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untò the students of perpetuity, even by ererlasting languages.
“ The night of time far surpasseth the day -- who knows when was the æquinox ? Every hour adds unto that current arithmetic, which scarce stands one moment.-Darkness and light divide the course of time, and oblivion shares with memory a great part even of our living beings. Who knows whether the best of men be known : or whether there be not more remarkable persons forgot than any that stand remembered in the known account of time ?—The sufficiency of Christian immortality frustrates all earthly glory, and the quality of either state, after death, makes a folly of posthumous memory. But man is a noble animal, splendid in ashes and pompous in the grave, solemnizing nativities and deaths with equal lustre, nor omitting ceremonies of bravery in the infamy of his nature."
WHY THE HANGMAN IS CALLED JACK
KETCH. IN 1664, Dun was the name of the public executioner, and for many years he continued to be known by that name. A famous gentleman of that profession celebrated for the ease and celerity with which he fixed the fatal noose, is mentioned by Cotton, in Virgil Travestie : " Away therefore my lass does trot,
And presently an halter got,
Twelve years after, one Jack Ketch was advanced to the post of finisher of the law. This is now more than 140 years ago, but this gentleman has had the honour of giving his name to all executioners since his time. In the reign of Charles I. they were called Ketch, as appears by a political satire, written about that time :« Till Ketcb observing he was chousid,
And in bis profits much abus'd,
M. B. H.
AAGER' AND ELIZA. Twas the valiant knight, Sir Anger,
He to the far island bied, There he wedded sweet Eliza,
She of maidens was the pride. There he married sweet Eliza,
With her lands and ruddy gold; Woe is me! the Monday after,
Dead he lay beneath the mould. In her bower sat sweet Eliza,
Scream'd, and would not be consoled; And the good Sir Aager listen'd,
Underneath the dingy mould. Up Sir Aager rose, bis coffin
Bore he on bis bended back; Tow'rds the hower of sweet Eliza
Was his sad and silent track. He the door tapp'd with his coffin,
For his fingers had no skin; "Rise, o rise, my sweet Eliza!
Rise, and let thy bridegroom in." Straightway answered fair Eliza
"I will not undo my door Till tbou name the name of Jesus,
Even as thou could'st before." “ Rise, Orise, mine own Eliza !
Aud undo thy chamber door; I can name the name of Jesus,
Even as I could of yore.” Un then rose the sweet Eliza,
Down her cheek tears streaming rap; Unto her, within the bower,
She admits the spectre man. She ber golden comb has taken,
And has comb'd bis yellow hair, On each lock that she adjusted
Fell a hot and briny tear. “Listen now, my good Sir Aager!
Dearest bridegroom, all I crave Is to know how it goes with theo
In that louely place, the grave?” “Every time that thou rejoicest,
And art bappy in thy mind, Are my lonely grave's recesses
All with leaves of roses lind. “Every time that, love, thou grievest,
And dost shed thy briny flood, Are my lonely grave's recesses
Filld with black and loathsome blood. “ Heard I not the red cock crowing?
I, my dearest, must away ; Down to earth the dead are going,
And behind I must not stay.
To the grave I down must go ;
Fare thee well for ever moe!”
Takes he on bis bended back;
Is his melancholy track,
Fall courageous was her mood,
Through the dark and dreary wood: When the forest they had travers'd,
And within the churchyard were, Faded then of good Sir Aager
Straight the lovely yellow hair. When the churchyard they had travers'd.
And the church's threshold cross'd, Straight the cheek of good Sir Aager
All its rosy colours lost. “ Listen, now, my sweet Eliza!
If my peace be dear to thee, Never thou, from this time forward,
Pine or sbed a tear for me.
SPIRIT OF THE Qublic Journals.
DANISH BALLADS. No. XI. of the Foreign Quarterly Review has furnished us with the following serious and comic ballads, from the Danish. They increase our obligations to the conductors of the above excellent work, and will doubtless add to the gratification of the reader :
# Turn, I pray thee, up to heaven
; Let the thron'd and mighty, o To the little stars thy sight:
For worldly adulation. The pale dead Then thou mayest know for certain
Mocks him, who offers it; but truth, instead, How it fareth with the knight."
O'er the reft Crown, shall saySoon as e'er her eyes to heaven.
"The King who wore To the little stars she rear'd,
Wore it, majestically, yet most mild Into earth tbe dead man glided,
Meek mercy bless'd the Sceptre which he bore ; And to her no more appear'd,
Arts, a fair train, beneath his fostering, smil'd,
And who could speak of sorrow, but bis eye
Did glisten with a tear of Charity ?
Oh, if defects, the best and wise'st have,
Leave them, for pity leave them to tbat God
That God, who lifts the balance, or the rod-
W. L. BOWLES.
INSECT TRANSFORMATIONS. If smaller, tben, the world to me was seeming, Tab appearance of the second part of Alas! much better was it in mine eyes; For I bebeld the stars like sparklets gleaming,
me this volume of the Library of EntertainAnd wish'd for wings to make them all my prize. ing Knowledge, enables us to add a few When I, behind the hill the moon saw gliding,
words on the entomological portion of Oft thought I (earth had then no mystery), o the series. The investigations of the That I could learn, and bring my mother tiding, editor appear to have been conducted How large, how round, and what that moon might be!
with unwearied diligence, and are Wond'ring I trac'd God's flaming sun careering
brought up to the day, so as to illustrate Towards the west, unto the ocean bed;
the present state of knowledge upon And yet again at morn in east appearing,
this interesting department of natural And dying the whole orient scarlet red.
history. A few extracts follow : And then I thought on Him, the great, the gra. cious,
Cheese-hoppers. Who me created, and that beacon bright, And those pearl-rows which all heaven's arches Those who have, from popular assospacious,
ciations, been accustomed to look with From pole to pole illuminate at night.
disgust at the little white larvæ common My youthful lip would pray in deep devotion,
in cheese, well known under the name The prayer my blessed mother taught to me; Thy wisdom, God! thy mercy, shall the emotion of hoppers, will be somewhat surprised Of worship wake, and wake unceasingly. to hear the illustrious Swammerdam Then prayed I for my father, for my mother say, “I can take upon me to affirm, My sister too, and all the family;
that the limbs and other parts of this For unknown things, and for our wretched brotber,
maggot are so uncommon and elegant, The cripple, who went sighing, staggering by. and contrived with so much art and deThey slid away–my childhood's days of plea sign, that it is impossible not to acknowsure,
ledge them to be the work of infinite Away with them my joy and quiet slid; Remembrance but remains and of that treasure
power and wisdom, from which nothing That I should be bereav'd, O God I forbid I is hid, and to which nothing is impossi
ble.'* But whoever will examine it
with care, will find that Swammerdam 5 THE LATE KING.
has not exaggerated the facts. TAE following verses « from a well- T'he cheese-fly (Piophila Casei, Falknown veteran in literature," have ap- LEN) is very small and black, with peared in the Times journal :
whitish wings, margined with black.
It was one of those experimented upon IN OBITUM REGIS DESIDERATISSIMI, GEORGII IV.
by Redi to prove that insects, in the Now that tbine eyes are closed in death, and all The "glories of tby birth and state, "* and
id fabric of which so much art, order, conpower,
trivanoe, and wisdom appear, could not Are pass'd, as tbe vaiu pageant of an hour,
be the production of chance or rottenEnding in that poor corse, beneath that pall, The tribute of a Briton's love I pay
ness, but the work of the same OmniNot to the living King, but the cold clay potent hand which created the heavens Before me:
and the earth. This tiny little fly is ac* Alluding to those fine and majestic lines by cordingly furnished with an admirable Shirley, set to music by Edward Colman,
• The glories of our birth and state." . .. Bibl, Naturæ, vol. č. p. 63. . ,
instrument for depositing its eggs, in an cles of God's power and wisdom in this ovipositor, which it cạn thrust out and abject creature." extend to a great length, so that it can
Hunting Spider. penetrate to a considerable depth into the cracks of cheese, where it lays its
Amongst the insects which spring upon eggs, two hundred and fifty-six in num
their prey like the cat and the lion, the ber. “ I have seen them myself,” says
most commonly observed is the little Swammerdam, “thrust out their tails
hunting spider (Salticus scenicus,) whose for this purpose to an amazing length,
zebra stripes of white and brown render
it easily discovered on our windowand by that method bury the eggs in the deepest cavities. I found in a few days
frames and palings. I But all the spiafterwards a number of maggots which
ders-even those which form webshad sprung from those eggs, perfectly
are accustomed to spring in a familiar resembling those of the first brood that
way upon what they have caught; and had produced the mother-fly. I cannot
when we are told of the gigantic Amebut also take notice that the rottenness
rican one (Mygale avicularia,) which of cheese is really caused by these
even makes prey of small birds (Trochimagguts; for they both crumble the
lidæ,) the necessity of extraordinary substance of it into small particles and
agility must be obvious; for these tiny
birds are described to move with almost also moisten it with some sort of liquid, so that the decayed part rapidly spreads.
the velocity of light-the eye, notwithI once observed a cheese which I had
standing the brilliancy of their metallic
colours, being frequently baffled in purposely exposed to this kind of fly grow moist in a short time in those
tracking their flight. The spider itself, parts of it where eggs had been depo
however, being three inches in length, sited, and had afterwards been hatched
one and a half in breadth, and eleven into maggots; though, before, the
inches in the expansion of its legs, is
little less than the bird upon which it cheese was perfectly sound and entire."'*
pounces. The cheese-hopper is furnished with
Hybernation of Insects. two horny claw-shaped mandibles, which T he number of insects, indeed, which it uses both for digging into the cheese hybernate in the perfect state are comand for moving itself, being destitute of paratively few. Of the brimstone butfeet. Its powers of leaping have been terfly (Gonepteryx Rhamni,) Mr. Steobserved by every one ; and Swammer- phens tells us the second brood appears dam says, “I have seen one, whose in autumn, “ and of the latter,” he adds, length did not exceed the fourth of an “ many individuals of both sexes remain inch, leap out of a box six inches deep, throughout the winter, and make their that is, twenty-four times the length of appearance on the first sunny day in its own body: others leap a great deal spring. I have seen them sometimes so higher.”'f. For this purpose it first early as the middle of February.''S The erects itself on its tail, which is furnish- commonly perfect state of the wings in ed with two wart-like projections, to such cases might, we think, lead to the enable it to maintain its balance. It contrary conclusion, that the butterfly then bends itself into a circle, catches has just been evolved from its chrysalis. the skin near its tail with its hooked Several other species, however, chiefly mandibles, and, after strongly contracts of the genus Vanessa, do live through ing itself from a circular into an oblong the winter in the perfect state; but form, it throws itself with a jerk into this, as far as general observation exa straight line, and thus makes the leap. tends, can only be affirmed of the female.
One very surprising provision is re- Yet will insects bear almost incredible markable in the breathing-tubes of the degrees of cold with impunity. Out of cheese maggot, which are not placed, as the multiplicity of instances of this on in caterpillars, along the sides, but a record, we shall select two. In Newpair near the head and another pair near foundland, Captain Buchan saw a lake, the tail. Now, when burrowing in the which in the evening was entirely still moist cheese, these would be apt to be and frozen over, but as soon as the sun obstructed ; but to prevent this, it has had dissolved the ice in the morning, it the power of bringing over the front pair was all in a bustle of animation, in cona fold of the skin, breathing in the sequence, as was discovered, of myriads mean-while through the under pair of fies let loose, while many still reWell may Swammerdam denominate mained “ infixed and frozen round." these contrivances « surprising mira. A still stronger instance is mentioned by * Swammerdam, vol. i. p. 69.
1 See Insect Architecture, p. 355. † Bibl. Nat., vol. ii, p. 65.
Hlustrations, vol. i. p. 9.
Ellis, in which a large black mass, like continues Mr. Gough, “ by planting a coal or peat upon the hearth, dis- colony of these insects in a kitchen, solved, when thrown upon the fire, into where a constant fire was kept through a cloud of mosquitoes (Culicide). the summer, but which is discontinued • It has been remarked by most writers from November till June, with the exupon the torpidity of warm-blooded ception of a day once in six or eight animals, that cold does not seem to be weeks. The crickets were brought its only cause, and the same apparently from a distance, and let go in this room, holds in the case of insects. Bees, in- in the beginning of September, 1806; deed, which remain semi-torpid during here they increased considerably in the the winter, may be prematurely ani- course of two months, but were not mated into activity by the occurrence of heard or seen after the fire was removed. some days of extraordinary mildness in Their disappearance led me to conclude spring ; but, what is not a little won- that the cold had killed them; but in derful and inexplicable, they are not this I was mistaken ; for a brisk fire beroused by much milder weather when ing kept up for a whole day in the it occurs before Christmas-on the same winter, the warmth of it invited my coprinciple, perhaps, that a man is more lony from their hiding-place, but not beeasily awakened after he has slept six fore the evening : after which they conor seven hours than in the earlier part tinued to skip about and chirp the of the night. Immediately after the first greater part of the following day, when severe frost in the winter of 1829-30, we they again disappeared; being comdug down into the lower chambers of a pelled, by the returning cold, to take renest of the wood-ant (Formica rufa,) fuge in their former retreats. They left at Forest Hill, Kent, which we had the chimney corner on the 25th of May, thatched thickly with fern-leaves the 1807, after a fit of very hot weather, and preceding November, both to mark the revisited their winter residence on the spot and to protect the ants in winter, 31st of August. Here they spent the About two feet deep we found the little summer merely, and lie torpid at present colonists all huddled up in contiguous (January, 1808) in the crevices of the separate chambers, quite motionless till chimney, with the exception of those they were exposed to the warm sun- days on which they are recalled to a shine, when they began to drag them- temporary existence by the comforts of selves sluggishly and reluctantly along. fire." I Even upon bringing some of them into a We repeat the value of the authorities warm room, they did not awaken into in foot-notes, and urge this point as one summer activity, but remained lethargic, of great merit and importance, which is unwilling to move, and refusing to eat, no where so well attended to as in the and continued in the same state of semi- « Entertaining Library." torpidity till their brethren in the woods began to bestir themselves to repair the damages caused by the winter storms in
TABLE-WIT OF OTHER TIMES. the outworks of their encampments.t
CERTAINLY the moderate, or to be frank,
the immoderate excesses formerly allowCrickets.
ed and practised by men of fashion, did “ Those,' says the ingenious Mr. not all debrute the character. What wit Gough, of Manchester, “ who have at did they not engender! to what sallies tended to the manners of the hearth did they not give birth! But alas ! cricket (Acheta domestica) know that it nights of conviviality and men of wit, ye passes the hottest part of the summer in are no more-ye have vanished together! sunny situations, concealed in the crevices Fox, Sheridan, a hundred such have of walls and heaps of rubbish. It quits its departed, and have left not a shred of summer abode about the end of August, their mantles behind. We have a few and fixes its residence by the fireside of punsters extant, 'tis true-dry, crabbed kitchens or cottages, where it multiplies jokers, who affect the play of humour, its species, and is as merry at Christmas but who no longer send forth the sparkles as other insects in the dog-days. Thus of wit. It is thus, as in literature, the do the comforts of a warm hearth afford coldness of pedantry always succeeds to the cricket a safe refuge, not from death, the warmth of genius, which it may mibut from temporary torpidity, which it mick, but never rival. can support for a long time, when de. But now we live in the nineteeth cen. prived by accident of artificial warmth tury, forsooth! we have grown refined; - I came to the knowledge of this fact,'? and half a pint of claret, the author of * Quarterly Review, April, 1821, p. 209. ' t Reeve, Essay oz the Torpidity of Aniinals, + JR. . . . . .o
« Salmonla" tells us, is suficient even dered a virtue capable of covering the : for an ungler. We have men of intele crime or weakness of being a philanthrolect, of information : we have dinners, pist. And to come down to the present day, that we would make brilliant, but where know we not accomplished statesmen, the remark is as fugitive as trifling, and high-born, sage, proof in talents and inas little tasted as the refined dishes that tegrity, for ever repelled from influenare made to pass under our eyes. One tial station by want of popularity hopes, however, that intellects and spirits amongst their brother aristocrats, and may brighten after the repast: but no, this proceeding from no cause more the guests preserve the well-bred apathy, deep, than an aversion to game-laws, that makes them resemble the iced and and a disdain to be the slayers of pheafrosted confitures, that rise in piles be. sants ? - Ibid. fore them; and as each gives vent, as We must live for our age : and one opportunity allows, to his effort of in- may as well be ignorant of its language, tellect or extravagance, all seem per. as of the topics which interest it. fectly agreed in despising the generous wine. Host and guest vie with each ONE OF THE LAST CENTURY. other as to which of them shall be most LORD Ratoarh had not lived, as far as anconscious and careless of the position, the progress of ideas or opinions were fixitude, or plenitude of the bottle ; and concerned, beyond the year eighteen that fount of wit, finding itself neglect- hundred -I might say, ninety – when ed, may be said in revenge to have for France was still our model for polite sogotten its ancient power of inspiration. ciety and fashionable manners. Ches- The English at Home.
terfield and Walpole were his authorities EDUCATIONAL ERRORS.
on these points : powers of conversation,
habits of conviviality and of intrigue, We have volumes, and theories, and
were to him the first and indispensable systems innumerable for educating the
requisites for seeking either fame, or forpoor, and cultivating the intellect of
tune, or happiness ;-honesty and virtue, beggars; but respecting the education
(when either exceeded the strict line of the better orders, of those on whom
marked by honour) were set down by depends the government, the morals, and
him as puritanical and vulgar. The carethe taste of a nation, we have, no, not
less generosity of Charles Surface exan essay worth mentioning. The science
cited all his admiration and the “men consists in living volumes, it will be
of wit and pleasure about town,” those said ; and, as the law is supposed to
characters so admired and put forth in exist in the common-placed brains of
the comedies of the first half of the centhe judges, so education and its princi
tury, were far preferred by him to the ples lie beneath the perruques of uni
sentimental and better-behaved heroes versity doctors.—Ibid.
who came into vogue with the novels of WORLD-KNOWLEDGE.
the last half.-Ibid. Study, however wisely ordered, and zealously pursued, is not alone sufficient Manners & Customs of all Nations. to preserve mental health. Society is necessary, even as a medicine; so much
SPLENDID CORONATION OF THE QUEEN
pre so, that misanthropes, who loathe and
RANOVALO MANJAKA, THE SUCCESSOR shun the draught, are often seen to turn
OF RADAMA, LATE KING OF MADAGAS, at intervals in search of relief, in or.
CAR. der to gulph down the very dregs.- Ibid.
The mourning for Radama ceased on TAE GAMB LAWS.
the 27th of May, 1829, after having con: How essential a part of gentility is tinued for about ten months. the science of killing game; how po- Her Majesty Ranovalo Manjaka was pular, how English, are sporting habits crowned on the 12th of June, in an and knowledge; and how indispensable assembly of upwards of fifty thousand of a requisite the being a passable shot is her people. to success in any path of British ambi- The following account of the ceretion, the highest or the lowest, whether mony was drawn up by an eye witness, it be the sublime of politics, or the beau- well acquainted with the language and tiful of dandyism. We know, that when manners of the Madagasses. King William sought to regain the po. At six P.M., on Thursday the 11th of pularity which he had lost by his obsti- June, fourteen cannon were fired to nate principles of toleration, his cabinet announce to the capital that her Majesty gravely advised him to visit Newmarket. would be crowned on the following day. Thus the love of a horse-race was consis At the dawn of day on Friday the 12th,