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his followers say, is all founded in weakness; and, stinct, prompting men to desire the welfare and sawhatever be preteuded, the kindness that passeth be- tisfaction of others, self-love, in defiance of the tween men and men is by every man directed to admonitions of reason, would quickly run all things himself.' This, it must be confessed, is of a piece into a state of war and confusion. As nearly intewith the rest of that hopeful philosophy, which, hav- rested as the soul is in the fate of the body, our proing patched man up out of the four elements, at- vident Creator saw it necessary, by the consiant tributes his being to chance and derives all his returns of hunger and thirst, those importunate apactions from an unintelligible declination of atoms. petites, to put it in mind of its charge: knowing that And for these glorious discoveries the poet is beyond if we should eat and drink no ofteuer than cold ab. measure transported in the praises of his hero, as if stracted speculation should put us upon these exerhe must needs be something more than man, only cises, and then leave it to reason to preseribe the for an endeavour to prove that man is in nothing quantity, we should soon refine ourselves out of this superior to beasts. In this schwol was Mr. Hobbes bodily life. And, indeed, it is obvious to remark, instructed to speak after the same manner, if he did that we follow nothing heartily, unless carried to it not rather draw his knowledge from an observation by inclinations which anticipate our reason, and, of his own temper; for he somewhere unluckily lays like a bias, draw the mind strongly towards it. lu down this as a rule, that from the similitudes of order, therefore, to establish a perpetual intercourse thoughts and passions of one man to the thoughts of benefits among maukind, their Maker would not and passions of another, whosoever looks into him- fail to give them this generous prepossession of beself and considers what he doth when he thinks, nevolence, if, as I have said, it were possible. And hopes, fears, &c., and upon what grounds, he shall from whence can we go about to argue its impossihereby read and know what are the thoughts and bility? Is it inconsistent with self-love ? Are their passions of all other men upon the like occasion. motions contrary? No more than the diurual rotaNow we will allow Mr. Hobbes to know best how tion of the earth is opposed to its annual; or its he was inclined; but in earnest, I should be heartily motion round its own centre, which might be imout of conceit with myself if I thought myself of this proved as an illustration of self-love, to that which upamiable temper as he affirms, and should have as whirls it about the common centre of the world, anlittle kindness for myself as for any body in the swering to universal benevolence. Is the force of world. Hitherto I always imagined that kind and self-love abated, or its interest prejudiced, by bevebenevolent propensions were the original growth of volence ? So far from it, that benevolence, though the heart of man; and, however checked and over- a distinct principle, is extremely serviceable to selftopped by counter-inclinations that have since sprung love, and then doth most service when it is least up within us, have still some force in the worst of designed. temipers, and a considerable influence on the best. But to descend from reason to matter of fact, the And methinks it is a fair step towards the proof of pity which arises on sight of persons in distress, and this, that the most beneficent of all beings is he who the satisfaction of mind which is the consequence of hath an absolute fulness of perfection in himself, having removed them into a happier state, are in. who gave existence to the universe, and so cannot stead of a thousand arguments to prove such a thing be supposed to want that which he communicated, as a disinterested benevolence. 'Did pity proceed without diminishing from the plenitude of his own from a reflection we make upon our liableness to power and happiness. The philosophers before men- the same ill accidents we see befal others, it were tioned have indeed done all that in them lay to in- nothing to the present purpose; but this is assignvalidate this argument; for, placing the gods in a ing an artificial cause of a natural passion, and can state of the most elevated blessedness, they describe by no means be admitted as a tolerable account of them as selfish as we poor miserable mortals can be, it, because children and persons most thoughtless and shut them out from all concern for mankind, about their own condition, and incapable of entering upon the score of their having no need of us. But into the prospects of futurity, feel the most violent if He that sitteth in thu heavens wants not us, we touches of compassion. And then, as to that charmstand in continual need of him ; and, surely, next ing delight which immediately follows the giving joy to the survey of the immense treasures of his own to another, or relieving his sorrow, and is, when the mind, the most exalted pleasure he receives is from objects are numerous, and the kindness of importbeholding millions of creatures, lately drawn out of ance, really inexpressible, what can this be owing to the gulf of non-existence, rejoicing in the various but a consciousness of a man's having done some. degrees of being and happiness imparted to them. thing praiseworthy, and expressive of a great soul? And as this is the true, the glorious character of the Whereas, if in all this he only sacrificed to vanity Deity, so in forining a reasonable creature he would and self-love, as there would be nothing brave in ac. ant, if possible, suffer his image to pass out of his tions that make the most shining appearance, so oa. hands uondorned with a resemblance of himself in ture would not have rewarded them with this divine this most lovely part of his nature. For what com- pleasure; nor could the commendations, which a placeney could a mind, whose love is as unbounded person receives for benefits done upon selfish views, as bis knowledge, have in a work so unlike himself; be at all more satisfactory than when he is applauded a ereature that should be capable of knowing and for what he doth without design; because in both conversing with a vast circle of objects, and love cases the ends of self-love are equally answered. bone but himself? What proportion would there The conscience of approving one's self a benefactor be between the head and the heart of such a crea- to mankind is the noblest recompense for being so ; ture, its affections, and its understanding? Or could doubtless it is, and the most interested cannot prøa society of such creatures, with no other bottom but pose any thing so much to their own advantage; self-love on which to maintain a commerce, ever notwithstanding which, the inclination is nevertheflourish ? Reason, it is certain, would oblige every less unselfish. The pleasure which attends the graman to pursue the general happiness as the means tification of our buuger and thirst is not the cause to procure and establish his own; and yet, if be- of these appetites; they are previous to do y such sides this consideration, there were not a natural in prospect; and so likewise is the desire of doing good ;


Ovid, Met. viii. 774.

1. Do, with this difference, that, being seated in the intel-it as the highest piece of sacrilege to injure certain iectual part, this last, though antecedent to reason, trees which they took to be protected by sone deity. may yet be improved and regulated by it; and, i 'The story of Erisicthon, the grore of Dodona, and will add, is no otherwise a virtue than as it is so that at Delphi, are all instances of this kind, Thus have I contended for the dignity of that nature “ If we consider the machine in Virgil, so much I have'the honour to partake of: and, after all the blamed by several critics, in this light, we shall evidence produced, think I have a right to conclude, bardly think it too violent. against the motto of this paper, that there is such a Åneas, when he built bis fleet in order to sail thing as generosity in the world. Though, if I were for Italy, was obliged to cut down the grove on under a inistake in this, I should say as Cicero in mount Ida, which however be durst not do until he relation to the immortality of the soul, I willingly had obtained leave from Cyvele, to whom it was deerr, and should believe it very much for the interest dicated. The goddess could not but think herself of mankind to lie under the same delusion. For the obliged to protect the ships, wbich were made of cortrary notion uaturally tends to dispirit the mind, consecrated timber, after a very extraordinary mauand sinks it into a meanness fatal io the godlike ner, and therefore desired Jupiter, that they might zeal of doing good : as, on the other hand, it teaches not be obnoxious to the power of waves or winds. people to be ungrateful, by possessing them with a Jupiter would not grant this

, but promised ber that persuasion concerning their benefactors

, that they as many as came safe to Italy should be transformed have no regard to them in the benefits they bestow. into goddesses of the sea ; whicb the poet teils tas Now he that banishes gratitude from among men, was accordingly executed. by so doing, stops up the stream of beneficence: for

And now at length the pumber'd hours were cone, though in conferring kindnesses a truly generous Prefix'd by Fate's irrevocable doom, man doth not aim at a return, yet he looks to the When the great mother of the gods was free

To save her ships, and finish Jove's decree. qualities of the person obliged ; and as nothing

First, from the quarter of the morn there sprung renders a person more unworthy of a benefit than

A light tha: sing d the heavens, and shot along : his being without all resentment of it, he will not be Then from a cloud, fring'd round with golden fires,

Were timbrels heard, and Berecynthian qures: extremely forward to oblige such a man.

And last a voice, will wore than nuortat sounds,
Both hosts in arms opposed with equal horror wounds

O Trojan race, your needless aid arbear:
No. 589.) FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1714. And know my ships are my peculiar care.

With greater ease the bold Ratoliani may Persequitur scelus ille suum : labefactaque tandem

With bissing brands attenpi to burn the sea, Ictibus innumeris, adductaque sumbus arbor

Than singe my sacred pines. But you, my charge.

Loos'd from your crooked anchors, launched at large, The impious axe he plies, loud strokes resound :

Exalted each a nymph: forsake the fund, Till dragg d with ropes, and felld with many a wound,

And swim the seas, at Cybele's congrand." The loosen'd tree comes rushing to the ground.

No sooner had the goddess ceased to speak,

When lo. th' obedient ships their hawers break! “ Sir,

And strange to tell, like dolphins in the main,

They plunge their prows, and dive and spring agnir: "Tam so great an admirer of trees, that the spot

As many beauteous maids the billows sweep, of ground I have chosen to build a small seat upon As rode before tall vessels on the deep. in the country is alınost in the midst of a large

DEYDEX's Viso. wood. I was obliged, much against my will, to cut “ The common opinion concerning the nymphs, down several trees, that I might have any such whom the ancients called Hamadryads, is more te thing as a walk in my gardens ; but then I have the honour of trees than any thing yet mentioned. taken care to leave the space between every walk as It was thought the fate of these nymphs had so near much a wood as I found it. The moment you turn a dependance on some trees, more especially oaks, either to the right or left you are in a forest, where that they lived and died together. For this reasea nature presents you with a much more beautiful they were extremely grateful to such persons who scene than could have been raised by art,

preserved those trees with wbich their being sulte "Instead of tulips or carnations I can show you sisted. A pollonius tells us a very remarkable story oaks in my gardens of four hundred years' standing, to this purpose, with which I shall conclude my and a knot of elms that might shelter a troop of letter. horse from the rain.

"A certain man, called Rhæcus, observing an od " It is not without the utınost indignation, that I oak ready to fall, and being moved with a sort of observe several prodigal young heirs in the neigh- compassion towards the tree, ordered his servants to bourhood felling down the most glorious monuments pour in fresh earth at the roots of it, and set it upof their ancestor's industry, and ruining, in a day, right. The Hamadryad, or nymph, who must nex the product of ages.

cessarily have perished with the tree, appeared to "I am mightily pleased with your discourse upon him the next day, and, after having retuced him planting, which put me upon looking into my books, her thanks, told him she was ready to grant what to give you some account of the veneration the ever he should ask. As she was extremely beautiful, ancients had for trees. There is an old tradition Rhæcus desired he might be entertained as ber.. that Abraham planted a cypress, a pine, and a cedar; lover. The Hamadryad, not much displeased with? and that these three incorporated into one tree, the request, promised to give him 4 meeting, but which was cut down for the building of the temple commanded bim for some days to abstain from the of Solomon.

embraces of all other women, adding that she “ Isidorus, who lived in the reign of Constantius, would send a bee to bim, to let him know when be assures us, that he saw, even in his tine, that fa- was to be happy. Rhæcus was, it seems, tuo mucka mous oak in the plains of Mamre, under which addicted to gaming, and happened to be in a rool Abraham is reported to have dwelt; and adds, that ill-luck when the faithful bee came buzzing about the people looked upon it with a great veneration, him; so that, instead of minding his kind inrit and preserved it as a sacred tree.

tion, he had like to have killed him for his pais. The beathras still went further, and regarded | The Hamadryad was so provoked at her own dis

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apivintment, and the ill usage of her messenger, find that the difficulties we meet with in our con. ibat she deprived Khæcus of the use of his limbs. ceptions of eternity proceed from this single reason, However, says the story, he was not so much a that we can have no other idea of any kind of duraeripple," but he made a shift to cut down the tree, tion than that by which we ourselves, and all other aud consequently to fell his mistress."

created beings, do exist; which is, a successive duration made up of past, present, and to come. There

is nothing which exists after this manner, all the No. 590.] MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1714. parts of whose existence were not once actually Assiduo labuntur tempora motu,

present, and consequently may be reached by a Non secus ac flumen. Neque enim consistere flumen, certain number of years applied to it. We may Nec levis hora potest : sed ut unda impellitur unda, ascend as bigh as we please, and employ our being Urgeturque prior venienti, urgetque priorem; Tempora sic fugiunt pariter, pariterque sequuntur:

to that eternity which is to come, in adding millions Et nova sunt semper. Num quod fuit ante, relictum est : of years to millions of years, and we can never come Fitque, quod haud fuerat: momentaque cuncta novantur. up to any fountain-head of duration, to any begin.

OVID, Met. xv. 179.

ning in eternity: but at the same time we are sure E'en times are in perpetual flux, and run, Like rivers from their fountains, rolling on.

that whatever was once present does lie within the For time, no more than streams, is at a stay;

reach of numbers, though perhaps we can never be The flying hour is ever on her way:

able to put enough* of them together for that purAnd as the fountains still supply their store,

pose. We may as well say, that any thing may be The wave behind impels the wave before; Thus in successive course the minutes run,

actually present in any part of iutinite space, which And urge their predecessor minutes on.

does not lie at a certain distance from us, as that Still moving, ever new; for former things

any part of infinite duration was once actually preAre laid aside, like abdicated kings; And every moment alters what is done,

sent, and does not also lie at some determined disAnd innovates some act, till then unknown.-DRYDEN.

tance from us. The distance in both cases may be

immeasurable and indefinite as to our faculties, but The following discourse comes from the same hand

our reason tells us that it cannot be so in itself. with the Essays on Infinitude.

Here, therefore, is that difficulty which buman un. “We consider infinite space as an expansion derstanding is not capable of surmounting. We are without a circumference: we consider eternity, or sure that something must have existed from eternity, infinite duration, as a line that has neither å be- and are at the same time unable to conceive, that gipning nor an end. In our speculations of infinite any thing which exists, according to our uotion of space, we consider that particular place in which we existence, can have existed from eternity. exist as a kind of centre to the whole expansion. In “ It is hard for a reader, who has not rolled this our speculations of eternity, we consider the time thought in his own mind, to follow in such an ab. which is present to us as the middle, which divides stracted speculation ; but I have been the longer ou the whole lide into two equal parts. For this reason it, because I think it is a demonstrative argument many witty authors compare the present time to an of the being and eternity of God: and, though there isthmus, or narrow neck of land, that rises in the are many other demonstrations which lead us to this midst of an ocean, immeasurably diffused on either great truth, I do not think we ought to lay aside side of it.

any proofs in this matter, which the light of reason “Philosophy, and indeed common sense, naturally has suggested to us, especially when it is such a one tbrows eternity under two divisions, which we may as has been urged by men famous for their penecall in English that eternity which is past, and that tration and force of understanding, and which apeternity which is to come. The learned terms of pears altogether conclusive to those who will be at Plernitas e parte ante, and Æternitas a parte post, the pains to examine it. may be more amusing to the reader, but can have Having thus considered that eternity which is no other idea affixed to them than what is conveyed past, according to the best idea we can frame of it

, to us by those words, an eternity that is past, and I shall now draw up those several articles on this an eternity that is to come. Each of these eternities subject, which are dictated to us by the light of reais bounded at the one extreme; or, in other words, son, and which may be looked upon as the creed of the former has an end, and the latter a beginning. a philosopher in this great point.

“Let us first of all consider that eternity which ". First, It is certain, that no being could have is past, reserving that which is to come for the sub- made itself; for if so, it must have acted before it ject of another paper. The nature of this eternity was, which is a contradiction. is utterly inconceivable by the mind of man: our “Secondly, That therefore some being must have reason demonstrates to us that it has been, but at existed from all eternity. the same time can frame no idea of it, but what is “Thirdly, That whatever exists after the manner big with absurdity and contradiction. We can have of created beings, or according to any notions which no other conception of any duration which is past, we have of existence, could not have existed from than that all of it was once present; and whatever eternity. was once present is at some certain distance from “Fourthly, That this eternal Being must there. us, and whatever is at any certain distance from us, fore be the great Author of nature, the Ancient of be the distance never so remote, cannot be eternity! Days,' who, being at infinite distance in his perfecThe very notion of any duration being past, implies tions from all finite and created beings, exists in a that it was once present, for the idea of being once quite different manner from them, and in a manner present is actually included in the idea of its being of which they can have no idea. pastí This, therefore, is a depth not to be sounded “I know that several of the schoolmen, who would by human understanding. We are sure that there not be thought ignorant of any thing, have prehas been an eternity, and yet contradiet ourselves tended to explain the manner of God's existence, by when we measare this eternity by any notion which telling us that he comprehends infinite duration in we can frame of it. -** we go to the bottom of this matter, we shall Enow. The singulur number is here used for the plural

every moment: that eternity is with him a punctum praise, in adoration! It is indeed a thought too big stans, a fixed point; or, which is as good sense, an for the niind of man, and rather to be entertained infinite instant; that nothing with reference to his in the secrecy of devotion, and in the silence of the existence is either past or to come ; to which the soul, than to be expressed by isords. The supreme ingenious Mr. Cowley alludes in his description of Being has not given us powers or faculties suficien: heaven:

to extol and magnify such unutterable goodness. Nothing is there to come, and nothing past,

“It is however some comfort to us, that we shall But an eternal now does always last.

be always doing what we shall never be able to de;

and that a work which cannot be finished, will bor. "For my own part, I look upon these proposi- ever be the work of eteruity." tions as words that have no ideas annexed to them: and think men had better own their ignorance than advance doctrines by which they mean nothing, and No.591.) WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8, 1714. which, indeed, are self-contradictory. We cannot

Tenerorum lusor amorum, be too modest in our disquisitions when we meditate on Him, who is environed with so much glory and

Ovip, Trist. 3 EL L. 73 perfection, who is the source of being, the fountain

Love the soft subject of his sportive Muse. of all that existence which we and his whole crea- I HAVE just received a letter from a gentleman, tion derive from him. Let us, therefore, with the who tells me he has observed, with no small coutmost humility acknowledge, that as some being cern, that my papers have of late been very barten must necessarily have existed from eternity, so this in relation to love; a subject wbich, when agree being does exist after an incomprehensible manner, ably handled, can scarcely fail of being well resince it is impossible for a being to have existed ceived by both sexes. from eternity after our manner or notions of ex- If my invention, therefore, should be almost esistence. Revelation confirms these natural dictates hausted on this head, he offers to serve under me in of reason in the accounts which it gives us of the the quality of a love-casuist ; for which place he divine existence, where it tells us, that he is the conceives himself to be thoroughly qualified, baring same yesterday, lo-day, and for ever; that he is the made this passion his principal study, and observed Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending; it in all its different shapes and appearances from that a thousand years are with him as one day, and the fifteenth to the forty-fifth year of his age. one day as a thousand years : by which, and the He assures me with an air of confidence, which I like expressions, we are taught that his existence hope proceeds from his real abilities, that he does with relation to time or duration is infinitely differ- not doubt of giving judgment to the satisfaction of eut from the existence of any of his creatures, and the parties concerned on the most aice and intricate consequently that it is impossible for us to frame any cases which can happen in an amour: as, adequate conceptions of it.

How great the contraction of the fingers must be "In the first revelation which he makes of his own before it amounts to a squeeze by the band. being, he entitles himself, 'I Am that I Am ;' and What can be properly termed an absolute deaisi when Moses desires to know what name he shall from a maid, and what from a widow. give him in his embassy to Pharaoh, he bids him What advances a lover may presume to make, say, that I Am bath sent you. Our great Creator, after having received a pat upon his shoulder from by this revelation of himself, does in a manner ex- his mistress's fan. clude every thing else from a real existence, and Whether a lady, at the first interview, may allor distinguishes himself from his creatures as the only a humble servant to kiss her hand. being which truly and really exists. The ancient How far it may be permitted to caress the mais, Platonic notion, which was drawn from speculations in order to succeed with the mistress. of eternity, wonderfully agrees with this revelation What constructions a man may put upon a smile, which God has niade of himself. There is nothing, and in what cases a frown goes for nothing. say they, which in reality exists, whose existence, as On what occasion a sleepish look may do serwe call it, is pieced up of past, present, and to vice, &c. come. Such a flitting and successive existence, is As a further proof of his skill, be also sent me rather a shadow of existence, and something

which several maxims in love, which he assures me are the is like it, than existence itself. He only properly result of a long and profound reflection, some of exists whose existence is entirely present ; that is, which I think myself obliged to communicate to the in other words, who exists in the most perfect man- public, not remembering to have seen them before ner, and in such a manner as we have no idea of. in any author.

“ I shall conclude this speculation with one use- There are more calamities in the world arising ful inference. How can we sufficiently prostrate from love than from hatred. ourselves and fall down before our Maker, when we Love is the daughter of Idleness, but the mother consider that ineffable goodness and wisdom which of Disquietude. contrived this existence for finite natures ? What "Men of grave natures, says Sir Francis Baron, must be the overflowings of that good-will, which are the most constant; for the same reason tren prompted our Creator to adapt existence to being should be more constant than women. in whom it is not necessary; especially when we “The gay part of mankind is most amorğus, the consider that he himself was before in the complete serious most loving. possession of existence and of happiness, and in the "A coquette often loses her reputatios while she full enjoyment of eternity. What man can think of preserves her virtue. himself as called out and separated from nothing, of “A prude often preserves her reputation when his being made a conscious, a reasonable, and a she has lost her virtde. barpy creature; in short, of being taken ip as a “Love refines a man's behaviour, but makes a sharer of existence, and a kind of partner in eter-woman's ridiculous. nity, without being swallowed up in wonder, in " Love is generally accompanied with goodwill


in the young, interest in the middle-aged, and a since it is a rule among these gentlemen to fall upon passion foo gross to name in the olu.

a play, not because it is ill written, but because it The endeavours to revive a decaying passion takes. Several of them lay it down as a maxim, generally extinguish the remains of it.

that whatever dramatic performance has a long run, "A woman who from being a slattern becomes must of necessity be good for nothing; as though orer-veat, or from being over-neat becomes a slat- the first precept in poetry were “ not to please."? lera, is most certainly in love.”

Whether this rule holds good or not, I shall leave to I shall make use of this gentleman's skill as I see the determinatiou of those who are better judges occasion; and since I am got upon the subject of than myself; if it does, I am sure it tends very much love, sball conclude this paper with a copy of verses to the honour of those gentlemen who have esta which were lately sent me by an unknown hand, as blished it; few of their pieces having been disgraced I look upon them to be above the ordinary run of by a run of three days, and most of them being so sunneteers.

exquisitely written, that the town would never give The author tells me they were written in one of them more than one night's hearing. his despairing fits; and I find entertains some hope I have a great esteem for a true critic, such as that his mistress may pity such a passion as he Aristotle and Longinus among the Greeks; Horace has described, before she knows that she is herself and Quintilian among the Romans; Boileau and Corinna,

Dacier among the French. But it is our misfortune Conceal fond man, conceal the mighty smart,

that some, who set up for professed critics among us, Nor tell Corinna she has fir'd thy heart.

are so stupid, that they do not know how to put ten In vain would'st thou complain, in vain pretend words together with elegance or common propriety; To ask a pity which she must not lend.

and withal so illiterate, that they have no taste of She's too much thy superior to comply, Aud too, too fair to let thy passion die.

the learned languages, and therefore criticize upon Languish in secret, and with dumb surprise

old authors only at second-hand. They judge of Drink the resistless glances of her eyes.

them by what others have written, and not by any At awful distance entertain thy grief, Be stil in pain, but never ask relief.

notions they have of the authors themselves. The Ne'er tempt her scorn of thy consuming state words unity, action, sentiment, and diction, proBe any way undone, but fly' her hate.

nounced with an air of authority, give them a figure Thou must submit to see thy charmer bless Some happier youth that shall admire her less;

among unlearned readers, who are apt to believe Who in that lovely foro, that heavenly mind,

they are very deep because they are unintelligible. Shall miss ten thousand beauties thou could'st find; The ancient critics are full of the praises of their Who with low fancy shall approach her chamas, contemporaries; they discover beauties which es. While hall enjoy'd she sinks into his arms,

caped the observation of the vulgar, and very often She knows not, must not know, thy noble fire, Whom she and whom the Muses do inspire :

find out reasons for palliating and excusing such Her image only shall thy breast employ,

little slips and oversights as were committed in the And fill thy captive soul with shades of joy; Direct thy drearns by night, thy thoughts by day.

writings of eminent authors. On the contrary, most And never never from thy bosom suay.

of the smatterers in criticism, who appear among us, make it their business to vilify and depreciate every

new production that gains applause, to decry ima No. 592.) FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1714. ginary blemishes, and to prove, by far-fetched argu.

ments, that what pass for beauties in any celebrated -Studium sine divite vena. Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 409

piece are faults and errors. In short, the writings Art without a vein.-RoscoMMON.

of these critics, compared with those of the ancients, I look upon the playhouse as a world within it-are like the works of the sophists compared with self. They have lately furnished the middle region those of the old philosophers. of it with a new set of meteors, in order to give the Envy and cavil are the natural fruits of laziness sublime to many modern tragedies. I was there and ignorance; which was probably the reason, that last winter at the first rehearsal of the new thunder,t in the beathen mythology, Momus is said to be the which is much more deep and sonorous than any son of Nox and Somnus, of darkness and sleep. hitherto made use of. They have a Salmoneus Idle men, who have not been at the paius to accom, behind the scenes who plays it off with great success. plish or distinguish themselves, are very apt to deTheir lightnings are made to flash more briskly than tract from others; as ignorant men are very subject heretofore; their clouds are also better furbelowed, to decry those beauties in a celebrated work which and more voluminous; not to mention a violent they have not eyes to discover. Many of our sons storm locked up in a great chest, that is designed of Momus, who dignify themselves by the name of for the Tempest. They are also provided with

above critics, are the genuine descendants of these two ila dozen showers of snow, which, as I am informed, lustrious ancestors. They are often led into those are the plays of many unsuccessful poets artificially numerous absurdities in which they daily instruct cut and shredded for that use. Mr. Rymer's Edgar the people, by not considering that, first, there is is to fall in snow at the next acting of Kiny Lear, sometimes a greater judgment shown in deviating in order to heighten, or rather to alleviate, the dis- from the rules of art than in adhering to them ; and, tress of that unfortunate prince ; and to serve by 2ndly, that there is more beauty in the works of a way of decoration to a piece which that great critic great genius, who is ignorant of all the rules of art, has written against.

than in the works of a little genius, who not only I do not indeed wonder that the actors should be knows but scrupulously observes them. such professed enemies to those among our nation

First, We may often take notice of men who are who are commonly known by the name of critics, perfectly acquainted with all the rules of good wri

ting, and notwithstanding choose to depart from The author of these verses was Gilbert, the second bro- them on extraordinary occasions. I could give inther of Eustace Badgell. Esq, method of making thunder : at whom several oblique Strokes have shown their judgment in this particular; and

ether parently an allusion to Mr. Dennis's new and improved stances out of all the tragic writers of antiquity who to this paper seem to have been aimed SPECTATOR-Xos. 85 & 86

purposely receded from an established rule of ite

2 X

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