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progress. There is progress in agriculture, there is progress in the arts, there is progress in all the sciences; man's dominion over nature is rapidly increasing, and the earth, every succeeding year, is made to yield a greater produce. The fruit of the discoveries of one age contains the germ of the discoveries of the generation following; and the new plant springs alongside of the old one to scatter seed like its progenitor all around. No valuable invention of human genius is ever lost; and most of them become the means of multiplying themselves by a greater than compound proportion, and thus render each generation richer than the one that went before. The wealth of all preceding generations is thus to be poured into the lap of the generations that are to live in the coming ages of our world's history. The struggle for existence still goes on; but there is evidence that the intellectual is to show itself stronger than the physical and the moral, always under the government of God, stronger than either. For the present, we see the serpent biting the heel of the seed of the woman : but the
age of serpents, with their crushing force and their cunning, is to pass away; and we see proof that the woman's heaven-born seed is to crush the head of the serpent; and, as Plato forecast it, the good shall be the uppermost, and the evil the undermost, for evermore.
I do not know whether any of my hearers have ever gone up from Riffelberg to Görner Grat, in the
FUTURE OF THE WORLD.
High Alps, to behold the sun rise. Every mountain catches the light according to the height which the upheaving forces that God set in motion have given it. First the point of Monte Rosa is kissed by the morning beams, blushes for a moment, and forthwith stands clear in the light. Then the Breithorn and the dome of Muschabel and the Matterhorn, and twenty other grand mountains, embracing the distant Jung Frau, receive each in its turn the gladdening rays, bask each for a brief space, and then remain bathed in sunlight. Meanwhile, the valleys between lie down dark and dismal as death. But the light which has risen is the light of the morning; and these shadows are even now lessening, and we are sure they will soon altogether vanish. Such is the hopeful view I take of our world. "Darkness covered the earth, and gross darkness the people; ” but God's light hath broken forth as the morning, and to them who sat in darkness a great light has arisen. Already I see favored spots illuminated by it: Great Britain and her spreading colonies; and Prussia, extending her influence; and the United States, with her broad territory and her rapidly increasing population, -stand in the light; and I see, not twenty, but a hundred points of light, striking up in our scattered mission stations, in old continents and secluded isles and barren deserts, according as God's grace and man's heaven-kindled love have favored them. And much as I was enraptured with that grand Alpine scene, and shouted irrepressibly as I surveyed it, I am still more elevated, and I feel as if I could cry aloud for joy, when I hear of the light advancing from point to point, and penetrating deeper and deeper into the darkness which, we are sure, is at last to be dispelled, to allow our earth to stand clear in the light of the Sun of Righteousness.
PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF MIND AND OF ITS POSSESSING
THE CAPACITY OF KNOWLEDGE. - DOCTRINES OF NES-
THROUGHOUT the previous discussions I
have been constantly obliged to employ or to refer to philosophic principles. In the full exposition of the argument, it will be necessary to consider these, as well as the physical facts, that the defence may be complete throughout. But this implies that we take a look at the soul of man. Not that we are to examine the mind in its entirety ; not that we are to dissect it metaphysically: we are to view it simply in its relation to God and to religion. Some of the discussions on which I am to enter may seem a little too recondite ; but all of them bear upon the prevailing errors of the day. I profess to keep a sharp outlook on the current of opinion all over the world, especially among young men. I am ever asking the watchman, "What of the night?” and, in these Lectures, I take up the topics of the day; but it would be better not to discuss them at all than not discuss them thoroughly. In coming Lectures, I will start from the positions
reached in this to examine Positivism and Materialism, — the doctrines likely to flourish for a season among the young men who catch the spirit of the age in its latest fashion.
Those whom I am opposing constitute a school with a diversity of teachers. Though, as a whole, they are men of narrow sympathies and an exclusive temper, and can discern only a small segment of the wide and profound meaning of the universe, are, in fact, not catholic nor cosmopolitan, but intensely sectarian in their spirit, — yet they cultivate with zeal and ability a number of branches of knowledge. Their physiology is associated with a psychology and a philosophy, and, I may add, a method of history. They have men of eminence in each of these departments; and each in his way joins with others in their way in furthering a common cause and fostering a common belief, or rather unbelief. They have some of the literary and scientific institutions of Great Britain very much in their own hands, and are seeking to find a place in others. They are laboring to lay hold of young men connected with the press, and have been specially successful with two classes : with those who would like to be thought philosophers, but who have no time nor taste for the study of a deeper philosophy; and with those who, in a feeling of disappointment, have been obliged to turn aside from their intended professions in life — most commonly the church — to engage in literary pursuits. They have a body of adherents eager to propagate