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each other communicates a certain satisfaction, like word for it (and as they dress to please men, they

that which they themselves are in, to all that ap- ought to consult our fancy rather than their own in bi proach them. When she enters the place where he this particular), I can assure them, there is nothing he is

, you see a pleasure which he cannot conceal, nor touches our imagination so much as a beautiful he, or any one else, describe. In so consummate woman in a plain dress. There might be more an affection, the very presence of the person beloved agreeable ornaments found in our own manufacture has the effect of the most agreeable conversation. than any that rise out of the looms of Persia. Whether they have matter to talk of or not, they This, I know, is a very harsh doctrine to woman

cnjoy the pleasures of society, and, at the same kind, who are carried away with every thing that is the time, the frecdom of solitude. Their ordinary life showy, and with what deliyhts the eye, more than any

is to be preferred to the happiest moments of other other species of living creatures whatsoever. Were lovers. In a word, they have cach of the great the minds of the sex laidi open, we should find the merit, live in the esteem of all who know them, chief idea in one to be a tippet, in another a muff, and seem but to comply with the opinions of in a third a fan, and in a fourth a fardingal. The their friends, in the just value they have for cach memory of an old visiung lady is so filled with gloves, other.'

silks, and ribbands, that I can look upon it as ngthing else but a toy-shop. A matron of my acquain.

tance, complaining of her daughter's vanity, was No. 151.] TUESDAY, MARCH 28, 1710.

observing, that she had all of a sudden held up her Ni vis boni

head higher than ordinary, and taken an air that In ipsa inesset forma, hæc formam extinguerunt.

showed a secret satisfaction in herself, mixed with a

Ter. scorn of others. “I did not know,' said my friend, These things would extinguish beauty, if there

' what to make of the carriage of this fantastical were not an innate pleasure-giving energy in beauty girl, until I was informed by her eldest sister, that .

she had a pair of striped garters on.' This odd turn

of mind often makes the sex unhappy, and disposes From my oun Apartment, Marck 27.

them to be struck with every thing that makes a When artists would expose their diamonds to an show, however tritling and superficial. advantage, they usually set them to show in little Many a lady has fetched a sigh at the toss of a cases of black velvet. By this means the jewels ap- wig, and been ruined by the tapping of a snuff-box. pear in their true and genuine lustre, where there is It is impossible to describe all the execution that was no colour that can infect their brightness, or give a done by the shoulder-knot, while that fashion prefalse cast to the water. When I was at the opera vailed, or to reckon up all the virgins that have falthe other night, the assembly of ladies in mourning len a sacrifice to a pair of fringed gloves. A sinmade me consider them in the same kind of view. cere heart has not made half so many conquests as A dress wherein there is so little variety, shows the an open waistcoat; and I should be glad to see an face in all its natural charms, and makes one differ able head make so good a figure in a woman's comfrom another only as as it is more or less beautiful. pany as a pair of red heels. A Grecian hero, when Painters are ever careful of offending against a rule he was asked whether he could play upon the lute, which is so essential in all just representations. The thought he had made a very good reply, when he chief figure must have the strongest point of light, answered, “No; but I can make a great city of a and not be injured by any gay colourings that may little one.' Notwithstanding his boasted wisdom, I draw away the attention to any less considerable part appeal to the heart of any roast in town, whether of the picture. The present fashion obliges every she would not think the lutenist preferable to the body to be dressed with propriety, and makes the statesman ? I do not speak this out of any aversion

adies' faces the principal objects of sight. Every that I have to the sex; on the contrary, I have beautiful person shines out in all the excellence with always had a tenderness for them; but, I inust conwhich nature has adorned her; gaudy ribbands fess, it troubles me very much, to see the generality and glaring colours being now out of use, the sex of them place their afiections on improper objects, has no opportunity given them to disfigure them- and give up all the pleasures of life for gewgaws and selves, which they seldom fail to do whenever it lies trifles.

When a woman comes to her glass, Mrs. Margery Bickerstaff, my great aunt, had a she does not employ her time in making herself look thousand pounds to her portion, which our family more advantageously than what she really is; but was desirous of keeping among themselves, and thereendeavours to be as much another creature as she fore used all possible means to turn off her thoughts possibly can. Whether this happens because they from marriage. The method they took was, in any stay so long, and attend their work so diligently, time of danger, to throw a new gown or petticoat in that they forget the faces and persons which they her way. When she was about twenty-tive years of first sat down with, or, whatever it is, they seldom age, she fell in love with a man of an agreeable rise from the toilet the same women they appeared temper and equal fortune, and would certainly have when they began to dress. What jewel can the married him, had not my grandfather, Sir Jacob, charming Cleora place in her ears that can please dressed her up in a suit of flowered sattin; upon beholders so much as her eyes? The cluster of dia- which she set so immoderate a value upon herself, monds upon the breast can add no beauty to the fair that the lover was contemned and discarded. In the chest of ivory which supports it. It may indeed fortieth year of her age, she was again smitten; but tempt a man to steal a woman, but never to love her. very luckily transferred her passion to a tippet, Let Thalestris change herself into a motley party- which was presented to her by another relation who coloured animal : de pearl necklace, the flowered was in the plot. This, with a white sarsenet hood, stomacher, the artificial nosegay, and shaded fur- kept her safe in the family until fifty. About sixty, below, may be of use to attract the eye of the be- which generally produces a kind of latter spring in holder, and turn it from the imperfectious of her amorous constitutions, my aunt Margery had again features and shape. But if ladies will take my la colt's tooth in her head; and would certainly have

in their power.


eloped from the mansion-house, had not her brother hero, and feasted upon the steams of his oblation. Simon, who was a wise man and a scholar, advised The first he knew was the shade of Elpenor, wbo to dress her in cherry-coloured ribbands, which was to show the activity of a spirit above that of body, the only expedient that could have been found is represented as arrived there long before Ulysses, out by the wit of man to preserve the thousand notwithstanding the winds and seas had contributed pounds in our family, part of which I enjoy at this all their force to hasten his voyage thither. This timc.

Elpenor, to inspire the reader with a detestation of This discourse puts me in mind of a humorist men- drunkenness, and at the same time with a religious tioned by Horace, calle) Eutrapelus, who, when he care of doing proper honours to the dead, describes designed to do a man a mischief, made him a present himself as having broken bis neck in a debauch of of a gay suit; and brings to my memory another wine; and begs Ulysses that for the repose of his passage of the same author, when he describes the soul, he would build a monument over him, and inost ornamental dress that a woman can appear in, perform funeral rites to his memory. Ulysses with with two words, simplex munditiis, which I have quoted great sorrow of heart, promises to fulfil his request, for the benefit of iny female readers.

and is immediately diverted to an object much more moving than the former. The ghost of his own

mother, Anticlea, whom he still thought living, ap No. 152.] THURSDAY, MARCH 30, 1710. pears to him among the multitudes of shades that Dii, quibus imperium est animarum, umbræque surrounded him; and sits down at a small distance silentes,

from him by the lake of blood, without speaking to Et Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte silentia late,

him, or knowing who he was. Ulysses was exceedSit mihi fas audita loqui; sit huminc vestro

ingly troubled at the sight, and could not forbear Pandere res altâ terra et caligine mersas.

weeping as he looked upon her: but being all along

Virg. Æn. vi. 261. set forth as a pattern of consummate wisdom, be Infernal gods, who rule the shades below,

makes his affection give way to prudence; and, Chaos and Phlegcthon, the realms of woc;

therefore, upon his seeing Tiresias, does not reveal Grant what I've heard I may to light expose,

himself to his mother, until he had consulted that Secrets which earth, and night, and hell inclose!

great prophet, who was the occasion of this his descent into the empire of the dead. Tiresias har

ing cautioned him to keep himself and his comps. From my own 1partment, March 29. nions free from the guilt of sacrilege, and to pay his A man who confines his speculations to the time pre- devotions to all the gods, promises him a safe reture sent, has but a very narrow province to employ his to his kingdom and family, and a happy old age in thoughts in. For this reason, persons of studious the enjoyment of them. and contemplative natures often entertain themselves The poet, having thus with great art kept the with the history of past ages, or raise schemes and curiosity of his reader in suspense, represents his Frise conjectures upon futurity. For my own part, I love man, after the despatch of his business with Tiresias, to range through that half of eternity which is still as yielding himself up to the cause of natural affection, to conic, rather than look on that which is already and making himself known to his mother. Her eyes run out; because I know I have a real share and are no sooner opened, but she cries out in tears, . Oh, interest in the one, whereas all that was trans- my son!' and enquires into the occasions that brought acted in the other can be only matter of curiosity him thither, and the fortune that attended him. to me.

Ulysses, on the other hand, desires to know what Upon this account, I have been always very much the sickness was that had sent her into those regio's delighted with meditating on the soul's immortality, and the condition in which she had left his father, and in reading the several notions which the wisest his son, and more particularly his wife. She telle of men, both ancient and modern, have entertained hiin, 'they were all three inconsolable for his absence. on that subject. What the opinions of the greatest As for myself,' says she, that was the sickness of philosophers have been, I have several times hinted which I died. My impatience for your return, my at, and shall give an account of them from time to anxiety for your welfare, and my fondness for my time, as occasion requires. It may likewise be worth dear Ulysses, were the only distempers that preyed while to consider, what men of the most exalted upon my life, and separated my soul from my body.' genius and elevated imagination have thought of Ulysses was melted with these expressions of tenderthis matter. Among these, Homer stands up as a ness, and thrice endeavoured to catch the apparition prodigy of mankind, that looks down upon the rest in his arms, that he might bold his mother to his of human creatures as a species beneath him. Since bosom, and weep over her. he is the most ancient heathen author, we may guess This gives the poet occasion to describe the notion from his relation, what were the common opinions, the heathens at that time had of an unbodied soul, in his time concerning the state of the soul after in the excuse which the mother makes for seeming death.

to withdraw herself from her son's embraces. • The Ulysses, he tells us, made a voyage to the regions soul,' says she, is composed neither of bones, of the dead, in order to consult Tiresias how he flesh, nor sinews; but leaves behind her all those should return to his own country, and recommend | encumbrances of mortality to be consumed on the himself to the favour of the gods. The poet scarcely funeral pile. As soon as she has thus cast her burintroduces a single person, who doth not suggest den, she makes her escape, and flies away from it some useful precept to his reader, and designs his like a dream.' description of the dead for the amendment of the When this melancholy conversation is at an end living

the poet draws up to view as charming a vision as Ulysses, after having made a very plenteous sa- could enter into man's imagination. He describes crifice, sat him down by the pool of holy blood, the next who appeared to Ulysses, to have been the which attracted a prodigious assembly of ghosts shades of the finest women that had ever lived upon of all ages and conditions, that hovered about the the earth, and who had either been the daughters o

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kings, the mistresses of gods, or the mothers of account he received of his son, that he enquired heroes; such as Antiope, Alcmena, Leda, Ariadne, no further, but stalked away with more than ordiIphimedia, Eriphyle, and several others, of whom he nary majesty over the green meadow that lay before gives a catalogue, with a short history of their ad- them.' ventures. The beautiful assembly of apparitions The last circumstance, of a deceased father's were all gathered together about the blood. Each rejoicing in the behaviour of his son, is very finely of them, says Ulysses, as a gentle satire upon contrived by Homer, as an incentive to virtue, female vanity, giving me an account of her birth and made use of by none that I know besides and family. This scene of extraordinary women, himself. seems to have been designed by the poet as a lecture The description of Ajax, which follows, and his reof mortality to the whole sex, and to put them in fusing to speak to Ulysses, who had won the armour mind of what they must expect, notwithstanding the of Achilles from him, and by that means occasioned his greatest perfections, and highest honours, they can death, is admired by every one that reads it. When arrive at.

Ulysses relates the sullenness of his deportment, The circle of beauties at length disappeared, and and considers the greatness of the hero, he expresses was succeeded by the shades of several Grecian himself with generous and noble sentiments. Oh! heroes, who had been engaged with Ulysses in the that I had never gained a prize which cost the life siege of Troy. The first that approached was Aga- of so brave a man as Ajax! who, for the beauty of memnon, the generalissimo of that great expedition, his person, and greatness of his actions, was inferior who, at the appearance of his old friend, wept bit- to none but the divine Achilles.' The same noble terly, and, without saying any thing to him, en- condescension, which never dwells but in truly great deavoured to grasp him by the hand. Ulysses, who minds, and such as Homer would represent that of was much moved at the sight, poured out a flood of Ulysses to have been, discovers itself likewise in tears, and asked him the occasion of his death, the speech which he made to the ghost of Ajax on which Agamemnon related to him in all its tragical that occasion. “Oh, Ajax !' says he, 'wiil you circumstances; how he was murdered at a banquet keep your resentments after death? What deby the contrivance of his own wire, in confederacy structions hath this fatal armour brought upon the with her adulterer : from whence he takes occasion Greeks, by robbing them of you, who were their to reproach the whole sex, after a manner which bulwark and defence ? Achilles is not more bitterly would be inexcusable in a man who had not been so lamented among us than you. Impute not then great a sufferer by them. My wife,' says he, ‘has your death to any one but jupiter, who, out of his disgraced all the women that shall ever be born in anger to the Greeks, took you away from ainong the world, even those who hereafter shall be inno- them : let me entreat you to approach me; recent. Take care how you grow too fond of your strain the fierceness of your wrath, and the greatwife. Never tell her all you know. If you reveal ness of your soul, and hear what I have to say to come things to her, be sure you keep others con- you.' Ajax, without making a reply, turned his cealed from her. You, indeed, have nothing to back upon him, and retired into a crowd of ghosts. fear from your Penelope, she will not use you as my Ulysses, after all these visions, took a view of wife has treated me; however, take care how you those impious wretches who lay in tortures for the trust a woman.' The poet, in this and other instan- crimes they had committed upon the earth, whom he ces, according to the system of many heathen as describes under all the varieties of pain, as so many well as Christian philosophers, shows how anger, re- marks of divine vengeance, to deter others from venge, and other habits which the soul had con- following their example. He then tells us, that tracted in the body, subsist, and grow in it under its notwithstanding he had a great curiosity to see state of separation.

the heroes that lived in the ages before him, the I am extremely pleased with the companions ghosts began to gather about him in such prodigious which the poet in the next description assigns to multitudes, and with such a confusion of voices, Achilles. *Achilles,' says the hero, - came up to me that his heart trembled as he saw himself amidst so with Patroclus and Antilochus.' By which we may great a scene of horrors. He adds, that he was see that it was Homer's opinion, and probably that afraid lest some hideous spectre should appear to of the age he lived in, that the friendships which him, that might terrify him to distraction; and are made among the living, will likewise continue therefore withdrew in time. among the dead. Achilles enquires after the I question not but my reader will be pleased with welfare of his son, and of his father, with a fierce- this description of a future state, represented by ness of the same character that Homer has every such a noble and fruitful imagination, that had where expressed in the actions of his life. The nothing to direct it besides the light of nature, and passaye relating to his son is so extremely beautiful, the opinions of a dark and ignorant age. that I must not omit it. Ulysses, after having described him as wise in council, and active in war, and mentioned the foes whom he had slain in battle,

No. 153.1 SATURDAY, APRIL 1, 1720. adds an observation that he himself had made of Bombalio, clangor, stridor, taratantara, murinur. his behaviour, whilst he lay in the wooden horse.

Farn. Rhet. Most of the generals,' says he, “that were with us,

Rend with tremendous sounds your ears asunder, either wept or trembled; as for your son, I never with gun, drum, trumpet, blunderbuss, and thunder. saw him wipe a tear from his cheek, or change his

Pope. countenance. On the contrary, he would often lay From my own Apartment, March 31. his hand upon his sword, or grasp his spear, as im- I HAVE heard of a very valuable picture, wherein patient to employ them against the Trojans.' He all the painters of the age in which it was drawn, then informs his father of the great honour and re- are represented sitting together in a circle, and wards he bad purchased before Troy, and of his joining in a consort of music. Each of them plays return from it without a wound. “I'he shade of upon such a particular instrument as is the most Achilles,' says the poet, ‘was so pleased with the suitable to his character, and expresses that style

and manner of painting which is peculiar to' him. frequent in this nation than any other; I mean your The famous cupola-painter of those times, to show bass-viol, which grumbles in the bottom of the com the grandeur and boldness of his figures, hath a horn sort

, and, with a surly masculine srand, strengthens in his inouth, which he seems to wind with great the harmony, and tempers the sweetness of the se strength and force. On the contrary, an eminent veral instruments that play along with it. The bassartist, who wrought up his pictures with the greatest viol is an instrument of a quite different nature to accuracy, and gave them all those delicate touches the trumpet, and may signify men of rough sense which are apt to please the nicest eye, is represented and unpolished parts; who do not love to hear themas tuning a theorbo. The same kind of humorer selves talk, but sometimes break out with an agree runs through the whole piece.

able bluntness, unexpected wit, and surły pleasantries, I have often, from this hint, imagined to myself, to the no small diversion of their friends and compathat different talents in discourse might be shadowed nions. In short, I look upon every sensible treeout after the same manner by different kinds of music; born Briton to be paturally a bass-viol. and that the several conversable parts of mankind As for your rural wits, who talk with great elsin this great city, might be cast into proper charac- quence and alacrity of fores, hounds, horses, quickters and divisions, as ihey resemble several instru- set hedges, and six bar-gates, double ditches, and ments that are in use among the masters of harmony. broken necks, I am in doubt, whether I should give Of these therefore in their order; and first of the them a place in the conversable world. Hokerer, drum.

they will content themselves with being raised to Your drums are the blusterers in conversation, the dignity of hunting-horns, I shall desire for the that, with a loud laugh, unnatural mirth, and a tor- future, that they may be known by that name. rent of noise, domineer in public assemblies: over- I must not here omit the bagpipe species, that bear men of sense ; stun their companions; and fill will entertain you from morning to night with the the place they are in with a rattling sound, that hath repetition of a few notes, which are played over and seldom any wit, humour, or good breeding in it. over, with the perpetual humming of a drone rubriag The drum notwithstanding, by this boisterous viva- underneath them. These are your duil heary, city, is very proper to impose upou the ignorant; tedious story tellers, the load and burden of conrerand in conversation with ladies who are not of the sations, that set up for men of importance, by kona. finest taste, often passes for a man of mirth and wit, ing secret history, and giving an account of transand for wonderful pleasant company. I need not tions, that, whether they ever passed in the world or observe, that the emptiness of the drum very much not, doth not signify a halfpenny to its instruction, contributes to its noise.

or its welfare. Some have observed, that the northThe lute is a character directly opposite to the ern parts of this island are more particularly fruitful drum, that sounds very finely by itself, or in a very in bagpipes. small consort. Its notes are exquisitely sweet, and There are so very few persons who are masters ia very low, casily drowned in a multitude of instru- every kind of conversation, and can talk on all sub ments, and even lost among a few, unless you give jects, that I do not know whether we should make a particular attention to it. A lute is seldom heard a distinct species of them. Nevertheless, that my in a company of more than five, whereas a drum will scheme may not be defective, for the sake of those show itself to advantage in an assembly of five hun- few who are endowed with such extraordinary tadred. The lutenists therefore are men of a fine lents, I shall allow them to be harpsichords, a kind genius, uncommon reflexion, great affability, and es- of music which every one knows is a consort by itsell. teemed chietly by persons of a good taste, who are As for your passing-bells, who look upon mirth as the only proper judges of so delightful and soft a criminal, and talk of nothing but what is melancholy melody,

in itself, and mortifying to human nature, I shall not The trumpet is an instrument that has in it no mention them. compass of music, or variety of sound, but is not- I shall likewise pass over in silence all the rabble withstanding very agreeable, so long as it keeps of mankind, that crowd our streets, coffee houses, within its pitch. It has not above four or five notes, feasts, and public tables. I cannot call their diswhich are however very pleasing, and capable of course conversation, but rather something that is exquisite turns and modulations. The gentlemen practised in imitation of it. For which reason, if I who fall under this denomination are your men of would describe them by any musical instrument, it the most fashionable education and refined breeding, should be by those modern inventions of the bladder who have learned a certain smoothness of discourse, and string, tongs and key, marrow bone and clearet. and sprightliness of air, from the polite company My reader will doubtless observe, that I have only which they have kept; but, at the same time have touched here upon male instruments, having reshallow parts, weak judgments, and a short reach served my female consort to another occasion. I of understanding. A play-house, a drawing-room, he has a mind to know where these several characters a ball, a visiting-day, or a ring at Hyde-park, are are to be met with, I could direct him to a whole the few notes they are masters of, which they touch club of drums ; not to mention another of bagpipes, upon in all conversations. The trumpet, however, which I have before given some account of in my is a necessary instrument about a court, and a proper description of our nightly meetings in Sheer-lane. enlivener of a consort, though of no great harmony The lutes may often be met with io couples upon the by itself.

banks of a crystal stream, or in the retreats of Violins are the lively, forward, importunate wits, shady woods, "and flowery meadows; which, for dilthat distinguish themselves by the flourishes of ima- ferent reasons, are likewise the great resort of your gination, sharpness of repartee, glances of satire, hunting-horns. Bass viols are frequently to the and bear away the upper part in every consort. I found over a glass of stale beer, and a pipe of tobaern; cannot however but observe, that when a man is not whereas those who set up for violins, seldom fail to disposed to hear music, there is not a more disagree make their appearance at Will's once erëry pretble sound in harmony than that of the violin. ing. You may meet with a trumpet any where om

There is another musical instrument, which is more the other side of Charing-cross.


That we inay draw something for our advantage and describes in them a huge gloomy elm-tree, in life out of the foregoing discourse, I must entreat which seems a very proper ornament for the place, my reader to make a narrow search into his life and and is possessed by an innumerable swarm of dreams, conversation, and, upon his leaving any company, that hang in clusters under every leaf of it. He to examine himself seriously whether he has be- then gives us a list of imaginary persons, who very haved himself in it like a drum or a trumpet, a violin naturally lie within the shadow of the dream-tree, or a bass-viol; and, accordingly, endeavour to mend as being of the same kind of make in themselves, his music for the future. For my own part, I must and the naterials, or, to use Shakspeare's phrase, confess, I was a drum for many years; nay, and a the stuff of which dreams are made.'

Such are very noisy one, until, having polished myself a little the shades of the giant with a hundred hands, and in good company, I threw as much of the trumpet of his brother with three bodies, of the double-shaped into my conversation, as was possible for a man of Centaur and Seylla ; the Gorgon with snaky hair; an impetuous temper, by which mixture of different the Harpy with a woman's face and lion's talons; musics I look upon myself

, during the course of the seven-headed Hydra; and the Chimæra, which many years, to have resembled a tabor and pipe. I breathes forth a flame, and is a compound of three bave since very much endeavoured at the sweetness animals. These several mixed natures, the creatures of the lute; but, in spite of all my resolutions, I of imagination, are not only introduced with great must confess, with great confusion, that I find my- art after the dreams, but, as they are planted at the self daily degenerating into a bagpipe; whether it very entrance, and within the very gates of those be the effect of my old age, or of the company I regions, do probably denote the wild deliriums and keep, I know not. All that I can do, is to keep a extravagances of fancy, which the soul usually falls watch over my conversation, and to silence the drone into when she is just upon the verge of death. as soon as I find it begin to hum in my discourse, Thus far Æneas travels in an allegory. The rest being determined rather to hear the notes of others, of the description is drawn with great exactness, than to play out of time, and encroach upon their according to the religion of the heathens, and the parts in the consort by the noise of so tiresome an opinions of the Platonic philosophy. I shall not instrument.

trouble my reader with a common dull story, that I shall conclude this paper with a lettor which I gives an account why the heathens first of all supreceived last night from a friend of mine, who posed a ferry-man in hell, and his name to be knows very well my notions upon this subject, and Charon ; but must not pass over in silence the point invites me to pass the evening at his house, with a of doctrine which Virgil hath very much insisted select company of friends, in the following words: upon in this book.

That the souls of those who are · DEAR ISAAC,

unburied, are not permitted to go over into their re• I intend to have a consort at my house this even- spective places of rest, until they have wandered a ing, having by great chance got a harpsichord, hundred years upon the banks of Styx. This was which I am sure will entertain you very agreeably. probably an invention of the heathen priesthood, to There will be likewise two lutes and a trumpet : let make the people extremely careful of performing me beg you to put yourself in tune, and believe me, proper rites and ceremonies to the memory of the • Your very faithful servant,

dead. I shall not, however, with the infamous Nicholas HumDRUM.' scribblers of the age, take an occasion from such a

circumstance, to run into declamations against No. 154.1 TUESDAY, APRIL 4, 1710.

priestcraft, but rather look upon it even in this light

as a religious artifice, to raise in the minds of men Obscuris vera involvens. Virg. Æn. vi. 100. an esteem for the memory of their forefathers, and a Involving truth in terms obscure.

desire to recommend themselves to that of posterity;

as also to excite in them an ambition of imitating From my own Apartment, April 3.

the virtues of the deceased, and to keep alive in We have already examined Homer's description their thoughts the sense of the soul's immortality. of a future state, and the condition in which he hath In a word, we may say in defence of the severe placed the souls of the deceased. I shall, in this opinions relating to the shades of unburied persons, paper, make some observations on the account what hath been said by some of our divines in regard which Virgil hath given us of the same subject, who, to the rigid doctrines concerning the souls of such besides a greatness of genius, had all the lights of who die without being initiated into our religion, philosophy and human learning to assist and guide that supposing they should be erroneous, they can him in his discoveries.

do no hurt to the dead, and will have a good effect Æneas is represented as descending into the em- upon the living, in making them cautious of neglectpire of death, with a prophetess by his side, who in- ing such necessary solemnities. structs him in the secrets of those lower regions. Charon is no sooner appeased, and the triple

Upon the confines of the dead, and before the headed dog laid asleep, but Æneas makes his very gates of this infernal world, Virgil describes entrance into the dominions of Pluto. There are several inhabitants, whose natures are wonderfully three kinds of persons described, as being situate on suited to the situation of the place, as being either the borders; and J an give no reason for their being the occasions or resemblances of death. Of the first stationed there in so particular a manner, but bekind are the shadows of Sickness, Old Age, Fear, cause none of them seem to have had a proper right Famine, and Poverty; apparitions very terrible to to a place among the dead, as not having run out the behold, with several others, as Toil, War, Conten- whole thread of their days, and finished the term of tion, and Discord, which contribute all of them to life that had been allotted them upon earth. The people this common receptacle of human souls. As first of these are the souls of infants, who are this was likewise a very proper residence for every snatched away by untimely ends. The second are thing that resembles death, the poet tells us, that of those who are put to death wrongfully, and by an Sleer, whom he represents as a near relation to unjust sentence; and the third, of those who grew Death, has likewise his habitation in these quarters ; / weary of their lives, and laid violent hands upon

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