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than I do ; I Dever mind her motions; she never They tell me you are a person who have seen inquires into mine. We speak to one another the world, and are a judge of fine breeding; which civilly, hate one another heartily; and because it is makes me ambitious of some instructions from you vulgar to lie and soak together, we have each of us for her improvement: which when you have 'faour several settle-bed." That of " soaking toge- voured me with, I shall farther advise with you ther" is as good as if Dorimant had spoken it him about the disposal of this fair forester in marriage: seif; and I think, since he puts human nature in as for I will make it no secret to you, that her person ugly a form as the circumstance will bear, and is a and education are to be her fortune. staunch unbelierer, he is very much wronged in

" I am Sir, having no part of the good fortune bestowed in the

“ Your very humble servant, last act.

“ CELIMENE." To speak plain of this whole work, I think nothing tut being lost to a sense of innocence and virtue, can make any one see this comedy, without observ

“ Being employed by Celimene to make up and ing more frequent occasion to move sorrow and in- send to you her letter, 'I make bold to recommend dignation, than mirth and laughter. At the same the case therein mentioned to your consideration, time I allow it to be nature, but it is nature in its because she and I happen to differ a little in our utmost corruption and degeneracy.*-R.

notions. I, vho am a rough man, am afraid the young girl is in a fair way to be spoiled : therefore,

pray, Mr. Spectator, let us have your opinion of No. 66.1 WEDNESDAY, MAY 16, 1711.

this fine thing called fine breeding; for I am afraid Motus doceri gaudet Ionicos

it differs too much from that plain thing called good Matura viryo, et fingitur artibus

Jam buk, et incestos amores
De tenero meditatur ungui.-llor. 1 Od. vi. 21.

" Your most humble servant."
Behold a ripe and melting maid
Bound 'prentice to the wanton traue :

The general mistake among us in the educating lopian artists, at a mighty price,

our children is, that in our daughters we take care Instruct ber in the mysteries of vice, What nets to spread, where subtle baits to lay:

of their persons and neglect their minds; in our And with an early hand they form the temperd clay. sons we are so intent upon adorning their minds,

RoscoMMON. that we wholly neglect their bodies. It is from this The two following letters are upon a subject of that you shall see a young lady celebrated and advery great importance, though expressed without mired in all the assemblies about town, when her any air of gravity.

elder brother is afraid to come into a room. From " TO THE SPECTATOR.

this ill management it arises, that we frequently observe a man's life is half spent, before he is taken

notice of; and a woman in the prime of her years “I take the freedom of asking your advice in is out of fashion and neglected. The boy l shall behalf of a young country kinswoman of mine who consider upon some other occasion, and at present is lately come to town, and under my care for her stick to the girl : and I am the more inclined to education. She is very pretty, but you cannot ima- this, because I have several letters which complain gine how unformed a creature it is. She comes to to me, that my female readers have not understood my hauds just as nature left her, half finished, and me for some days last past, and take themselves to without any acquired improvements. When I look be unconcerned in the present turn of my writing. on her I often think of the Belle Sauvage men-1-When a girl is safely brought from her nurse, tioned in one of your papers. Dear Mr. Spectator, before she is capable of forming one single notion help me to make her comprehend the visible graces of any thing in life, she is delivered to the hands of of speech, and the dumb eloquence of motion; for her dancing master; and with a collar round her she is at present a perfect stranger to both. She neck, the pretty wild thing is taught a fantastical knows no way to express herself but by her tongue, gravity of behaviour, and forced to a particular way and that always to signify her meaning. Her eyes of holding her head, heaving her breast, and moving serve her only to see with, and she is utterly a with her whole body; and all this under pain of foreigner to the language of looks and glances. 'In never having a husband, if she steps, looks, or this I fancy you could help her better than any body moves awry. This gives the young lady wonderful I have bestowed two months in teaching her to sigh workings of imagination, what is to pass between when she is not concerned, and to smile when she is her and this husband, that she is every moment not pleased, and am ashamed to own she makes lit- told of, and for whom she seems to be educated. tle or no improvement. Then she is no more able Thus her fancy is engaged to turn all her endeaDow to walk, than she was to go at a year old. By vours to the ornament of her person, as what must walking, you will easily know I mean that regular determine her good and ill in this life: and she nabut easy motion which gives our persons so irre- turally thinks, if she is tall enough, sbe is wise sistáble a grace as if we moved to music, and is a enough, for any thing for which her education makes kind of disengaged figure; or, if I may so speak, her think she is designed To make her an agreerecitative dancing, But the want of this I cannot able person is the main purpose of her parents ; to blame in her, for I find she has no ear, and means that is all their cost, to that all their care directed ; potbing by walking but to change her place. I and from this general folly of parents we owe our could pardon too her blushing, if she knew how to present numerous race of coquettes. These refleccarry herself in it, and if it did not manifestly in- tions puzzle me, when I think of giving my advice jure her complexion.

on the subject of managing the wild thing men

But • How could it be otherwise, when the author of this play sure there is a middle way to be followed; the ma

tioned in the letter of iny correspondent. was Sir George Etheridge, and the character of Dorimant that d Wünet, Earl of Rochester ?

nagement of a young lady's person is not to be over


looked, but the erudition* of her mind is much and I was prevailed upon by her and her mother to more to be regarded. According as this is ma- go last night to one of his balls. I must own to you, naged, you will see the mind follow the appetites of Sir, that having never been to such a place before, the body, or the body express the virtues of the mind. I was very much pleased and surprised with that part

Cleomira dances with all the elegance of motion of his entertainment which he called French imaginable ; but her eyes are so chastised with the Dancing. There were several young men and simplicity and innocence of her thoughts, that she women whose limbs seemed to have no other motion raises in her beholders admiration and good-will, but purely what the music gave them. After this but no loose hope or wild imagination. The true part was over, they began a diversion which they art in this case is, to make the mind and body im- call country dancing, and wherein there were also prove together; and, if possible, to make gesture some things not disagreeable, and divers emblemafollow thought, and not let thought be employed tical figures, composed, as I guess, by wise men, for upon gesture.-R.

the instruction of youth.

“ Among the rest, I observed one which, I think,

they call • Hunt the Squirrel' in which, while the No. 67.] THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1711. woman flies, the man pursues her; but as soon as Saltare elegantius quam necesse est probæ.-SALLUST.

she turns, he runs away, and she is obliged to follow.

“ The moral of this dance does, I think, very Too fine a dancer for a virtuous woman.

aptly recommend modesty and discretion to the feLucian, in one of his dialogues, introduces a phi- male sex. losopher chiding his friend for his being a lover of

“But as the best institutions are liable to corrupdancing and a frequenter of balls. The other un- tion, so, Sir, I must acquaint you, that very great dertakes the defence of his favourite diversion, which, abuses are crept into this entertainment.

I was he says, was at first invented by the goddess Rhea, amazed to see my girl handed by and handing young and preserved the life of Jupiter himself from the fellows with so much familiarity; and I could not cruelty of his father Saturn." He proceeds to show, have thought it had been in the child. They very that it had been approved by the greatest men in all often made use of a most impudent and lascivious ages; that Homer calls Merion a tine dancer; and step called ' Setting,' which I know not how to de says, that the graceful mien and great agility which scribe to you, but by telling you that it is the very he had acquired by that exercise, distinguished him reverse of . Back to Back. At last an impudent above the rest in the armies both of Greeks and young dog bid the fiddlers play a dance called Moll Trojans.

Pately,' and after having made two or three capers, He adds, that Pyrrhus gained more reputation by ran to his partner, locked his arms in hers, and inventing the dance which is called after his name, whisked her round cleverly above ground in such a than by all his other actions: that the Lacedæmo- manner that I, who sat upon one of the lowest nians, who were the bravest people in Greece, gave benches, saw farther above her shoe than I can think great encouragement to this diversion, and made fit to acquaint you with. I could no longer endure their Hormus (a dance much resembling the French those enormities; wherefore, just as my girl was Brawl) famous all over Asia : that there were still going to be made a whirligig, I ran in, seized on the extant some Thessalonian statues erected to the ho-child, and carried her home, nour of their best dancers; and that he wondered Sir, I am not yet old enough to be a fool I how his brother philosopher could declare himself suppose this diversion might be first invented to against the opinions of those two persons whom he keep up a good understanding between young men professed so much to admire-Homer and Hesiod; and women, and so far I am not against it; but I the latter of which compares valour and dancing to shall never allow of these things. I know not what gether, and says, that "the gods have bestowed for- you will say to this case at present, but am sure, had titude on some men, and on others a disposition for you been with me, you would have seen matter of dancing."

great speculation.

“I am, yours," &c. Lastly, he puts him in mind that Socrates (who, I must confess I am afraid that my correspondent in the judgment of Apollo, was the

wisest of men), had too much reason to be a little out of humour at was not only a professed admirer of this exercise in the treatment of his daughter, but I conclude that he others, but learned it himself when he was an old man. would have been much more so, had he seen one of

The morose philosopher is so much affected by those kissing dances in which Will Honeycomb asthese and some other authorities, that he becomes a sures me they are obliged to dwell almost a minute convert to his friend, and desires he would take him on the fair one's lips or they will be too quick for with him when he went to his next ball.

the music, and dance quite out of time. I love to shelter myself under the examples of great

I am not able, however to give my final sentence men; and I think I have sufficiently showed that it against this diversion; and am of Mr. Cowley's is not below the dignity of these my speculations to opinion, that so much of dancing, at least, as betake notice of the following letter, which I suppose longs to the behaviour and a handsome carriage of is sent me by some substantial tradesman about the body, is extremely useful, if not absolutely ne'Change. “SIR,

We generally form such ideas of people at first "I am a man in years, and by an honest industry sight, as we are hardly ever persuaded to lay aside in the world have acquired enough to give my chil- afterward; for this reason, a man would wish

to have dren a liberal education, though I was an utter nothing disagreeable or uncomely in his approaches, stranger to it myself. My eldest daughter, a girl of and to be able to enter a room with a good grace. sixteen, has for some time been under the tuition of

I might add, that a moderate knowledge in the Monsieur Rigadoon, a dancing-master

in the city; little rules of good breeding, gives a man some as

surance, and makes him easy in all companies. For Erudition seems to be here used in an uncommon sense. science at a loss to salute a lady; and a most excel

want of this, I have seen a professor of a liberal

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for cultivation or instruction.

lent mathematician not able to determine whether structive, and unreserved discourse, is that which be should stand or sit while my lord drank to hins. passes between two persons who are familiar and in.

It is the proper business of a dancing-master to timate friends. On these occasions, a man gives & regulate these inatters; though I take it to be a just loose to every passion and every thought that is upobservation, that unless you add something of your permost, discovers his most retired opinions of per own to what these fine gentlemen teach you, and sons and things, tries the beauty and strength of his which they are wholly ignorant of themselves, you sentiments, and exposes his whole soul to the exa. will much sooner get the character of an affected mination of his friend. fop than a well-bred man.

Tully was the first who observed, that friendship As for country dancing, it must indeed be con- improves happiness and abates misery, by the fessed that the great familiarities between the two doubling of our joy, and dividing of our grief; a sexes on this occasion may sometimes produce very thought in which he hath been followed by all the dangerous consequences; and I have often thought essayers upon friendship that have written since his that few ladies' hearts are so obdurate as not to be time. Sir Francis Bacon has finely described other melted by the charms of music, the force of motion, advantages, or, as he calls them, fruits of friendship; and a handsome young fellow, who is continually and, indeed, there is no subject of morality which playing before their eyes, and convincing them that has been better handled and more exhausted than be has the perfect use of all his limbs.

this. Among the several fine things which have been But as this kind of dance is the particular inven- spoken of it

, I shall beg leave to quote some out of tion of our own country, and as every one is more or a very ancient author, whose book would be regarded less a proficient in it, I would not discountenance it; by our modern wits as one of the most shining tracts but rather suppose it may be practised innocently of morality that is extant, if it appeared under the by others as well as myself, who am often partner to name of a Confucius, or of any celebrated Grecian my landlady's eldest daughter.

philosopher : I mean the little apocryphal treatise, POSTSCRIPT.

entitled The Wisdom of the Son of Sirach. How Having heard a good character of the collection finely has he described the art of making friends by of pictures which is to be exposed to sale on Friday an obliging and affable behaviour !~and laid down next; and concluding from the following letter, that that precept, which a late excellent author has dethe person who collected them is a man of no inele-livered as his own, That we should have many well. gant taste, I will be so much his friend as to publish wishers, but few friends. “Sweet language will it, provided the reader will only look upon it as multiply friends; and a fair-speaking tongue will infilling up the place of an advertisement:

crease kind greetings. Be in peace with many, neFrom the Three Chairs, in the Piazzas, Covent Garden. With what prudence does he caution us in the choice

vertheless have but one counsellor of a thousand.". “SIB,

May 16, 1711.

of our friends! And with what strokes of nature "As you are a spectator, I think we who make it (I could almost say of humour) has he described our business to exhibit any thing to public view, the behaviour of a treacherous and self-interested ought to apply ourselves to you for your approbation. friend ! " If thou wouldst get a friend, prove him I have travelled Europe to furnish out a show for first, and be not hasty to credit him: for some man you, and have brought with me what has been ad- is a friend for his own occasion, and will not abide mired in every country through which I passed in the day of thy trouble. And there is a friend, You have declared in many

papers, that your

great- who being turned to enmity and strife, will discover est delights are those of the eye, which I do not thy reproach.”. Again, “ Some friend is a compadoubt but I shall gratify with as beautiful objects as nion at the table, and will not continue in the day yours ever beheld. If castles, forests, ruins, fine of thy affliction : but in thy prosperity he will be as women, and graceful men, can please you, I dare thyself

, and will be bold over thy servants. If thou promise you mueh satisfaction, if you will appear at be brought low he will be against thee, and hide my auction on Friday next. A sight is, I suppose, himself from thy face.”+ What can be more strong as grateful to a Spectator as a treat to another per- and pointed than the following verse ?

“ Separate son, and therefore I hope you will pardon this invi- thyself from thine enemies, and take heed of thy tation from,

friends.". In the next words he particularizes one “Your most obedient humble servant, of those fruits of friendship which is described at X.

J. GRAHAM." length by the two famous authors above mentioned,

and falls into a general eulogium of friendship, No. 68.] FRIDAY, MAY 18, 1711.

which is very just as well as very sublime. А

faithful friend is a strong defence; and he that hath Nos duo turba sumus OviD, Met. i. 355,

found such a one hath found a treasure. Nothing

doth countervail a faithful friend, and his excellency One would think that the larger the company is is invaluable. A faithful friend is the medicine of 10 which we are engaged, the greater variety of life; and they that fear the Lord shall find him. thoughts and subjects would be started in discourse; Whoso feareth the Lord shall direct his friendship but instead of this, we find that conversation is never aright; for as he is, so shall his neighbour (that is 50 much straitened and confined as in numerous as his friend) be also.”I. I do not remember to have semblies. When a multitude meet together on any met with any saying that has pleased me more than subject of discourse, their debates are taken up that of a friend's being the medicine of life, to ex. chiefly with forms and general positions ; nay, if we press the efficacy of friendship in healing the pains come into a more contracted assembly of men and and anguish which naturally cleave to our existence women, the talk generally runs upon the weather, in this world; and am wonderfully pleased with the fashion, news, and the like public topics. In pro- turn in the last sentence, that a virtuous man shall portion as conversation gets into clubs and knots of as a blessing meet with a friend who is as virtuous friends, it descends into particulars, and grows more as himself. There is another saying in the same free and communicative: but the most open, in- Eoclus vi. 5, 6. 1 Ibid. vi. 7. et seqq. 1 Ibid, vi.15-18. SPECTATOR, --Nos. 11 & 12.



We two are a multitude



author, which would have been very much admired No. 69.] SATURDAY, MAY 19, 1711. in a heathen writer: “ Forsake not an old friend,

Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvæ: for the new is not comparable to him: a new friend

Arborei fætus alibi, atque injussa virescunt is as new wine ; when it is old thou shalt drink it Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores. with pleasure."* With what strength of allusion, India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabæi? and force of thought, has he described the breaches

At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus

Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum? and violations of friendship ?—“ Whoso casteth a

Continuo has leges, æternaque fædera certis stone at the birds frayeth them away; and he that Imposuit natura locis

VIRG. Georg. i. 54 upbraideth his friend, breaketh friendship. Though This ground with Bacchus, that with Ceres suits ; thou drawest a sword at a friend, yet despair not, for

That other loads the trees with happy fruits,

A fourth with grass, unbidden, decks the ground: there may be a returning to favour. If thou hast

Thus Tmolus is 'with yellow saffron crown'd; opened thy mouth against thy friend, fear not, for India black ebon and white iv'ry bears; there may be a reconciliation ; except for upbraid

And soft Idume weeps her od'rous tears:

Thus Pontus sends her beaver stones from far: ing, or pride, or disclosing of secrets, or a treacherous

And naked Spaniards temper steel for war: wound; for, for these things every friend will de- Epirus for th. Elean chariot breeds part.”'t We may observe in this and several other (In hopes of palms) a race of running steeds. precepts in this author, those little familiar instances This is th' original contract; these the laws and illustrations which are so much admired in the

Impos'd by nature, and by nature's cause.-DAYDEN. moral writings of Horace and Epictetus. There There is no place in the town which I so much are very beautiful instances of this nature in the fol- love to frequent as the Royal Exchange. It gives lowing passages, which are likewise written on the me a secret satisfaction, and in some measure gratisame subject : “ Whoso discovereth secrets loseth fies my vanity, as I am an Englishman, to see so rich his credit, and shall never find a friend to his mind. an assembly of countrymen and foreigners, consult. Love thy friend, and be faithful to him ; but if thou ing together upon the private business of mankind, bewrayeth his secret, follow no more after him : for as and making this metropolis a kind of emporium for a man bath destroyed his enemy, so hasự thou lost the the whole earth. I must confess I look upon highlove of thy friend; as one that letteth a bird go out change to be a great council, in which all considerof his hand, so hast thou let thy friend go, and shall able nations have their representatives. Factors in not get him again : follow after him no more, for he the trading world are what ambassadors are in the is too far off; he is as a roe escaped out of the snare. politic world ; they negotiate affairs, conclude treaAs for a wound it may be bound up, and after re- ties, and maintain a good correspondence between viling there may be a reconciliation ; but he that those wealthy societies of men that are divided from bewrayeth secrets is without hope.”I

one another by seas and oceans, or live on the diffe Among the several qualifications of a good friend, rent extremities of a continent. I have often been this wise man has very justly singled out constancy pleased to hear disputes adjusted between an inha. and faithfulness, as the principal : to these, others bitant of Japan and an alderman of London; or to have added virtue, knowledge, discretion, equality in see a subject of the Great Mogul entering into a age and fortune, and, as Cicero calls it, Morum co- league with one of the Czar of Muscovy. I am inmitas, “a pleasantness of temper.” If I were to finitely delighted in mixing with these several migive my opinion upon such an exhausted subject, nisters of commerce, as they are distinguished by I should join to these other qualifications, a certain their different walks and different languages. Someequability or evenness of behaviour. A man often times I am jostled among a body of Armenians; contracts a friendship with one whom perhaps he sometimes I am lost in a crowd of Jews; and somedoes not find out till after a year's conversation ; times make one in a group of Dutchmen. I am a when on a sudden some latent ill humour breaks out Dane, Swede, or Frenchman, at different times; or upon him, which he never discovered or suspected at rather fancy myself like the old philosopher, who his first entering into an intimacy with him. There upon being asked what countryman he was, replied, are several persons who in some certain periods of that he was a citizen of the world their lives are inexpressibly agreeable, and in others Though I very frequently visit this busy multi. as odious and detestable. Martial has given us a tude of people, I am known to nobody there but my very pretty picture of one of this species, in the friend Sir Andrew, who often smiles upon me as he following epigram:

sees me bustling in the crowd, but at the same time Difficilis, facilis, jucundus, acerbus es idem,

connives at my presence without taking farther noNec tecum possum vivere, nec sine te.---Epig. xii. 47. tice of me. There is indeed a merchant of Egypt, In all thy hamours, whether grave or mellow,

who just knows me by sight, having formerly reThou'rt such a touchy, testy, pleasant fellow;

mitted me some money to Grand Cairo; but as I am Hast so much wit, and mirth, and spleen about thee,

not versed in modern Coptic, our conferences go no There is no living with thee, nor without thee.

farther than a bow and a grimace. It is very uulucky for a man to be entangled in a This grand scene of business gives me an infinite friendship with one, who, by these changes and vi: variety of solid and substantial entertainments. As cissitudes of humour, is sometimes amiable and I am a great lover of mankind, my heart naturally sometimes odious : and as most men are at some overflows with pleasure at the sight of a prosperous times in admirable frame and disposition of mind, it and happy multitude, insomuch that at many publie should be one of the greatest tasks of wisdom to solemnities I cannot forhear expressing my joy with keep ourselves well when we are so, and never to go tears that have stolen down my cheeks. For this out of that which is the agreeable part of our cha- reason I am wonderfully delighted to see such a body racter.-C.

of men thriving in their own private fortunes, and • Ecclus ix, 10.

at the same time promoting the public stock; or, in Ibid. xxii, 20-22, * Ib d. xxvii. 16,

other words, raising estates for their own families, by bringing into their country whatever is wanting, and carrying out of it whatever is superfluous.

Nature seems to have taken a particular care to

es segg.

disseminate her blessings among the different re often faucied one of our old kings standing in pergions of the world, with an eye to this mutual inter- son, where he is represented in effigy, and looking course and traffic among mankind, that the natives down upon the wealthy concourse of people with of the several parts of the globe might have a kind which that place is every day filled. In this case, of dependence upon one another, and be united how would he be surprised to hear all the languages together by their common interest. Almost every of Europe spoken in this little spot of his former degree produces something peculiar to it. The food dominions, and to see so many private men, who in often grows in one country, and the sauce in ano- his time would have been the vassals of some powerther. The fruits of Portugal are corrected by the ful baron, negotiating like princes for greater sums produce of Barbadoes, and the infusion of a China of money than were formerly to be met with in the plant is sweetened by the pith of an Indian cane. royal treasury! Trade, without enlarging the BriThe Philippic Islands give a flavour to our Euro- tish territories, has given us a kind of additional empean bowls. The single dress of a woman of qua- pire. It has multiplied the number of the rich, lity is often the prodact of a hundred climates. made our landed estates infinitely more valuable The muff and the fan come together from different than they were formerly, and added to them an acends of the earth. The scarf is sent from the torrid cession of other estates as valuable as the lands zone, and the tippet from beneath the pole. The themselves.-C. brocade petticoat rises out of the mines of Peru, and the diamond necklace out of the bowels of

No. 70.] MONDAY, MAY 21, 1711. Indostan. If we consider our own country in its natural

Interdum vulgus rectum videt.-Hor. 1 Ep. ii. 63, prospect, without any of the benefits and advan.

Sometimes the vulgar see and judge aright. tages of commerce, what a barren, uncomfortable When I travelled, I took a particular delight in spot of earth falls to our share! Natural historians hearing the songs and fables that are coine from tell us, that no fruit grows originally among us, be- father to son, and are most in vogue among the comsides hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts, with mon people of the countries through which I passed; other delicacies of the like nature; that our climate for it is impossible that any thing should be univerof itself, and without the assistance of art, can make sally tasted and approved by a multitude, though no farther advances towards a plum than to a sloe, they are only the rabble of a nation, which hath not and carries an apple to no greater perfection than a in it some peculiar aptness to please and gratify the crab: that our melons, our peaches, our figs, our mind of man. Human nature is the same in all apricots, and cherries, are strangers among us, im- reasonable creatures ; and whatever falls in with it, ported in different ages, and naturalized in our En- will meet with admirers amongst readers of alí glish gardens ; and that they would all degenerate qualities and conditions. Moliere, as we are told by and fall away into the trash of our own country, if Monsieur Boileau, used to read all bis comedies to they were wholly neglected by the planter, and left an old woman who was his housekeeper, as she sat to the mercy of our sun and soil. Nor has traffic with him at her work by the chimney-corner; and more enriched our vegetable world, than it has im- could foretel the success of his play in the theatre, proved the whole face of nature among us. Our from the reception it met at his fire-side-for he tells ships are laden with the harvest of every climate. us the audience always followed the old woman, and Our tables are stored with spices, and oils, and. never failed to laugh in the same place. wines. Our rooms are filled with pyramids of I know nothing which more shews the essential China, and adorned with the workmanship of Ja- and inherent perfection of simplicity of thought, pan. Our morning's draught comes to us from the above that which I call the Gothic manner in wriremotest corners of the earth. We repair our bodies ting, than this—that the first pleases all kinds of paby the drugs of America, and repose ourselves under lates, and the latter only such as have formed to Indian canopies. My friend, Sir Andrew, calls the themselves a wrong artificial taste upon little fancivineyards of France our gardens; the spice-islands ful authors and writers of epigram. Homer; Virgil, our hot-beds; the Persians our silk-weavers, and the or Milton, so far as the language of their poems is Chinese our potters. Nature, indeed, furnishes us understood, will please a reader of plain common with the bare necessaries of life, but traffic gives us sense, who would neither relish nor comprehend an a great variety of what is useful, and at the same epigram of Martial, or a poem of Cowley; so, on time supplies us with every thing that is convenient the contrary, an ordinary song or ballad that is the and ornamental. Nor is it the least part of this our delight of the common people, cannot fail to please happiness, that whilst we enjoy the remotest pro- all such readers as are not unqualified for the enterducts of the north and south, we are free from those tainment by their affectation or ignorance; and the extremities of weather which give them birth; that reason is plain--because the same paintings of naour eyes are refreshed with the green fields of Bri- ture which recommend it to the most ordinary tain, and at the same time that our palates are reader will appear beautiful to the most refined. feasted with fruits that rise between the tropics. The old song of Chevy-Chace is the favourite bal. For these reasons there are not more useful mem- lad of the common people of England; and Ben bers in a commonwealth than merchants. They Jonson used to say, he had rather have been the auknit mankind together in a mutual intercourse of thor of it than of all his works. Sir Philip Sydney, good offices, distribute the gifts of nature, find work in his discourse of Poetry, speaks of it in the folfor the poor, add wealth to the rich, and magnifi- lowing words: “I never heard the old song of cance to the great. Our English merchant con. Percy and Douglas, that I found not my heart more Perts the tip of his own country into gold, and ex-moved than with a trumpet : and yet it is sung by changes its wool for rubies. The Mahometans are some blind crowder with no rougher voice than rude clothed in our British manufacture, and the inhabi- style ; which being so evil apparelled in the dust tants of the frozen zone warmed with the fleeces of and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would it work our sheep.

trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence of Pindar ?”. When I have been upon the 'Change, I have for my own part, I am so professed an admirer of

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