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The leaders on both sides assented to meet York, eldest son of the last, prosecuted his in London, and be solemnly reconciled. father's pretensions, and defeated the earl The duke of York led the queen in solemn of Pembroke, half brother to Henry VI., procession to St. Paul's, and the chiefs of at Mortimer's Cross, in Herefordshire. one party marched hand in hand with the Shortly afterwards, queen Margaret adchiefs of the other. It was a public de- vanced upon London, and gained a victory monstration of peace, with secret mutual over the Yorkists under the earl of War. distrust; and an accident aroused the slum- wick, at the second battle of St. Alban's, bering strife. One of the king's retinue in. and, at the same time, regained possession sulted one of the earl of Warwick's; their of the person of her weak husband. Pressed companions fought, and both parties in by the Yorkists, she retreated to the north, every county flew to arms. The battle of and the youthful duke, remarkable for Bloreheath, in Staffordshire, 23d Septem- beauty of person, bravery, affability, and ber, 1459, was won by the Lancastrians. every popular quality, entered the capital At the battle of Northampton, 10th July, amidst the acclamations of the citizens. 1560, the Yorkists had the victory, and the Elated by his success, he resolved to openly king was taken prisoner. A parliament, insist on his claim, and treat his adversaries suminoned in the king's name, met as rebels and traitors. On the 3d of March, Westminster, which the duke of York at- 1460, he caused his army to muster in St. tended; and, had he then seated himself on John's Fields, Clerkenwell; and after an the throne in the House of Lords, the harangue to the multitude surrounding his deadly feud might have been ended by his soldiery, the tumultuary crowd were asked being proclaimed king; but his coolness and whether they would have Henry of Lanmoderation intimidated his friends, and en- caster, or Edward, eldest son of the late couraged his enemies. His personal cou duke of York, for king. Their “ sweet rage was undoubted, but he was deficient voices
were for the latter; and this show in political courage. The parliament de- of popular election was ratified by a great liberated, and though they declared the number of bishops, lords, magistrates, and duke's title indefeasible, yet they decided other persons of distinction, assembled for that Henry should retain the crown during that purpose at Baynard's Castle. On the life. They provided, however, that till the morrow, the duke went to St. Paul's and king's decease the government should be offered, and had Te Deum sung, and was administered by the duke, as the true and with great royalty conveyed to Westminlawful heir of the monarchy; and in this ster, and there in the great hall sat in the arrangement Richard acquiesced. Mean- king's seat, with St. Edward's sceptre in while, queen Margaret, with her infant son, his hand. On the 29th of March, 1461, he appealed to the barons of the north against fought the fierce and bloody battle of Touthe settlement in the south, and collected ton, wherein he issued orders to give no an army with astonishing celerity. The quarter, and there were above thirty-six duke of York hastened with five thousand thousand slain. This slaughter confirmed troops to quell what he imagined to be the him king of England, and he reigned upbeginning of an insurrection, and found, wards of twenty years under the title of near Wakefield, a force of twenty thousand Edward IV., defiling his fame and power men. He threw himself into Sandal castle, by effeminacy and cruelty. The title of but with characteristic bravery, imagining York merged in the royal dignity. he should be disgraced by remaining be tween walls in fear of a female, he descended
V. into the plain of Wakefield on the 24th of December, and gave battle to the queen,
Richard Plantagenet, 'of Shrewsbury, who largely outnumbering his little army, fifth duke of York, son of Edward IV., was defeated and slew him; and his son, the murdered in the tower while young, with earl of Rutland, an innocent youth of seven his elder brother, Edward V., by order of teen, having been taken prisoner, was mur
their uncle, the duke of Gloucester, afterdered in cold blood by the lord de Clifford. wards Richard III. Margaret caused the duke's head to be cut
VI. off, and fixed on the gates of the city of York, with a paper crown on it in derision Henry Tudor, sirth duke of York, was of his claim. He perished in the fiftieth so created by his father Henry VII., whom year of his age, worthy of a better fate. he succeeded as king, under the title of IV.
Henry VIII., and stained our annals with Edward Plantagenet, fourth duke of heartless crimes.
16th of August, 1763; he died on the 5th Charles Stuart, seventh duke of York, of January, 1827. A few miscellaneous was second son of James I., by whom he memoranda are extracted from journals of was created to that title in 1604, and whom the dates they refer to. he succeeded in the throne as Charles I. VIII.
The duke of York was sent to Germany James Stuart, a younger son of Charles I., to finish his education. On the 1st of was the eighth duke of York. While bear- August, 1787, his royal highness, after ing this title during the reign of his brother having been only five days on the road from Charles JI., he manifested great personal Hanover to Calais, embarked at that port, courage as a naval commander, in several on board a common packet-boat, for Engactions with the Dutch. Under the title of land, and arrived at Dover the same afterJames II., he incompetently filled the He was at St. James's-palace the throne and weakly abdicated it.
following day by half-past twelve o'clock; IX.
and, on the arrival of the prince of Wales
at Carlton-house, he was visited by the Ernest Augustus Guelph, ninth duke of duke, after an absence of four years, which, York, duke of Albany, earl of Ulster, and far from cooling, had increased the affection bishop of Osnaburgh, was brother to George of the royal brothers. Lewis Guelph, elector of Hanover, and king of England as George I., by letters from whom, in 1716, he was dignified as
On the 20th of December, in the same above, and died in 1728, unmarried. year, a grand masonic lodge was held at
the Star and Garter in Pall-mall. The X.
duke of Cumberland as grand-master, the Edward Augustus, tenth duke of York, prince of Wales, and the duke of York, were duke of Albany, and earl of Ulster, was in the new uniform of the Britannic-lodge, second son of Frederick prince of Wales, and the duke of York received another deand brother to king George III., by whom gree in masonry; he had some time before he was created to those titles. He died at been initiated in the first mysteries of the Monaco, in Italy, September 17, 1767, un brotherhood. married. XI.
On the 5th of February, 1788, the duke THE LATE DUKE OF YORK.
of York appeared in the Court of King's
Bench, and was sworn to give evidence Frederick, eleventh Duke of York, was before the grand jury of Middlesex, on an brother of His Majesty King George IV., indictment for fraud, in sending a letter to and second son of his late Majesty King his royal highness, purporting to be a letter George III, by whom he was advanced to from captain Morris, requesting the loan of the dignities of Duke of the Kingdom of forty pounds. The grand jury found the inGreat Britain, and of Earl of the Kingdom dictment, and the prisoner, whose name of Ireland, by the titles of Duke of York does not appear, was brought into court by and of Albany in Great Britain, and of Earl the keeper of Tothill-fields Bridewell, and of Ulster in Ireland, and presented to the pleaded not guilty, whereupon he was reBishopric of Osnaburgh. His Royal manded, and the indictment appointed to Highness was Commander-in-Chief of all be tried in the sittings after the following the Land Forces of the United Kingdom, term; but there is no accovnt of the trial Colonel of the First Regiment of Foot having been had. Guards, Colonel-in-chief of the 60th Regiment of Infantry, Officiating Grand Master of the Order of the Bath, High Steward of ordered two hundred and sixty sacks of
In December of the same year, the duke New Windsor, Warden and Keeper of the coals to be distributed among the families New Forest Hampshire, Knight of the of the married men of his regiment, and Garter, Knight of the Order of the Holy the same to be continued during the seveGhost in France, of the Black Eagle in Russia, the Red Eagle in Prussia, of St. rity of the weather. Maria Theresa in Austria, of Charles III. in Spain, Doctor of Civil Law, and Fellow In 1788, pending the great question of of the Royal Society.
the regency, it was contended on that side The late duke of York was born on the of the House of Commons from whence
extension of royal prerogative was least ex. royal assembled in gala, in the apartments pected,that from the moment parliament was of the dowager queen, where the diamond made acquainted with the king's incapacity, crown was put on the head of princess à right attached to the prince of Wales to Frederica. The generals, ministers, ambasexercise the regal functions, in the name of şadors, and the high nobility, assembled in his father. On the 15th of December, the the white hall. At seven o'clock, the duke of duke of York rose in the House of Lords, York, preceded by the gentlemen of the and a profound silence ensued. His royal chamber, and the court officers of state, led highness said, that though perfectly unused the princess his spouse, whose train was as he was to speak in a public assembly,
carried by four ladies of the court, through yet he could not refrain from offering his all the parade apartments ; after them went sentiments to their lordships on a subject the king, with the queen dowager, prince in which the dearest interests of the country
Lewis of Prussia, with the reigning queen, were involved. He said, he entirely agreed and others of the royal family to the white with the noble lords who had expressed hall, where a canopy was erected of crimson their wishes to avoid any question which velyet, and also a crimson velvet sofa for tended to induce a discussion on the rights the marriage ceremony. The royal couple of the prince. The fact was plain, that no placed themselves under the canopy, before such claim of right had been made on the the sofa, the royal family stood round part of the prince; and he was confident them, and the upper counsellor of the conthat his royal highness understood too well şistory, Mr. Sack, made a speech in German. the sacred principles which seated the house This being over, rings were exchanged; and of Brunswick on the throne of Great Bri the illustrious .couple, kneeling on the tain, ever to assume or exercise any power, sofa, were married according to the rites be his claim what it might, not derived from of the reformed church. The whole ended the will of the people, expressed by their with a prayer. Twelve guns, placed in the representatives and their lordships in parlia garden, fired three rounds, and the benement assembled. On this ground his royal diction was given. The new-tnarried couple highness said, that he must be permitted to then received the congratulations of the hope that the wisdom and moderation of all royal family, and returned in the same considerate mën, at a moment when temper manner to the apartments, where the royal and unanimity were so peculiarly necessary, family, and all persons present, sat down on account of the dreadful calamity which to card-tables ; after which, the whole every description of persons must in com court, the high nobility, and the ambassamon lament, but which he more par- dors, sat down to supper, at six tables. ticularly felt, would make them wish to The first was placed under a canopy of avoid pressing a decision, which certainly crimson velvet, and the victuals served in was not necessary to the great object ex- gold dishes and plates. The other five pected from parliament, and which must be tables, at which sat the generals, ministers, most painful in the discussion to a family ambassadors, all the officers of the court, already sufficiently agitated and afflicted. and the high nobility, were served in other His royal highness concluded with saying, apartments. that these were the sentiments of an honest. During supper, music continued playing heart, équally influenced by duty and affec in the galleries of the first hall, which imtion to his royal father, and attachment to mediately began when the company entered the constitutional rights of his subjects ;, the hall. At the dessert, the royal table and that he was confident, if his royal bro was served with a beautiful set of china, ther were to address them in his place as a made in the Berlin manufactory. Supper peer of the realm, that these were the senti being over, the whole assembly repaired to ments which he would distinctly avow. the white hall, where the trumpet, timbrel,
and other music were playing ; and the flamHis majesty in council having declared beau dance was begun, at which the minishis consent, under the great seal, to a con
ters. of state carried the torches. With this tract of matrimony between his royal bigh-ended the festivity. The ceremony of the ness the duke of York and her royal high- re-marriage of the duke and duchess of ness the princess Frederique Charlotte York took place at the Queen's Palace, L'Irique Catherine of Prussia, eldest daugh.. London, on the 23d of November. ter of the king of Prussia, on the 29th of Sep
The duchess of York died on the 6th of tember, 1791, the marriage ceremony was August, 1820. performed at Berlin. 'About six o'clock, iň the afternoon, all the persons of the blood ·
The Dance of TORCHES.
in which forty pounds of gunpowder being As a note of illustration on this dance at deposited, a number of most curious wara the Prussian nuptials of the duke and had collected on the continent, were de
like instruments, which his royal highness duchess of York, reference may be had to stroyed. Many of the guns and other a slight mention of the same observance on the marriage of the prince royal of Prussia weapons were presented from the king with the princess of Bavaria, in the Every, tinction, and to each piece was attached its
of Prussia, and German officers of disDay Book, vol. i. p. 1551. Since that article, I find more descriptive particulars history. By the seasonable exertions of the of it in a letter from baron Bielfeld, from spreading to the main part of the
neighbourhood, the flames were prevented giving an account of the marriage of the building. The duchess was at Oatlands at prince of Prussia with the princess
the time, and beheld the conflagration from Brunswick Wolfenbuttle, at Berlin, in 1742. The baron was present at the ceremonial.
her sleeping apartment, in the centre of the “ As soon as their majesties rose from mansion, from which the flames were pretable, the whole company returned into the
vented communicating by destroying a gatewhite hall; from whence the altar was re
way, over the wing that adjoined to the inoved, and the room was illuminated with house. Her royal highness gave her orders fresh wax lights. The musicians were
with perfect composure, directed abundant placed on a stage of solid silver. Six lieu- refreshment to the people who were extintenant generals, and six ministers of state, guishing the flames, and then retired to the stood, each with a white wax torch in his
rooms of the servants at the stables, which hand, ready to be lighted, in conformity to
are considerably detached from the palace. a ceremony used in the German courts
His majesty rode over from Windsor-castle on these occasions, which is called
to visit her royal highness, and staid with
her a considerable time. dance of torches,' in allusion to the torch of Hymen. This dance was opened by the new married prince and princess, who made the tour of the hall, saluting the king and
On the 8th of April, 1808, whilst the the company. Before them went the minis: the King's-road towards Fulham, a drover's
duke of York was riding for an airing along ters and the generals, two and two, with dog crossed, and barked in front of the their lighted torches. The princess then horse. The animal, suddenly rearing, fell gave her hand to the king, and the prince backwards, with the duke under him; and to the queen; the king gave his hand to the queen mother, and the reigning queen stirrup, dragged him along, and did him
the horse rising, with the duke's foot in the to prince Henry; and in this manner all further injury. When extricated, the duke, the princes and princesses that were pre- with great cheerfulness, denied he was sent, one after the other, and according to their rank, led up the dance, making the the back of his head and face contused, and
much hurt, yet two of his ribs were broken, tour of the hall, almost in the step of the Polognese. The novelty of this perform
one of his legs and armis much bruised. A ance, and the sublime quality of the per
gentleman in a hack chaise immediately formers, made it in some degree agreeable.
alighted, and the duke was conveyed in it Otherwise the extreme gravity of the dance
to York-house, Piccadilly, where his royal itself, with the continual round and formal
highness was put to bed, and in due time pace of the dancers, the frequent going out
recovered to the performance of his active
duties. of the torches, and the clangour of the trumpets that rent the ear, all these I
say made it too much resemble the dance of On the 6th of August, 1815, the duke of the Sarmates, those ancient inhabitants of York, on coming out of a shower-bath, at the prodigious woods of this country.” Oatlands, fell, from the slippery state of the
oilcloth, and broke the large bone of his On the 7th of June, 1794, about four and the elbow-joint. His royal highness's
left arm, half way between the shoulder o'clock in the morning, a fire broke out at
excellent constitution at that time assisted the duke of York's palace at Oatlands. It began in the kitchen, and was occasioned
the surgeons, and in a fortnight he again
attended to business. by a beam which projected into the chimney, and communicated to the roof. His royal highness's armoury was in that wing On the 11th of October, in the same of the building where the fire commenced, year, his royal highness's library, at his
office in the Horse-guards, consisting of the Brunswick, and to those principles which best military authors, and a very extensive had placed it on the throne, and of having collection of maps, were removed to his on all occasions acted an independent and new library (late her majesty's) in the honourable part towards the government of Green-park. The assemblage is the most the country, and I therefore thought myself perfect collection of works on military justified in concluding my letter in the folaffairs in the kingdom.
lowing terms :- I know not in what esti
mation your royal highness may hold my It appears, from the report of the com- repeated endeavours, in moments of dan. missioners of woods, forests, and land ger, to support the religion and the constirevenues, in 1816, that the duke of York tution of the country; but if I am fortunate purchased of the commissioners the follow- enough to have any merit with you on that ing estates: 1. The manor of Byfleet and score, I earnestly request your protection Weybridge, with Byfleet or Weybridge- little of the manner of soliciting favours
I am a bad courtier, and know park, and a capital messuage and offices, and
other messuages and buildings there. through the intervention of others, but I 2. The manor of Walton Leigh, and divers feel that I shall never know how to forget messuages and lands therein. 3. A capital that consciousness, I beg leave to submit
them, when done to myself; and, under messuage called Brooklands, with offices, gardens, and several parcels of land, situato myself ed at Weybridge. 4. A farm-house, and
• Your Royal Highness's divers lands, called Brooklands-farm, at
. Most grateful servant, Weybridge.
•R. LANDAFF.' 5. A messuage and lands, called Childs, near Weybridge. 6. Two
“ I received a very obliging answer by the rabbit-warrens within the manor of Byfleet
return of the post, and in about two months and Weybridge. To this property was to
my son was promoted, without purchase, be added all lands and premises allotted to
from a majority to a lieutenant-colonelcy the preceding by virtue of any act of enclo- in the Third Dragoon Guards. After hav.
The sale was made to his royal ing experienced, for above twenty-four highness in May, 1809, at the price of years, the neglect of his majesty's ministers, £74,459. 38.; but the money was permitted tention of his son, and shall carry with me
I received great satisfaction from this ato to remain at the interest of 34 per cent. till the 10th of June, 1815, when the principal to my grave a most grateful memory of his and interest (amounting, after the deduce goodness. I could not at the time forbear tion of property-tax, and of the rents, which, expressing my acknowledgment in the during the interval, had been paid to the following letter, nor can I now forbear in. crown, to £85,135. 58. 9d.) were paid into serting it in these anecdotes. The whole the Bank of England, to the account of the transaction will do his royal highness no commissioners for the new street. His discredit with posterity, and I shall ever royal highness also purchased about twenty his approbation of my public conduct.
consider it as an honourable testimony of acres of land in Walton, at the price of £1294. 28. 3d.
• Calgarth Park, Nov. 9, 1805.
. Do, my lord of Canterbury, While the duke was in his last illness,
But one good turn, and he's friend for ever.' members on both sides of the House of • Thus Shakspeare makes Henry VIII. Commons bore spontaneous testimony to speak of Cranmer; and from the bottom of his royal highness's impartial administration my heart, I humbly entreat your royal of his high office as commander-in-chief; highness to believe, that the sentiment is and united in one general expression, that as applicable to the bishop of Landaff as it no political distinction ever interfered to was to Cranmer. prevent the promotion of a deserving officer. "The bis dat qui cito dat has been most
A statement in bishop Watson's Me kindly thought of in this promotion of my moirs, is a tribute to his royal highness's son; and I know not which is most dear reputation.
to my feelings, the matter of the obligation, « On the marriage of my son in August, or the noble manner of its being conferred. 1805, I wrote,” says the bishop, “ to the I sincerely hope your royal highness will duke of York, requesting his royal high- pardon this my intrusion, in thus expressing ness to give him his protection. I felt a my most grateful acknowledgments for consciousness of having, through life, che. them both rished a warm attachment to the house of