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1842 1844 1846 1847 1849 1849 1853 1855 1859 1860 1861 1864

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States. Tyler

Henry Ledyard, ch. d'aff..... Mich...
William R. King....

J. L. Martin, ch. d'aff.

N. C...
Richard Rush.

Pa...... Taylor.. William C. Rives.

Pierce Henry S. Sanford, ch, d'aff... Ct.
John Y. Mason....

Buchanan W.R. Calhoun, ch. d'aff. S.C.
Charles J. Faulkner.

Lincoln William L. Dayton.

John Bigelow..

N. Y... Johnson John Hay, ch. d'aff.

ni. John A. Dix...

N. Y... Grant... Elihu B. Washburne..

ill... Hayes Edward F. Noyes.

Ohio.. Garfield. Levi P. Morton.

N. Y. Arthur... Cleveland .... Robert M. McLane.

Md.. B. Harrison... Whitelaw Reid..

N. Y. T, Jefferson Coolidge..

Mass... Cleveland James B. Eustis, ambassador. La.... McKinley. Horace Porter, ambassador... N. Y... Roosevelt

Robert S. McCormick, amb... Ill..

Confederation Thomas Jefferson......

Va... Washington.. William Short, ch. d'aff. Gouverneur Morris..

N. Y.... James Monroe...

Va..... Charles C. Pinckney.

Charles C. Pinckney
John Adams.. John Marshall...

Elbridge Gerry:

Mass.. (Oliver Ellsworth.

William Vans Murray Md..
William R. Davie..

N.C.... Jefferson Robert R. Livingston. N. Y....

John Armstrong.. Madison.. Jonathan Russell, ch. d'aff. R. I.... Joel Barlow....

William H. Crawford.

Henry Jackson, ch. d'aff. Ky.
Albert Gallatin...

Monroe James Brown...

La.... Jackson William C. Rives.

Nathaniel Niles, ch. d'aff.. Vt.....
Edward Livingston.

Thomas P. Barton, ch, d'aff.. Pa.....
Lewis Cass

Van Buren
Lewis Cass.....



1790 1792 1794 1796 1797 1797 1797 1799 1799 1799 1801 1804 1810 1811 1813 1815 1816 1823 1829 1832 1833 1835 1836 1836 1836

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1866 1869 1877 1881 1881 1885 1889 1892 1893 1897 1897 1905

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Louis XVI... Count de Moustier..

M. Otto, ch. d'aff.

Colonel Ternant. Convention... Edmond C. Genet.. Directory. Joseph Fauchet

Pierre Auguste Adet, Consulate....

L. A. Pichon, ch. d'aff. Napoleon I... General Turreau.

M. Serurier.. Louis XVIII..

G. Hyde de Neuville.

Count de Menou, ch. d'aff. Charles X.. Baron de Mareuil.

Count de Menou, ch. d'aff..

Roux de Rochelle
L. Philippe.

M. Serurier....
Alphonse l'ageot, ch. d'aff.
Edouard Pontois...
Alphonse Pageot, ch, d'aff.
L. Adolph Aime Fourier de Bacourt..

Alphonse Joseph Yver Pageot...
L. Napoleon.. Guillaume Tell Lavallee Poussin..

E. A. Olivier Sain de Boislecomte.

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* Mr. Van Alen was confirmed by the Senate but declined, and Mr. MacVeagh was appointed.

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1790 1794 1794 1796 1801 1805

N. Y

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States, Washington.. W. Carmichael, ch. d'aff. Md....

William Short, min. res. Va.
Thomas Pinckney..

David Humphreys..

Ct.... Jefferson. Charles Pinckney.

s. C.. G. W. Erving, ch. d'aff.

Mass... Official relations with Spain

were broken off from 1808

to 1814. Madison.... G. W. Erving

Mass... Monroe... John Forsyth....

Ga... Hugh Nelson...


Mass... J. Q. Adams.. Alexander H. Everett.. Jackson.. Cornelius P. Van Ness..

A. Middleton, Jr., ch. d'aff... s. C.... Van Buren John H. Eaton..

Tenn. Aaron Vail, ch. d'aff.

N. Y... Tyler. Washington Irving. Polk..

Romulus M. Saunders. N. C...
Taylor Daniel M. Barringer.
Pierre Soule.

Augustus C. Dodge...

la. Buchanan William l'reston.

Carl Schurz...

Gustavus Koerner.




States, Lincoln... H. J. Perry, ch. d'aff. N. H...

John P. Hale....
Grant. Daniel E. Sickles...

Alvey A. Adee, ch. d'aff.
Caleb Cushing...

Hayes. James Russell Lowell.
Lucius Fairchild..

Arthur Hannibal Hamlin

John W. Foster..

Cleveland. Jabez L. M. Curry.

Perry Belmont.

N. Y. B. Harrison.. Thomas W. l'almer

Mich.. E. Burd Grubb...

N. J.... A. London Snowden..

Pa.... Cleveland .... Hannis Taylor.....

Ala Mckinley.. Stewart L. Woodford

N. Y... Official relations with Spain

were broken off, April, 1898,

to April, 1899.

Bellamy Storer..

Arthur S. Hardy..
William M. Collier..

N. Y...

1864 1865 1869 1873 1874 1877 1880 1880 1881 1883 1885 1889 1889 1890 1892 1893 1897


1814 1819 1823 1825 1829 1836 1837 1840 1842 1846 1849 1853 1855 1858 1861 1862

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1899 1899 1902 1906



Carlos IV.. Diego de Gardoqui, ch. d'aff.

Jose Ignacio de Viar, ch. d'aff..
Jose Ignacio de Viar, joint
Jose de Jaudenes, ch, d'aff.
Carlos M. de Irujo....
Valentin de Foronda, ch. d'aff.
Official relations with Spain were

broken off from 1808 to 1814. fernan. VII.. Luis de Onis.....

Mateo de la Serna, ch. d'aff.
Francisco Dionisio Vives.
Joaquin de Anduaga.
F. H, Rivas y Salmon, ch. d'aff

Francisco Tacon
M. Christins..
Asabella 11.... Angel Calderon de la Barca..

Pedro Alcantara Argaiz.
Fidencio Bourman, ch. d'aff..
Angel Calderon de la Barca, min. res.
Jose Maria Magallon, ch. d'aff.
Leopoldo Augusto de Cueto...
Alfonso Escalante..
Gabriel Garcia y Tassara..

Isabella II.... Facundo Goni....
Provis. Gov.. Mauricio Lopez Roberts.
Amadeo I. ... Admiral Don Jose Polo de Bernabe
Pr. Figueras.

* Castelar..
46 Serrano Antonio Mantilla.
Alphonso XII. Jose Brunetti, ch. d'aff.

Felipe Mendez de Vigo y Osorio.
Francisco Barca del Corral.

Enrique Dupuy de Lome, ch. d'aff.. "I Juan Valera y Alcala Galiano.. Alph. XIII... Emilio de Muruaga..

Miguel Suarez Guanes.
Jose Felipe Segario, chd'aff.
Enrique Dupuy de Loine
Emilío de Muruaga
Enrique Dupuy de Lome.
Louis Polo y Bernabe..
Diplomatic intercourse broken off by

the war.
Jose Brunetti, Duke of Arcos.......
Emilio de Ojeda........
Bernardo Jide Cologan.........

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Xnsular Possessions of the United States.

THE PHILIPPINES. THE Philippine group, lying off the southern coast of Asia, between longitude 120 and 130 and latitude 5 and 20 approximately, number about 2,000 islands, great and small, in a land and sea area of 1, 200 miles of latitude and 2,400 miles of longitude. The actual land area is about 140,000 miles. The six New England States, New York, and New Jersey have about an equivalent area. The island of Luzon, on which the capital city (Manila) is situated, is the largest member of the group, being about the size of the State of New York. Mindanao is nearly as large, but its population is very much smaller. The latest estimates of areas of the largest islands are: Luzon, 44, 400; Mindanao, 34,000; Samar, 4,800; Panay, 4,700; Mindoro, 4,000; Leyte, 3,800; Negros, 3,300; Cebu, 2,400.

À census of the Philippines was taken by the United States Government in 1903 under the auspices of the Census Office. The population returned was 7,635,426. Of this number almost seven million are more or less civilized. The wild tribes form about 9 per cent. of the entire population. Racially the inbabitants are principally Malays. The civilized tribes are practically ail adherents of the Catholic Church, the religion being that introduced into the country by the Spaniards when they took possession of the islands in 1565. The Church has since then been a strong ruling power and the priesthood numerous. The Moros are Mohammedans and the other wild peoples have no recognized religious beliefs. The total number of non-Christian peoples is 647,740.

The density of population in the Philippines is 67 per square mile. In Continental United States it is 26 per square mile. Foreigners number about 50,000, of whom nearly three-fourths are Chinese. Exclusive of the Army there are 8, 135 Americans in the islands, nearly one-half being located in the municipalities. There are thirty different races in the islands, all speaking distinct dialects, the largest tribe being the Visayans, who form nearly one-fourth of the entire civilized population. The Tagalogs, occupying the provinces in the vicinity of Manila, rank second in numbers, and the Ilocanos the third. Education has been practically reorganized by the Americans. The number of persons attending school is 811,715. Six thousand teachers are employed, four-fifths of whom are Filipinos. English is very generally taught, and the next generation of Filipinos will probably speak that tongue. Pauperism is almost unknown in the islands. In 1902 there were only 1,668 paupers maintained at public charge. The average normal death rate in the Philippines is 32 per thousand. The birth rate is 48 per thousand. There were in 1902 41 newspapers published, 12 being in English, 24 in Spanish, 4 in native dialects, and 1 in Chinese. The estimated real estate property value is 469,527,058 pesos, and the personal property 152,718,661 pesos. The reported value of church buildings, mostly Catholic, is 41,698,710 pesos. While there are four towns with more than 10,000 population Manila is the only incorporated city. Its inhabitants numbered 219,928 in 1902.

The climate is one of the best in the tropics. The islands extend from 50 to 210 north latitude, and Manila is in 140 35'. The thermometer during July and August rarely goes below 790 or above 850. The extreme ranges in a year are said to be 610 and 970, and the annual mean 810.

AGRICULTURE. Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Filipinos, yet only one-ninth of the surface is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas it is probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended and that the islands can support population equal to that of Japan (42,000,000).

The chief products are hemp, rice, corn, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao, hemp being the most important commercial product and constituting two-thirds of the value of all exports. Coffee and cotin were formerly produced in large quantities--the former for export and the latter for home consumption; but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated by insects and the home-made cotton cloths have been driven ont by the competition of those imported from England. The rice and corn are principally produced in Luzon and Mindoro and are consumed in the islands. The cacao is raised in the soithern islands, the best quality of it at Mindanao. The sugar cane is raised in the Visayas. The hemp is produced in Southern Luzon, Mindoro, the Visayas, and Mindanao. It is nearly all exported in bales. Tobacco is raised in all the islands.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. In the year ending December 31, 1906, the exports of merchandise from the United States to the Philippines were $5,458,867, and the total imports from the Philippines for the same period were $12,337,927.

The imports of merchandise from foreign countries, year ending December 31, 1906, were $25,114,852, and the exports were $16,681,097. The principal foreign countries trading with the Philippines are Great Britain, French East Indies, China, and Spain.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOR THE PHILIPPINES. On July 1, 1902, Congress passed (chapter 1369) "An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands and for other purposes.!' Under this act complete civil government was established in the Archipelago and the office of Military Governor with military rule was terminated. William H. Taft was appointed Governor by the President. Governor Taft was succeeded by Luke E. Wright in December, 1903, by Henry Clay Ide in 1905, and James F.Smith, the present Governor, in 1906. The government is composed of a civil governor and seven commissioners, of whom four are Americans and three Filipinos. There are four executive departments-Interior Finance, and Justice, Commerce and Police, and Public Instruction. There are thirty-nine provinces, each with a governor, a supreme court with seven judges, and fourteen judicial districts. In March, 1907, the President will, in accordance with the act of Congress, direct the Commission to call a general election of delegates to a Philippine Assembly, wbich will take overthe legislative powers hitherto exercised by the Commission. The new Assembly will consist of two houses, to be known as the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly. The latter is to consist of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred members. It is probable that the present Commission will be merged into the Upper House.

PORTO RICO. The island of Porto Rico, over which the flag of the United States was raised in token of formal possession on October 18, 1898, is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies and is separated on the east from the Danish island of St. Thomas by a distance of about fifty miles, and from Hayti on the west by the Mona passage, seventy miles wide. Distances from San Juan, the capital, to important points are as follows: New York, 1,411 miles; Charleston, S. C., 1,200 miles; Key West, Fla., 1,050 miles; Havana, 1,000 miles.

The island is a parallelogram in general outline, 108 miles from the east to the west, and from 37 to 43 miles across, the area being about 3.600 square miles, or somewhat less than half that of the State of New Jersey (Delaware has 2,050 square miles and Connecticut 4,990 square miles). Tho INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued. population according to an enumeration made by the United States Government in 1900 showea a population of 953,243, of whom 589,426 are white and 363,817 are colored. The

density was 26.4 to the square mile; 83.2 per cent of the population cannot read.

Porto Rico is unusnally fertile, and its dominant industries are agriculture and lumbering. In elevated regions the vegetation of the temperate zone is not unknown. There are more than 500 varieties of trees found in the forests, and the plains are full of palm, orange, and other trees. The principal crops are sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, and maize, but bananas, rice, pineapples, and many other fruits are important products. The largest article of export from Porto Rico is coffee, which is over 63 per cent of the whole. The next largest is sugar, 28 per cent. The other exports in order of amount are tobacco, honey, molasses, cattle, timber, and hides.

The principal minerals found in Porto Rico are gold, carbonates, and sulphides of copper and magnetic oxide of iron in large quantities. Lignite is found at Utuado and Moca, and also yellow amber. A large variety of marbles, limestones, and other building stones are deposited on the island, but these resources are very undeveloped. There are salt works at Guanica and Salinac on the south coast, and at Cape Rojo on the west, and these constitute the principal mineral industry in Porto Rico.

The principal cities are Mayaguez, with 15,187, Ponce, 27.962 inbabitants: and San Juan, the capital, with 32,048. The shipments of domestic merchandise from the United States to Porto Rice, year ending December 31, 1906, were $18, 648,991. The exports of domestic merchandise 10 the United States were $18.053, 808. The foreign trade, year ending December 31, 1906, was: Imports, $2,602,784; exports, $4, 115,069.

An act providing for a civil government for Porto Rico was passed by the Fifty-sixth Congress and received the assent of the President April 12, 1900. A statement of its provisions was printed in THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1901, pages 92 and 93. President Roosevelt in his message to Congress in December, 1906, recommended the granting of United States citizenship to the Porto Ricans.

Under this act a civil government was established, which went into effect May 1, 1900. There are two legislative chambers, the Executive Council, or “Upper House," composed of the Government Secretary, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Auditor, Commissioner of the Interior, and Commissioner of Education, and five citizens appointed by the President, and the House of Delegates, or **Lower House, consisting of 35 members, elected by the people. The island is represented near the Congress of the United States by a Resident Comn: issioner.

QUAM. The island of Guam, the largest of the Marianne or Ladrone Archipelago, was ceded by Spain to the United States by Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris December 10, 1898. “It lies in a direct line from San Francisco to the southern part of the Philippines, and is 5,200 miles from San Francisco and 900 miles from Manila. It is about 32 miles long and 100 miles in circumference, and has a population of about 8,661, of whom 5,249 are in Agana, the capital. The inhabitants are mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the Philippines, the original race of the Ladrone Islands being extinct. The prevailing language is Spanish. Nine-tenths of the islanders can read and write. The island is thickly wooded, well watered, and fertile, and possesses an excellent harbor. The productions are tropical fruits, cacao, rice, corn, tobacco, and sugar cane.

Commander Taussig, of the United States gunboat Bennington, took possession of the island and raised the United States flag over Fort Santa Cruz on February 1, 1899.

TUTUILA. Tutuila, the Samoan island which, with its attendant islets of Tau, Olesinga, and Ofu, became a possession of the United States by virtue of the tri-partite treaty with Great Britain and Germany in 1899, covers, according to the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, fifty-four square miles, an has 5,800 inhabitants. It possesses the most valuable island harbor, Pa Pago, in the South Pacific, and perhaps in the entire Pacific Ocean. Commercially the island is unimportant at present, but is extremely valuable in its relations to the commerce of any nation desiring to cultivate transpacific commerce.

Ex-Chief Justice Chambers, of Samoa, says of Pago-Pago that “The harbor could hold the entire naval force of the United States, and is so perfectly arranged that only two vessels can enter at the same time. The coaling station, being surrounded by high bluffs, cannot be reached by shells from outside.'' The Government is increasing the capacity to 10,000 tons.

The Samoan Islands, in the South Pacific, are fourteen in number, and lie in a direct line drawn from San Francisco to Auckland, New Zealand. They are 4,000 miles from San Francisco, 2,200 miles from Hawaii, 1,900 miles from Auckland, 2,000 miles from Sydney, and 4,200 miles from Manila. Germany governs all the group except the part owned by the United States. The inhabitants are native Polynesians and Christians of different denominations.

WAKE AND OTHER ISLANDS. The United States flag was hoisted over Wake Island in January, 1899, by Commander Taussig, of the Bennington, while proceeding to Guam. It is a small island in the direct route from Hawaii to Hong Kong, about 2,000 miles from the first and 3,000 miles from the second.

The United States possesses a number of scattered small islands in the Pacific Ocean, some hardly more than rocks or coral reefs, over which the flag has been hoisted from time to time. They are of little present value and mostly uninhabited. The largest are Christmas, Gallego, Starbuck, Penrhyn, Phoenix, Palmyra, Howland, Baker, Johnston, Gardner, Midway, Morell, and Marcus Islands. The Midway Islands are occupied by a colony of telegraphers in charge of the relay in the cable line connecting the Philippines with the United States and a camp of United States marines, in all about forty persons.

I'he Santa Barbara group is a part of California and the Aleutian chain, extending from the peninsula of Kamchatka in Asiatic Russia to the promontory in North America which separates Bering Sea from the North Pacific, a part of Alaska.

HAWAII. Hawaii was annexed to the United States by joint resolution of Congress July 7, 1898. A bill to create Hawaii a Territory of the United States was passed by Congress and approved April 30, 1900.

The area of the several islands of the Hawaiian group is as follows: Hawaii, 4,210 square miles; Maui, 760; Oahu, 600; Kauai, 590; Molokai, 270, Lanai, 150; Niihau, 97; Kahoolawe, 63. Total, 6,740 square miles.

At the time of the discovery of the islands by Captain Cook in 1778 the native population was about 200,000. This has steadily decreased, so that at the last census the natives numbered but 31,019, INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES- Continued. which was less than that of the Japanese and Chinese immigrants settled in the islands. A census taken early in 1897 revealed a total population of 109,020, distributed according to race as follows: Males, Females. Total.

Males. Females. Total. Hawaiians. 16.399 14.620 31,019 Portuguese

8, 202 6,898 15, 100 Part Hawaiians. 4,249 4,236 8,485 Americans.

1,975 1,111 3,086 Japanese. 19.212 5, 195 24.407 British



2,250 Chinese ...

19, 1674 2,449 21,616 The remainder were Germans, French, Norwegians, South Sea Islanders, and representatives of other nationalities. The American population was 2.73 per cent, of the whole The American popuation has increased since annexation.

The first United States census of the islands was taken in 1900 with the following result: Hawaii Island, 46,843; Kauai Island, 20,562; Niihau Island, 172; Maui Island. 25. 416; Molokai Island and Lanai Islaud, 2.504; Oahu Işland, 58,504. Total of the Territory, 154, 001. The population of the City of Honolulu is 39,306.

The exports from Hawaii to the United States in the twelve months ending December 31, 1906, were valued at $26,850,463. The imports into Hawaii from the United States for the same period were valued at $11,771, 155. The imports from foreign countries for the same period were $3,275, 242, exports $56,313.

The new Territorial Government was inaugurated at Honolulu June 14, 1900, and the first Territorial Legislature began its sessions at Honolulu February 20, 1901. The Legislature is composed of two houses-the Senate of fifteen members, holding office four years, and the House of Representatives of thirty members, holding office two years. The Legislature meets biennially, and sessions are limited to sixty days.

The Executive power is lodged in a Governor, a Secretary, both appointed by the President, and hold office four years, and the following officials appointed by the Governor, by and with the consent of the Senate of Hawaii: An Attorney-General, Treasurer, Commissioner of Public Lands, Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry, Superintendent of Public Works, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Auditor and Deputy, Surveyor, High Sheriff, and members of the Boards of Health, Public Instruction, Prison Inspectors, etc. They hold office for four years, and must be citizens of Hawaii.

The Judiciary of the Territory is composed of the Supreme Court, with three Judges, the Circuit Court, and such inferior conrts as the Legislature may establish. The Judges are appointed by the President. The Territory is a Federal Judicial District, with a District Judge, District Attorney, and Marshal, all appointed by the President. The District Judge has all the powers of a Circuit Judge.

The Territory is represented in Congress by a Delegate, who is elected biennially by the people.

Provision is made in the act creating the Territory for the residence of Chinese in the Territory, and prohibition as laborers to enter the United States.

Territorial Expansion of the United States. THERE have been thirteen additions to the original territory of the Union, including Alaska, the Hawaiian, Philippine, and Samoan Islands and Guam, in the Pacific, and Porto Rico and Pine Islands, in the West Indies, and the Panama Canal zone; and the total area of the United States, including the noncontiguous territory, is now fully five times that of the original thirteen colonies.

The additions to the territory of the United States subsequent to the peace treaty, with Great Britain of 1783 are shown by the following table, prepared by the United States General Land Office: ADDITIONS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES FROM 1800 TO 1900. Area



Added. Price.


S. Miles. Dollars.

S. Miles. Dollars. Louisiana purchase. 1803 875, 025 15,000,000 Porto Rico.


3,6000 Florida

1819 70.107 5, 499, 768 Pine Islands (W. Indies) 1898 882 Texas. 1845 389.795 Guam.


175 Oregon Territory. 1846 288,689

Philippine Islands. 1899 143,000 20,000,000 Mexican cession 1848 523,802 *18,250,000 Samoan Islands


73 Purchase from Texas. 1850 t 10,000,000 Additional Philippines... 1901 68 100,000 Gadsden purchase


36,211 10,000,000 Alaska... 1867 599,446 7,200,000 Total

12,937,613 87,039, 768 Hawaiian Islands


6,740 * of which $3,250,000 was in payment of claims of American citizens against Mexico. Area purchased from Texas amounting to 123,784 square miles is not included in the column of area added, because it became a part of the area of the United States with the admission of Texas.

1 ACQUISITION OF THE PANAMA CANAL ZONE IN 1904. ArticlTwo of the treaty between the United States and the Republic of Panama, ratified by the United States Senate February 23, 1904, treaty in effect February 26, 1904, provided for the cession, in perpetuity, by Panama, of a strip of territory adjacent to the canal, as follows:

“The Republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation, and control of the zone of land and land under water for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of said canal of the width of ten miles, extending to the distance of five miles on each side of the centre line of the route of the canal' to be constructed; the said zone beginning in the Caribbean Sea, three marine miles from mean low-water mark, and extending to and across the Isthmus of Panama into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of three marine miles from mean low-water mark, with the proviso that the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent to said cities, which are included within the boundaries of the zone above described, shall not be included within this grant. The Republic of Panama further grants to the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation, and control of any other lands and waters outside of the zone above described which may be necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the said canal or of any auxiliary canals or other work necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the said enterprise. The Republic of Panama further grants to the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation, and control of all islands within the limits of the zone above described, and in addition thereto the group of small islands in the Bay of Panama named Perico, Nacs, Culebra, and Flamingo.”

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