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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount applied capital capitalist causes circulating capital circumstances commodities competition condition considerable consumed consumption corn laws cost of production cultivation degree demand depends desire of accumulation diminished division of labor duction effect employment England equal exertion exist expense farmer farms fixed Flanders France greater gross produce habits human hundred quarters improvement increase individual industry interest kind laboring classes land landlord Law of Value less limited machinery manufacture manure material means ment metayer mode natural agents necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant permanent persons political economy population portion possession present principle productive consumers productive laborers profit proportion proprietors quit-rent rate of profit remuneration rent saving society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus taxes things tion unless unproductive wages waste land wealth whole yield
Сторінка 242 - The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society. The rules by which it is determined, are what the opinions and feelings of the ruling portion of the community make them, and are very different in different ages and countries ; and might be still more different, if mankind so chose.
Сторінка 242 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Сторінка 286 - This is partly intelligible, if we consider that only through the principle of competition has political economy any pretension to the character of a science. So far as rents, profits, wages, prices, are determined by competition, laws may be assigned for them.
Сторінка 456 - When the object is to raise the permanent condition of a, people, small means do not merely produce small effects, they produce no effect at all.
Сторінка 148 - One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head ; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations ; to put it on is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another ; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is in this manner divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands,...
Сторінка 152 - Secondly, the advantage which is gained by saving the time commonly lost in passing from one sort of work to another, is much greater than we should at first view be apt to imagine it. It is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another, that is carried on in a different place, and with quite different tools.
Сторінка 61 - I shall therefore, in this treatise, when speaking of wealth, understand by it only what is called material wealth, and by productive labor only those kinds of exertion which produce utilities embodied in material objects.
Сторінка 467 - So complete, indeed, has hitherto been the separation, so strongly marked the line of demarcation, between the different grades of labourers, as to be almost equivalent to an hereditary distinction of caste ; each employment being chiefly recruited from the children of those already employed in it, or in employments of the same rank with it in social estimation, or from the children of persons who, if originally of a lower rank, have succeeded in raising themselves by their exertions.
Сторінка 405 - With these limitations of the terms, wages not only depend upon the relative amount of capital and population, but cannot, under the rule of competition, be affected by anything else. Wages (meaning, of course, the general rate) cannot rise, but by an increase of the aggregate funds employed in hiring labourers, or a diminution in the number of the competitors for hire; nor fall, except either by a diminution of the funds devoted to paying labour, or by an increase in the number of labourers to be...