.nl. Present membership,975. Organized 1876. Next anual meeting at Atlantic City, NJ., Juel and 3, 1907.

American Academy of Political and Social Science.-President, L. S. Rowe, Ph. D., University of Pennsylvania; Secretary, Carl Kelsey, Ph. D., University of Pennsylvania; Clerk, X: J. Smith-Fisher, West Philadelphia Station, Philadelphia. Founded in 1889 to promoie the political and social sciences. Membership), 3,800, distributed among every State and 30 foreign countries. Annualfee, 35; fee for live menbens, *100. Ammal meeting held in April.

American Antiquarian Society. -President, Edward Everett liale, Roxbury. Mass. ; Corresponding Secretaries - Foreign, Franklin B. Dexier, New Haven, Ct.; Domestic, Charles Francis Adams, Lincoln, Mass.; Recording Secretary, Andrew M. F. Davis, Cambridge, Mass. Aunnal meeting is held at Worcester, Mass., in October. Organized 1812. Domestic membership restricted to 110. Alnissiun fee of United States members, $5; annual dues of New England members, $5.

American Anti-Auberculosis league.-President, Dr. Daniel Lewis, New York; Secretary, Dr. George Brown, Atlanta, Ga. Membership, 1,012,

American Asiatic Association, - President, Silas D. Webh; Vice-President, Lowell Lincoln; Secretary, John Foord, P. 0. Box 1500, New York. The purposes of the society are to foster and safeguard the traile and compiercial interests of the citizens of the United States and o hers associated therewith in the Empires of China, Japan, and Korea, the Philippines, and el-ewhere in Asia and Oceanica. Membership, 300, Organized 1898. Aunual dues, $10. 'Auxiliary societies at Shanghai and Yokohama.

American Association for the Advancement of Science.-President, William H. Welch, John lopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Permanent Secretary, 1. 0. Howard, Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. ; General Secretary, John F. Hlayford, Washington, D.C. ; Secretary of the Council F.C. MČNair, Houghton, Mich. ; 'Treasurer, R. S. Woodward, Washington, D. C. The Association was chartered in 1874, being a continuation of the American Association of Geologists and Naturalists, organized in 1810. The membership is 4,000, Admission fee, 5; annual dues, $3. Next antal meeting, December 27, 1906-January 2, 1807, at New York, N. Y.

American Bar Association. President, Alton B. Parker, New York; Secretary, John Hinkies, 215 V rth Charles Street, Baltimore, Md.; Treasurer, Frederick E. Wadhanas, Alany, Y Bach State and Territory is represenied by one vice-president and on member of the General Council. Alembership, about 2, 600, This Association of lawyers of the United States was organized in 1878. The next annual meeting will be held in August, 1907.

American Chemical Society.-President, W. F. Hillebrand, Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. ; Secretary, William A. Noyes, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. O. The Socieiy was organized in 1876 for “the advancement of chemistry and the promotion of chemical research's

Publishes the Journal of the American (hemical Society, monthly, and Chemical Abstracts, semi-monthly. Annal dues, $8, Total membership, 3,000.

American Climatological Association,-President, Thomas Darlington, M. D., Health Department, New York City; Secretary, (vinsdale, M.D., liot Springs, y'a. Organized 1884 Next annual meeting, May 7-8-9, 1907, at Waslington, D. O.

American Dermatolog cal Association.-President, Arthur Van liarlingen, D.D., Phila. delphia, Pa.; Secretary, Grover W. Wende, M. D., 471 Delaware Avenne, Bufalo, NY.

American Dialeet Society.-- President, O. F. Emerson, Western Reserve University, Cleve. land, Ohio; Secretary and Treastror, W. E. Mearl, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Organized in 1889 for the investigation of the spoken Eirglish of the United States and Canada, and incidentally of other noil-aboriginal dialects in the same contries.'' Publishes "Dialect Notes') at irregular intervals. Annual lee, $1. Membership, about 300. Any person may become a member.

American Economic Association. - President, J. W. Jenks, Ph. D., Cornell University; Secretary, W. M. Daniels, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. Organized 1887. Ilas 1,000 pul mabers; aunual dues, *3; lite membership, $50; no other entrance fee. Th objects of Association are the encouragment of economic studies and the publication of papers thereon.

American Electro-Therapeutic Association.-Presiilent, Dr. Morris W. Brinkman, New York, N. Y.; First Vice-President, Dr. J. V. Giuson, Denver, (ol. ; Second Vice-President, Dr. M. M. Kassabien, Philadelphia, Pa., Scretary, Dr. Albert C. Geyrer, 1239 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. Organized 1890. Membership, 280.

Ainerican Entomological Society.- President, Philip P, Calvert; Secretary, Henry Skinner, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1859. Object-'The study of entoinology. Iembership, 140.

American Fisheries Society,--President, E. A. Birge, Mali101. Wis : Vice-President, ii. M. Smith, Washington, D.C.; Recording Secretary, George F. Perbody, Appleton, Wis. ; Treasurer, C. W. Willard, Westerly, R. I. ; Corresponding Secretary, Charles G. Atkins, East Orland, Me. Organized December, 1870. Annual duex, $2. Menibership, ahout 600.

American Folklore Society.-President, A. L. Kroeber, University of California, San Francisco, Cal. ; Permanent Secretary, W. W. Newell, Cambridge, Mass. Organized in 1888 for "study of folklore in general, and in particular the collection and publication of folklore of North America." Membership fee, including a copy of" The Journal of American Folklore'' (quarterly), $3 per annum.

American Forestry Association.--President, James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 1 Secretary, Thomas E. Will, Office, B11 G Street, N. W. Washington, DC Organized 1882. Membership, 4,800

AMERICAN LEARNED SOCIETIES-Continucl, American Geographical Society:--President, Commander R. E. Peary, ('. E., U.S. N.; Vice-Presidents, W. H. 11. Moore, D. 0. Mus, C. C. Tiffany, 1). D. ; Corresponding Secretaries-Foreign, William Libbey; Domestic, (handler Robbins ; Recording Secretary, Anton A. Raren. Ofices of the Society, 15 West Eighty-first Street, New York ('ity. The objects of the society are to encourage geographical exploration and discovery; to investigate and disseminate new geographical information; to establish in the chief maritime city of the comtry, for the benefit of commerce and navigation, *** a place where the means will be atforrer of obtaining accurate information for public use of every part of the globe. Organized in 1852; membership), 1,400. Annual dues, $10; no entrance fee.

American Gynæcological Society.-President, Clement Cleveland, M, D., New York; Secretary, J. Ridule Gofre, M.D., 610 Madison Avenue, New York. Organized 1876. 'Membership 100.

American Nistorical Association.-President, John Bach McMaster. LL. D.; Secretary, A. Howard Clark, Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.; Treasurer, (iarence W. Bowe', 1. D. Association founded 1884, incorporated by Congress' 1889. Object-The pronotion of historical studies. Entrance fee, $3 ; annual dues, $3. Membership, 2, 300.

American Institute of Architects. - llices and library, The Octagon, Washington, D. C. President, Frank Miles Day, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Secretary and Treasurer, Glenn Brown, Washington, 1).C. The Institute has 28 chapters, 332 fellows, 427 associates, 82 corresponding and 62 honorary members. Initiation fee is $5; yearly does, fellows, $15; associates, $7.50. Organized 1862.

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. -President, Schuyler Skatts Wheeler; Secretary, Ralph W. L'ope, at the executive offices, library, and reading-room, 95 Liberty Street, New York.' Entrance fee, $5; annual dues, associates, $10; nembers, $15. Monthly meetings, New York. Organized 1884. 'Prints its transactions monthly. Membership, 3,694.

American Institute of Ilomaeopatliy.-President, William E. Green, Little Rock; Sec. retary, Charles Gatchell, M. D., 100 state Street, Chicago, I!). Organized in 1844, and is the ollest national medical organization in the United States. las 2, 100 members, representing every State in the Union, besides Canada.

American Institute of Mining Engincers.-President, Robert W. TIunt, Chicago, Ill. ; Secretary, R. W. Raymond, 99 John Street, New York ; Treasurer, Frank Lyman, New York. Membership, October 10, 1906, 4,300. Organized 1871. Incorporated 1905. Annual dries, $10.

Ainerican Laryngological Associtution.--President, A. W. de Roaldes, M. D., New Or. leans, La. ; Secretary, James 1. Newcomw, M. D., 118 West Sixty-ninth Street, New York City. Organized 1878. Membership, 100.

'American Mathematical mociety.--President, lleury S. White; Secretary, F. N. Cole, Columbia University, New York; Treasurer, W. S. Bennett; Librarian, 'D. E. Smith. Meetings held at Columbia University, New York. Society was reorganized as the American Diathematical Society, July, 1894. Object - To encourage and maintain an active interest in and to promote the allvancement of mathematical science. Admission fee, $5; annual dues, $5; life membership, $50. Membership, 550. The Society publishes two journals, the Bulletin" and the "Transactions..

American Medical Association.--President, W. J. Mayo, Rochester, Minn, ; SecretaryEditor, Dr. George H. Simmons, 103 Dearborn Avenue, Chicago, Il. Incorporated 1897. Next an. nual session at Atlantic City, N. J., June 4-7, 1907. Annual fee, *5. Membership, over 26,000.

American Medico-Psychologiral Association. - President, Dr. Charles (, Hill. Buitimore, Md. ; Secretary, Dr. Charles W. Peigrun, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Next annual meeting at Washington, D. (., in May, 1907. American microscopical Society.-President, Marshall D. Ewell, (hicago, Ill

. ; Secretary, Robert H. Wolcott (to whom all subsequent coinmunic should be addressed), Lincoln, Neb.; Trasurer, J. C. Smith, New Orleans, L.; Custodian, Magnus Pflaum, Pittsburgh, Pa. Organizeil 1878. Incorporated at Washington, D), C., 1801. Ohjeet The encouragement of microscopical research. Initiation fee, $3; annual dues, $2. Membership, 300. Research funds, $2,300.

American Nenrological Association. -President, High T. Patrick, M. D., Chicago, Ill, ; Secretary, (1. M. Hammond, M. 1)., 60 West Fifty-fifth Street, New York ('ity,

American Numismatic and Archäological Society, Andubon Park, 156th Street, West of Broadway, New York. - President, Archer M. Huntington; Recording Secretary, Bauman L. Belden; Corresponding Secretary, Inry Russell Drowne. Soriety founded in 1858 for the promotion of'numismatics and archeology in the United States; possesses coiu aud medal collection and library. Total membership, 850.

American Ophthalmological Society.-President, C. J. Kipr, Newark, N. J.; Secretary, S. B, St. John, M. 1)., 68 Pratt Street, Hartford, Ct. Membership. 175.

American Oriental Society. -1°rsident, Prof. ('rawford II, Toy, Harvard University; Corresponding Secretary, E, Washburn Hopkins, Yale University, 299 Lawrence Street, Vetllaven,('i. Recording Secretary, George F. Moore. Organized September 7, 1842, for the cultivation of learning in the Asiatic, African, and Polynesian languages, and the piblication of works relating tota languages. Publishes an annual Journal. Annual fop, $5; fee for membership in section for Historical Study of Religions, $2; no admission fre. Membership, 341.

American Ornithologist Urio. - President, Charles F. Batchelder; Secretary, John IT. Sage, Portland, ('t. Organized 1853. Object - The advancement of its members in ornithological science, the publication of a journal of ornithology and other works relating to that science, etc. Annualanes, fellow3, 85; members, $1; associates, $3. Membership, 880.

American Orthopädie Asciation. President, Joel E. Goldthirail, M. 1., 372 Marlborough Street, Boston, Mass.; Secretary, Robert B. Osgood, M. D., 372 Marlborough Street, Boston, Mass.

Ainerican Osteopathic Snciety.- President, S. IT. Elis, 144 1/untington Avenue, Boston, Mass. ; Secretary, Dr. H. L. (hiles, Auburn, X. Y. Founded' 1897. Amnal fee, $5. Jember ship, 2,000.

American Pediatric Society. President, P. KRvford, M.D. ('incinniti; Secretary, Samuel S. Adam, M. D. 1 Dupont Circle, Washington, D. ('. Next annual meeting at Washington, D. (., Mar, 1907.

American Philological Association.-President, Prof. Elmer T, Merrill, of Trinity College, JTartford; Vice-Presidents, Prof. Be ward D. Perry, of Columbia University, and Prof. Francis W. Kelsey, of the University of Michigu; Secretary and Treasurer, Prof. Frank G. Moor, of Dart. mouth College. Initiation fee, ); annual dne, *3. Total membership, about 575. The Associa. tion was organized in 1869. It object is "the advancement and diffusion of philolorical knowledge."

American Philosophical Society, -President, Edgar F. Smith; Vice-Presidents, George F. AMERICAN LEARNED SOCIETIES-Continueri.

Barker, William B. Scott, Simon Newcomb; Secretaries, I. Minis lays, Edwin G. Conklin, Arthur'w. Goodspeed, and Morris Jastrow, Jr. Office of Society, 104 South Fifth Street, Philadel. phia, Pa. Object--For promoting useful knowledge. Founded in 1743.

American Physical Society. -President, Carl Barus, Brown University, Providence, R. I.; Secretary, Ernest Merritt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

American Psychological Association.-President, James Rowland Angell, University of Chicago; Secretary and Treasurer, Prof. William Harper Davis, Lebigh University, Pennsylvania. Organized in 1892 for “the advancement of psychology as a science. Membership, 175. Annual dues, $1; no entrance fee.

American Public Health Association.-President, Prof. Franklin C. Robinson, Brunswick, Me. ; First Vice-President, Dr. John J. Kinyoun, Glenolden, Pa.; Second Vice-President, Dr. Domingo Orvananos, Mexico City, Mex. ; Third Vice-President, Dr. Richard H. Lewis, Raleigh, N. C. ; Secretary, Dr. Charles O. Probst, Columbus, Ohio. Organized 1872.

American Social Science Association. - President, John H. Finley, LL.D., College of City of New York; Treasurer, W. C. Le Gendre, 59 Wall Street, New York City; General Secretary, Isaac F. Russell, LL. D., 120 Broadway, New York. Annual fee, $5. The Association was founded in 1865. Incorporated by act of Congress, 1899. Membership, 1,000.

American Society of Curio Collectors.-President, Roy F. Greene, Arkansas City, Kan. ; Secretary, F. May Tuttle, Osage, Iowa. A national society for naturalists, geologists, mineralogists, archæologists, numismatists, and antiquarians. Membership, (00.

American Society of Civil Engineers.-President, c. C. Schneider; Secretary, Charles Warren Hunt; Treasurer, Joseph M. Knap. Regular meetings first and third Wellnesdays of each month (except July and Angust) at 8.30 P. M. at the Society's house, 220 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York City. Has 3.900 members. Instituted in 1852.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers.-President, Fred W. Taylor, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Secretary, Prof. F. R. Hutton, 12 West Thirty-first Street, New York City. Society House, 12 West Thirty-first Street, New York City. Total membership, all grades, 2,839. Two annual meetings, in Spring and Autumn, the latter in New York City in December. Initiation fee, members and associates, $25; juniors, $15. Annual dụes, members and associates, $15; juniors, $10. The Society was chartered in 1881. Membership is not limited in number.

American Society of Naturalists.- President, William James, Harvard University; VicePresidents, J. P. McMurrich, University of Michigan; C. B. Davenport, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N. Y.; Secretary, W. E. (astle, Harvard University; Treasurer, H. Von Schrenk, Missouri Botanic Garden. St. Louis. Mo. Organized 1883. Annual dues, $1. Membership, 228.

American Statistical Association. - President, Carroll D. Wright, Washington, 1). C.; Vice-Presidents, Horace G. Wadlin, llenry C. Adams, Walter F. Willcox, Henry Gannett, 's. N. 1). North; Secretary, Davis R. Dewey, 491 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass.; Treasurer, S. B. Pearmain.' Membership, 342. Annual dnes, $2. Association organized 1839.

American Surgical Association.--Président, Dudley P. Allen, M. D., 260 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio; Secretary, Robert G. Le Conte, 1530 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pal. Number of members, 125.

American Therapeutic Society,--President, Ir. Carl Beck, New York City: Secretary, Dr. Noble P. Barnes, Washington, D. ('. Organized May 1, 1900.

American Urological Association.-President, Dr. Ferd. C. Valentine. 171 West Seventyfirst Street, New York City; Secretary, Dr. Hugh Cabot, Marlborough Street, Boston.

Archæological Institute of America (New York Society). -President, Prof. E. D. Perry, Columbia University; Secret y, Prof. Nelson G. McCrea, Columbia University. Organize 1879. Has 212 members. No entrance fee, Annual dues, $10.

Arctic Club. - President, Prof. W. H. Brewer, Yale University; Secretary, Frederick A. Cook, 670 Bushwick Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. Organized 1894. Membership, 200.

Association of American Anatomists.-President, Prof. Charles S. Minot, Boston, Mass. ; Secretary, G. C. Huber, M. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. Has 175 members. Annual dnes, 25.

Association of American Physicians.-President, Francis P. Kinnicutt, 39 East 35th Street, New York; Secretary, Henry Hun, M.D., 149 Washington Avenue, Albany, N. Y. Organized 1886, Membership limited to 135.

: Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America.-President, Simon Newcomh, Washington, D. C.; Secretary, G. t. Comstock, Madison, Wis. Organized 1898. Membership, 175.

Botanical Society of America.-President, Prof. R. A. Harper, Madison, Wis. ; Secretary, Dr. D. T. MacDougal. Botanical Garden. Bronx Park, New York City. Has 39 miembers, 17 associates. Founded 1893. Entrance fee, $25; annual dues, $10, for members. Entrance fee, $5; annual dues, $5, for associates.

Geological Society of America.--President, Raphael Pumpelly, Newport, R. I. ; Secretary, H. L. Fairchild, University of Rochester; Treasurer, 1. C. White: Editor, J. Stanley-Brown. Society founded in 1888. Has 271 fellows. Entrance fee, $10; annual dues, $10.

Medico-Legal Society.-President, Clark Bell, 39 Broadway, New York City; Secretary, J. R. Abarbanell, 24 Vanderwater Street, New York City. There are vice-presidents for each of the States and Territories and the principal foreign countries.

National Academy of Sciences.-President, Alexander Agassiz, Cambridge, Mass. ; VicePresident, Ira Remsen, Baltimore, Md.; Foreign Secretary, Simon Newcomb, Washington, D.C. ; Honie Secretary, Arnold Hague, Washington, D. C.; Treasurer, Samuel F. Emmons, Washington, D. C. The Academy, incorporated by act of Congress March 3, 1863, “shall, whenever called upon bv any department of the Government, investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art; the actual expense'* ** to be paid from appropriations which may be made for the purpose.'' The Academy holds a stated session each year in the City of Washington on the third Tuesday in April, An Autumn meeting is held at such place and time as the Councilshall determine. There are at present no members and 43 foreign associates.

National Geographic Society,---President, Willis L. Moore; Vice-President, Henry Gannett; Secretary, o. P. A istin: Editor, Gilbert H. (i rosvenor. Headquarters at Washington, D. C. Its purpose is the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge." It publishes a monthly magazine. Organized 1888. Annual dues for members. *2. There are 18,000 members.

New York Zoological Society.-President, Levi P. Morton; Secretary, Madison Grant, 11 Wall Street, New York ('ity; Treasurer, Perey R. Pyne, 52 Wall Street. William T. Hornaday, Di. rrtor of the New York Zoological Park; Charles II. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium. Annual dues, $10; life membership, $200. The Zoological Park and the New York Aquarium are under the management of the Society.

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