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Legacy or Enheritance Tax Laws. A law taxing the right to inherit personal property by will or intestate law was passed lby Congress July 6, 1797. The rate was 25 cents on amounts from $50 to $100, 60 cents on amounts from $100 to $500, "and for every further sum of $500, the additional sum of one dollar." This act continued in force until June 30, 1802, when it was repealed. A national legacy tax law was again enacted July 1, 1862, amended in 1864, and again in 1866, and repealed in 1870, five years after the close of the Civil War.

Again, June 13, 1898, Congress enacted a legacy tax law which was amended in 1901 and continued in force until repealed July 1, 1902. Under the acts of 1898 and 1901, the eum of $21,603,699.02 was collected and paid into the national treasury up to June 30, 1904.

Pennsylvania enacted a legacy tax law April 6, 1826, which law, as amended from time to time, is still in force. Legacy tax laws were enacted in Maryland in 1814, and Delaware in 1869. They were enacted in North Carolina in 1846, and repealed in 1883. They were enacted in Virginia in 1844, repealed in 1855, re-enacted in 1863, and again repealed in 1874. Since 1885 legacy tax laws have been enacted in twenty-nine different States, namely, Arkansas, California Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Ken. tucky (1906), Maiae, Massachusetts Michigan, Minnesota Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire (1905), New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio (repealed 1906), Oregon, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming

The following table shows the amount of legacy tax roollected from the estates of some of the more prominent and wealthy decedents, some of whom were of national ineputation: *George Smith, resident of Eng

Joseph C. Hoagland, New York.. $119,211,90 land (paid in New York).. . $1,934.753.07 Gustav W. Swift, Illinois.

113,885. 27 Collis F. Huntington, New York.

. :

112.7.38.08 Jay Gould, New York..

600,000.00 Mary J. Winthrop, New York.. 110,169.55 Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York. 450.032.90 Leonard Lewisohn, New York... 107.631.36 Cornelia M. Stewart, New York.. 300,410.32 William Astor, New York..

106.536.97 Winfield S. Stratton, Denver,

William H. Vanderbilt. New Col. 300,000.00 York

103,612,59 Wilson G. Hunt, New York. 285,000.00 Mary Eichler, New York.

102,866.9+ Joshua Jones, New York. 284,3:37.56 W. W. Kimball, Illinois.

86,700.24 Emma A. Schley, New York. 261,490.67 A. M. Billings, Illinois.

85,724.75 Henrietta A. Lenox, New York.. 234,635,70 Potter Palmer, New York and William Whit:wright, New York. 223,141.52 Illinois

78,063,99 Robert G. Dun, New York... 178,730.68 Ernest J. Lehman, Illinois.

71.097.16 Catherine L. Wolfe, New York.. 159,599.38 Silas B. Cobb, Illinois.

63,298.32 Daniel B. Fayerweather, New

Levi Z. Leiter, Illinois.

48,233,53 York 158,276,19 Sidney Kent. Illinois.

38.070.09 George M. Pullman,_Illinois. 158,282.04 Peter Fahrney, Illinis.

37,982.88 John Knower, New York.. 152,319,72 Jacob Rosenberg, Illinois.

37.667.32 Daniel Edgar Crouse, Syracuse,

Charles W. Fullerton, Illinois.. 36,461.02 N. Y.

150, SS2, 18 Catherine M. White, Illinois, . 25,236.38 Timothy B. Blackstone,

New

Columbus R. Cummings, Illinois. 21,861 40 York and Illinois 150,061.01 Joseph Medill, Illinois.

16.018.13 Henry B. Plant, New York. 140,000.00 Phillin D. Armour, Illinois.

15,786 91 Ezra G. Benedict, Albany, N. Y. 131,122.99 Lucius B. Otis, Illinois....

15,699.41 Mary J. Walker, New York... 119,225.83

* The transfer of all property, real, personal or mixed, within the jurisdiction of the State at date of death is subject to the tax, whether the decedent was a resident or non-resident. The tax is not a tax on property, but the right which the State grants to itthe legatee to inherit property.

The Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford University. CECIL RHODES, statesman, who died at Cape Town, South Africa, March 26, 1902, directed in his will dated July 1, 1899, that a part of his fortune, estimated at $10,000.000, should be applied to the creation of a fund for the support of a certain number of scholarships covering a three-years course at the University of Oxford He directed that the selection of the recipients of this gift should be made two from each State and Territory of the United States, or one hundred in all, fifteen from Germany and from one to nine from each of the British Colonies. The scholarships are awarded on marks only, three-tenths whereof shall be given to a candidate for his “Literary and Scholastic!! attainments, the remainder being for his love of outdoor athletics and sports, for strong, manly qualities such as courage, generosity and kindness, and for high moral character, and especially for ambition to serve and lead in large public affairs.

The conditions regulating the award of scholarships in the American States provide that the candidates shall have satisfactorily completed the work of at least two years in some college of liberal arts and sciences. Except under extraordinary circumstances the upper age limit must betwenty-four years at the time of entering upon the scholarship at Oxford. To be eligible the candidate must be a citizen of the United States, or the son of a citizen, and must be unmarried. Each student receives an allowance of £300 a year, which is equivalent to $1,500, payable in quarterly instalments, which is just enough to enable him to pay his college fees and necessary expenses, As the first instalment is not available until sometime after the arrival of the student he should go abroad with one or two hundred dollars in his possession.

In most of the states the selection is made by a committee appointed by representatives of the colleges: in some the appointments are made in rotation by the leading colleges.

At the beginning of Michaelmas term, October, 1904, there entered Oxford seventy-two Rhodes scholars; forty-three were Americans, twenty-four colonials and five Germans. In 1906, the full number, 190 in all, were in residence, and thereafter this number will be maintained, the vacancies being filled as men complete their three-years' course. The next examination in the United States will take place in January, 1907. There will be examinations also in 1908, 1910, 1911, 1913, 1914, and

so on, omitting every third year. The examinations are not competitive, but qualifying. Inquiries as to particulars by intending candidates may be addressed to any college. Information about Oxford, its colleges and course of studies, should be addressed to F. J. Wylie, the Oxford agent of the Rhodes trustees, Oxford, England.

Benefactions of 1906.

There were many notable public benefactions during the year 1906. It is, of coursie Ompossible to estimate closely the aggregate of the multitude of benevolences emanating from the rich, who have the welfare of humanity at heart. A tremendous sum, however, probably exceeding $100,000,000, has been flowing into these worthy channels during the twelve months which closed with the last year.

No authentic list of the public contributions of John D. Rockefeller or of Andrew Carnegie were given out, but it is understood that they equalled thetir gifts of 1905, which amounted to $20,000,000 from the great iron founder and $12,000,000 on the part of the head of the Standard Oil interests. Each of these men averages a yearly dispensation of $15,000,000 to religious and educational institutions. Inasmuch as nearly all of their gifts are contingent upon equivalent donationis by others, the sum total of the RockefellerCarnegie benefactions is now not far from $60,000,000 a year. This is almost as much as though every man, woman and child in the United States put aside one dollar each year for charity.

Stephen Salisbury, of Worcester, Mass., was a foremost giver of the year 1906. Hils fortune of $20,000,000 was almost entirely disposed of by will for the benefit of Harvard University and other great American centres of instruction.

Mrs. Julia E. Hackley, of Muskegon, Mich., the widow of the lumber king of the Northwest, notably furthered the cause of public education and municipal improvement by leaving $2,000,000 to schools, of which $1,000,000 was to be dispensed by the Muskegon officials.

Addison J. Nowlen, of Chicago, on the eve of his death, distributed $250,000 among a number of Protestant charities.

John D. Rockefeller aided the Baptist cause in New York City by giving $40,000 to the Memorial Baptist Church of Christ, on Washington Square South, This church, formerly known as the Judison Memorial, is a large and successful type of what has come to be called the Working Church," equipped with library, gymnasium, dormitories, lecture curriculum, and other attributes attractive

to young men and women. Albert Crane, of Stamford, Ot., gave $100,000 to Tuft's Theological Seminary.

It was announced from Nice, France,' that Gov. Gurow.sky von Wezell had set aside $800,000 of his fortune for the foundation of a Peace Museum in that celebrated summer capital of continental Europe.

Mrs. Thomas F. Ryan, of New York City, the devout wife of the insurance kting, contributed $300,000 to the Roman Catholic Convent of the Perpetual Adoration at Washington. She also gave $130,000 to the Church of the Sacred Heart, wihich she established on her splendid estate on the hills overlooking Suffern, Rockland County, New York State.

An unknown philanthropist gave $325,000 toward the better equipment of the Union Theological Seminary, in New York City.

John D. Rockefeller emulated the example of Helen Miller Gould in Brooklyn by dona. ting $250,000 for a naval branch of the Young Men's Christian Association at Norfolk, Va. The gift was anonymous, iso far as the oil king was concerned, but his identitywas subsequently disclosed by an official of the institution.

Albert Willcox, of New York City, an ardent naturalist and friend of the cause of the preservation of the birds, 'left $100,000 to the National Association of Audubon Societies.

Henry C. Frick, of Pittsburg who controls the coke ovens of the country, gave $200,000 towand the Young Men's. Christian Association building fund in Pittsburgh,

Levi W. Eaton, of Bridgeport, bequeathed $75,000 to a number of religious and charitable institutions throughout New England.

Yale University received over $2,000,000 during 1906 in bequests toward the extension of her buildings, apparatus, and faculty.

Bloodgood H. Cutler the farmer poet,” of Long Island, and long time friend of Mark Twain, left nearly all of his fortune of $750,000 to the spread of the Bible.

Peter Wyckoff, the "farmer,”. of the Eastern District of Brooklyn, whose fortune was gathered from the enhancement of his ancestral farms in the outlying sections of the city, gave $75,000 to various charities.

Dr. H. W. Hamma, of Baltimore, donated $125,000 to Wittenberg College, at Springfield, Ohio.

John D. Rockefeller added $1,450,000 to his endowment of the University of Chicago.

Charles Steele, a partner of J. Pierpont Morgan, gave $50,000 to the University of Virginia, at Charlottesville, of which he is a graduate.

Joseph E. Gillingham, of Philadelphia, contributed $800,000 to the University of Penn. sylvania and other institutions of learning in the Middle States.

George A. Hearn, of New York City, gave $100,000 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, of which he had long been a director and patron,

An unknown benefactor added $125,000 to the endowment fund of Bowdoin College, Me,

A conditional gift of $5,000,000 on the part of John D. Rockefeller was announced by officials of the National Juvenile Improvement Association.

David Rankin, Jr., of St. Louis, gave $2,000,000 toward an industrial school in that city.

* Alfred Beit. the South African diamond billionaire, left $6,000,000 to the Cape to Cairo Railway and $1,000,000 to educational and charitable institutions in London.

Pedro Alvarado, the enormously rich Mexican mine-owner, announced a gift of $10.000.000 to the poor of his native province.

John D. Rockefeller gave $250.000 toward a Young Men's Christian Association building in San Francisco.

Mary L. Cassilly, of New York, widow of a Cincinnati banker, left $1,000,000 to educa. tional and charitalble institutions.

The record of known benefactions in the fourteen years 1893—1906 toots up the onor. mous approximate total of $900,000,000.

Mortality Statistics. TAE Census Office published in 1906 a report of Mortality Statistics of States and cities which have laws or ordinances requiring the registration of deaths. It covered the years 1900 to 1904, inclusive, and in 1904 represented a population of 32, 996.989. The total number of deaths reported was 551,354, the rate per 1,000 of the population being 16.7. But ten States and the District of Columbia with certain cities were included in the Registration Area. The Census enumeration of 1900, which follows, covered the whole United States so far as returns could be obtained.

DEATHS IN THE UNITED STATES IN CENSUS YEAR 1900.

(Compiled from the Report of the Census Office.)

[graphic]

STATES AND TERRITORIES.
Total, Male. Female.

White, White, White, Colored,

Total. Native. Foreign. Total. The United States...... 1,039,094 551,611 487, 483 892,092 694,736 175, 252 147,002 Registration record

512,669 272,819 239,850 475, 640 337, 288 126,465 37,029 Registration States.

301,670 157,745 143, 925 292, 618 210,918 78,077 9,052 Cities in registration States... 191,667 100, 041 91,626 184,408 124, 490 58, 096 7, 259 Rural part of registration States. 110,003 57, 704 52,299 108, 210 86,428 19,981 1,793 Registration cities in other States 210,999 115,074 95,925 183,022 126,370 48,388 27,977 Non-registration

526, 425 278, 792 247,633 416,452 357,448 48,787 109,973 Alabama 25, 699 12,970 12,729 12,937 12,308 341

12,762 Arizona

1, 223 750 473 947 681 219 276 Arkansas. 22,518 11,813 10,705 16, 372 15,804 280

6,146 California

22,506 13,998 8,508 21, 081 13, 687 6,874 1, 425 Colorado

7,428 4,471
2,957 7,210 4,856 1,233

218 Connecticut.

15, 422 7,902

7,520 15,048 10.800 3,941 374 Delaware

3, 075 1,644 1,431 2,490 2,134 236585 District of Columbia

6,364 3, 274 3,090 3,660 2,989 616 Florida.

2,704 6, 482 3,520 2, 962

3, 408 2,943 381 3, 074 Georgia

26,941 13,321 13,620 13,094 12, 637 257 13,847 Idaho.

1, 242 762 480 1,075 850 189 167 Illinois

61, 229 33,641 27,588 59,618 42,545 16,052 1,611 Indiana

33,586 17, 454 16,132 32,312 28,307 3,247 1, 274 Indian Territory 5, 286 2,795 2,491 3,936 3,863

37 Iowa....

1,350 19,573 10,612 8,961 19,362 14,089 4,240 211 Kansas

16, 261 8,978 7,283 15, 209 11,691 1,720 1,052 Kentucky

27,091 13,843 13,248 22,035 19, 047 1, 221 5, 056 Louisiana

20,955

10,971 9.984 10, 250 8,465 1,670 10,705 Maine 12,148 6,292 5,856 12,112 10,497 1,487

36 Maryland

20, 422 10,526 9,896 15,341 12, 177 2,391 5,081 Massachusetts

49,756 25,352 24,404 49,061 34,952 13,645 695 Michigan

33.572 18, 084 15,488 33, 205 24,068 8,752 367 Minnesota

17,005 9.354 7,651 16.816 10,318 6,285 189 Mississippi 20, 251 10,299 9,952 7, 444 7,120

150 12,807 Missouri

38,084 20,480 17, 604 34,959 29,383 4,771 3,125 Montana 2.188 1,387 801 1,930

1,069

534 258 Nebraska

8, 264 4,480
3,784 8,015

6,042 1,737 249 Nevada.

438 290 148 349

201
137

89 New Hampshire. 7.400 3, 663 3,737 7,388 5,848 1,077

12 New Jersey

32,735 17, 462 15, 273 31,069 22,829 New Mexico

7,915 1,666 2,674 1,455 1,219 2,398 2, 228 116 New York

276 130, 268 68,648 61,620 127, 332 88,479 37,505 2,936 North Carolina 21,068 10,427 10,641 13,217 12,805

63 North Dakota

7,851 2,287 1, 159 1,128 2.046 1,291 715 241 Ohio

53,362 28,648 24,714 51,481 40,219 9,356 1,881 Oklahoma 3,181 1,741 1,440 2, 704 2,563 113

477 Oregon

3.396 2.019 1,377 3,176 2,412 632 220 Pennsylvania

90, 199 49, 150 41,049 86,653 67.229 16,354 Rhode Island

3,546 8,176 4,132 4,044 7,939 5,571 2, 295 237 South Carolina

17,166 8,461 8,705 5,808 5, 605 144 11, 358 South Dakota

3,088 1, 654 1.434 2, 448 1,672 751 640 Tennessee

30,572 15,354 15.218 21,029 20, 257 511 Texas...

9,543 34,160 18, 045 16, 115 26,216 23,526 2,136 7,944 Utah....

3,079 1,821 1,258 2,972

1,934

983 107 Vermont 5,829 2,936 2,893 5,804 4,885 844

25 Virginia

25, 252 13,112 12, 140 14,070 13, 472 439 11,182 Washington

4,910 3,148 1,762 4,594 3,085 1,211 316 West Virginia 9,588 5,046 4,542 9, 074 8,651

338 514 Wisconsin

24,928 13,815 11, 113

24,747 15, 298 8,974 181 Wyoming

767 452 315 651 474 137 116 The Census year ended May 31, 1900.

In the summaries of the results the data are classed as “registration” and “non-registration,' according to the source from which the original returns were obtained. The non-registration class includes the areas in which the deaths were reported by the enumerators, and those areas in which registration was too defective to be accepted.

The average age at death in 1890 was 31.1 years ; in 1900 it was 35.2 years.

MORTALITY STATISTICS-Continued. The cities with a population above 100,000 showed the following death rates for 1900 and 1890: 1900. 1890. 1900. 1890. 1900. 1890.

1900. 1890. Washington.. 22.8 93.7 Rochester, N.Y....15.0 17.3 Louisville. .20.0 20.1 Cleveland..

17.1 20.2 Boston

20.1 23.4 Syracuse, N.Y.....13.8 19.6 New Orleans 28.9 26.3 Columbus.. ..15.8 14.7 Fall River.. 22.4 23,2 Providence........19.9 21.1 | Baltimore

.21.0 22.9 Toledo....

.16.0 18.9 Worcester, Mass...15.5 18.0 Los Angeles, Cal..18.1 20.0 Minneapolis

10.8

13.5 Allegheny, Pa. .18.4 18.2 Detroit 17.1 18.7 San Francisco.. .20.5 22.5 St. Paul.

9.7 14.9 Philadelphia .21.2 21.3 Jersey City 20.7 25.6 Denver...

.18.6 23.0 Kansas City.
17,4 17.3 Pittsburgh .20.0

20.1 Newark, N.J... 19.8 27.4 Chicago.

.16.2 19.1 St. Joseph.

9.1

Scranton, Pa.. 20.7 21.8 Paterson, N. J.....19.0 22.2 New York

.20.4 *25.3 St. Louis..

.17.9 17.4 Memphis.. 25.1 25.3 Buffalo, N.Y. .....14.8 18.4) Indianapolis.......16.7 17.3 Cincinnati

19.1 21.0 Milwaukee .15.9 * Estimated.

St. Joseph, Mo., with a death rate of 9.1 per 1,000, showed the lowest mortality, and Shreveport, La., with 45.5 the highest.

CAUSES OF DEATH IN THE CENSUS YEAR 1900. À NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM CERTAIN CAUSES, WITH PROPORTION FROM EACH

CAUSE PER 100,000. FROM. ALL CAUSES, IN 1900 AND 1890.

18.8

1,647

old age

1900.
1890.

1900,

1890. CAUSES OF DEATH. Number.

CAUSES OF DEATH.
Propor- Number.
Propor-

Propor-
tion.

Number. tion.

ProporNumber. tion.

tion. Consumption*

111,059 10,688 102,199 12,146 Diseases of the stomach 13,484 1,298 8,080 960 Pneumonia... 105,971 10,198 76,496 9,091 Measles

12,866 1,238 9,256 1,100 lleart diseaset.

69,315

6,671
44,959 5,-43 Croup....

12,484 1,201 13,862 Diarrheal diseasest 46,907 4,514 47,201 5,610 Diseases of the liver**. 12,249 1,179 9,460 1,124 l'nknown causes. 40,539 3,901 34,286 4,074 Diseases of the brain. 11,469 1,104

12,322 1,464 Diseases of the kidneys 36,724 3,534 19,457 2,312 Inanition......

11,382 1,095 6,995 831 Typhoid fever. 35,379 3,405 27,058 3,216 Dropsy:

11,264 1,084 10,070 1,197 Cancer 29,475 2,837 18,536 2,203 Whooping cough

9,958 958 8,432 1,002 29,222 2,812 16,591 1,972 Peritonitis..

7,501

722
4,995

594 Apoplexy 26,901 2,589 14,999 1,783 Railroad accidents

6,930 667

5,756 684 Inflammation of the

Septicæmia....

6,776

652

3,748 445 brain and meningitis.. 25,664 2,470 17,775 2,113 Burns and scalds.

6,772

652

3,850 458 Cholera infantim... 25,576

2,461
27,510 3,269 Scarlet fever....

6,333 609 5,969 709 Paralysis...

23,865 2,297
16,570 1,969 Suicide..

5,498 529

3,932

467 Bronchitis, 20,223 1,946 21,422 2,546 Drowning..

5,387 518 5,104

607 Debility and atrophy 17,282 1,663 25,536 3,035 Appendicitis

5:11 492 Influenza..

16,645
1,602 12,957 1,540 Rheumatism..

5,067

488 4,508 Diphtheria 16,475 1,586 27,815 3,306 Dia betes....

4,672 450 2,407 286 Convulsions 15,505 1,492 16,598 1,973 Hydrocephalus

4,302 414

4,338 516 Malarial fever..

14,874
1,431 18,594 2,210||Cerebro-spinal fever

4,174 402 3,333 396 Premature birth.

14,720
1,417 7,636) 908|Gunshot wounds..... 4,060) 391

2,552 303 * Including general tuberculosis. + Including pericarditis. Including cholera morbus, colitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis. § Including Bright's disease. || Including general paralysis of the insane. Including gastritis. ** Including jaundice, and inflammation and abscess of the liver.

This table serves only to indicate the relative frequency of deaths from the specified causes, as reported. It should be considered in connection with the following table, which gives the number of deaths due to the same causes in the registration area, with the death rates per 100,000 of population. DEATHS FROM CERTAIN CAUSES IN THE REGISTRATION AREA IN 1900 AND 1890,

WITH DEATH RATES DUE TO EACH CAUSE, PER 100,000 OF POPULATION.

536

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33.8

Pneumonia...
55,296 191.9 36,752 186.9 Diseases of the stomach **

5,743 20.0 3,565 18.1 Consumption* 54,898 190.5 48,236 245.4 Diseases of the brain.. 5,357 18.6

6,055 30.9 Heart diseaset. 38,608 134.0 23,939 121.8 Peritonitis...

5,028 17.5 3,419 17.4 Diarrhwal diseasest. 24,509 85.1 20,457

104.1||Unknown causes.

4.849 16.8

4,827 24.6 Diseases of the kidneysg. 24,124 83,7 11,736

59.7|Measles

3,801 13.2 2,662

13.5 Apoplexy. 19,173 66.6 9,631 49.0 Railroad accidents.

3,792 13.. 2,761 14.0 Cancer.. 17,296 60.0 9,410 47.9 Whooping cough.

3,669 12,7 3,098 15.8 Old age.. 15,558 54.0 8,823 44.9 suicide

3,400 11.8 2,027 10.3 Bronchitis. 13,903 48.3 14,632 74.4 Scarlet fever.

3,327 11.5 2,682 13.6 Cholera infantum..

13,758 47.8

15,659
79.7 Hydrocephalus.

3,173 11.0 3,033 15.4 Debility and atrophy: 13,108 45.5 17,427 88.6 |Drowning

3,152 11.0 2,543 12.9 Inflammation of th

Septicæmia.

2,867 10.0 1,517 brain and meningitis.. 12,026 41.8 9,666 49.1 Appendicitis.

2,858 9.9 Diphtheria 10,201 35.4 13,786 70.1 Croup

9,830 9.8 5,432 27.6 Typhoid fever.

9,749
9.097 46,3 Diabetes.

2,693 9.4 1,089 5.5 Premature birth....

9,690

33.7
4,948 25.2 Burns and scalds.

2,5-15 8.8 1,081

5.5 Convulsions

9,522 33.1
11,050 56.3 Malarial fever.

2,526 8.8 3,773 19.2 Paralysisl.

9,450 32.8 6,980 35.5 Cerebro-spinal fever. 2,039 7.1 1,241 6.3 Inanition... 7,859 27.3 5,445 27.7| Dropsy

1,979 6.9 2,034 10.3 Influenza.

6,882

23.9
1,215 6.Rheumatism..

1,951 6.8 1,587 8.1 Diseases of the liver s.. 6,544 22.7 4,742 24.21 Gunshot wounds..

1,108 3.8 479 2.4 * Including general tuberculosis. + Including pericarditis. # Including cholera morbus, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, and enteritis. Including Bright's disease. || Including general paralysis of the insane. | Including jaundice, and inflammation and abscess of the liver. ** Including gastritis.

The following was the death rate per thousand in various countries in 1900: Austria, 25.4; Belgium, 19.3; Denmark, 16.9; England and Wales, 18.2; France, 21.9; German Empire, 22.1; Hungary, 26.9; Treland, '19. 6,'Italy, 23.8; Netherlands, 17.8; Norway, 15.9;_Scotland, 18.5; Spain, 28.9; Sweden, 16.8: Switzerland, 19.3; United States (registration area), 17.6,

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Statistics of Crime and Pauperism.*

PRISONERS IN THE U.S. IN 1890, WITH PAUPERS IN THE U.S. IN 1904, WITH
ELEMENTS.
NATIVITY AND PARENTAGE.

NATIVITY AND PARENTAGE.
Aggregate. Men.
Women. Aggregate.

Men.

Women. The United States..

82.329 75,924 6,405 81,764 52,444 29,320 White..

57.310 52.894 4.416 74,854 48,445 26,409 Native, white.

40, 471 38,156

2,315 42,205 25,187 17,018 Both parents native..

21.037 20.101

936 31,944 18,338 13,606 One parent foreign...

2.881 2,729

152
1, 902
1,216

686 Both parents foreign....

12,601 11,766

835 6,777 4,069 1,708 One or both parents unknown. 3,952 3.560

392 2,582 1,564 1,018 Foreign born, white..

15,932 13,869

2,063

32, 136 23, 036 9,100 Birthplace unknown, white.

907
869
38
513
222

291 Colored.

25,019

23,030 1,989 6,910 3,999 2,911 Negroes

24, 277 22,305 1,972 Mongolian.

6,793
3,912

2,881
420
418

2
44
43

1 Indians

322
307
15
73
44

29 * The above comprises the latest statistics published by the United States Government. Those of prisoners appeared in the Census Report of 1890. The report on prisoners 1900-1904 is in course of preparation by the Census Office and is promised in 1907. pauperism in 1904 was published by the Census Office in 1906.

(See page 89). The special report on fStatistics of pauperism apply only to inmates of almshouses. Outdoor paupers are not considered, and there is no way of ascertaining their number in the United States, but it is comparatively small compared with that of European countries.

of the 114,620 parents of the white prisoners 45,732 were native, 60,153 were foreign born, and the birthplaces of 8,735 were reported as unknown. Omitting the unknown, the percentage of prisoners of the native element was 43.19 and of the foreign element 56.81.

As to nationalities of the 60,153 foreign parents of American prisoners 29,184 were Jrish, 9,987 German, 5,997 English, 4,064 English Canadian, 1,996 Scotch, 1,483 Mexican, 1,209 Italian, and 1.036 French. Other nationalities were below 1,000.

The New York State Prison Commission's annual report for 1906 showed that the total prison population of the State of New York on October 1, 1905, was: State prisons, 3, 452; reformatories for males, 1,656; houses of refuge, women, 430; penitentiaries, 2,227; county jails, 4,769. Total, 12,584.

Statistics of pauperism in European countries is difficult to collate on account of the variance in reports. England, for example, counts the number receiving relief on January 1; France the total number of persons succored during the year, the latter being a repetition of people who needed relief. Mulhall makes the following estimates: England, 810,000; Scotland, 96,000; Ireland, 109,000; France, 290,000; Germany, 320.000; Russia, 350,000; Austria, 290,000; İtaly, 270,000; Nether. lands, 85,000. Booth estimated that 38 per cent. of all persons over 65 years of age in England were paupers.

Homicide in the United States. The statistics of the United States Census for 1900 had not been published by the Census Office when THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1907 was ready for the press. The special report of the Census Office is in course of preparation and is promised by the Census Office in 1907. The latest official statistics, therefore, are of 1890.

The census bulletin presenting statistics of homicide in the United States in 1890 was prepared by Frederick H. Wines, special agent on pauperism and crime. The following is the summing up of the results of his investigations :

Of 82,329 prisoners in the United States June 1, 1890, the number charged with homicide was 7,386, or 8.97 per cent.

Omitting 35 who were charged with double crimes, 6,958 of them (or 94.65 per cent.) were men, and 393 (or 5.35 per cent.) were women.

As to color, 4,425 were white, 2,739 negroes, 94 Chinese, 1 Japanese, and 92 Indians.

As to the nativity of the 4,425 whites, 3,157 were born in the United States, 1,213 were foreign born, and the birthplace of 55 is unknown.

The number employed at the time of their arrest was 5, 659; unemployed, 1, 225; unknown, 467.

The habits of 973, in respect of use of intoxicating liquors, are not stated. The remaining 6,378 are classed as follows: Total abstainers, 1, 282; occasional or moderate drinkers, 3,829; drunkards, 1.267.

As to their physical condition, 6,149 were in good health, 600 ill, 283 insane, 24 blind, 14 deaf and dumb, 18 idiots, and 263 crippled.

Lynchings.-The number of lynchings in the United States from 1901 to the end of the first ten months of 1906, inclusive, was 621.

In the sixteen years, from 1884 to 1900, the number of lynchings was 2,516. Of these, 2,080 were in the Southern States, and 436 in the North. The proportion between blacks and whites was as two to one, 1,678 being negroes and 801 white men. The proportion of black men in the last fire years has been larger. This is accounted for by the fact that lynchings for horse and cattle stealing by white men of the West were formerly more common than they are to-day. Of the 2,516 lynched in the years mentioned, 2,465 victims were men and 51 were women.

Legal Executions. -The number of legal executions in the United States was 136 in 1905 116 in 1904; 123 in 1903; 144 in 1902; 118 in 1901:120 in 1900; 131 in 1899;109 in 1898;128 in 1897; 122 in 1896; 132 in 1895; 132 in 1894; 126 in 1893, and 107 in 1892. The legal executions in 1904 were distributed as follows: Alabama, 6; Arkansas, 7: California, 5; Connecticut, 2: Delaware, 1; Florida, 1; Georgia, 2; Idaho, 1; Illinois, 5; Indiana, 2; Kentucky,1; Minnesota, 1: Mississippi, 3; Missouri, 3; Montana, New Jersey, 2; New York, 8; North Carolina, 7; . Ohio, 10; Oregon,' 2; Pennsylvania, 19; South Carolina, 2; Tennessee, 3; Texas, 5; Utah, 1; Virginia, 6; West Virginia, 1; Washington, 1; District of Columbia, 1. The executions were divided : 62 in North and 54 in South; 69 were white, 45 negroes, 1 Japanese, 1 Chinese.. One hundred and ten executions were for murder. The above statistics of lynchings and legal executions were compiled by the Chicago Tribune.

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