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so that your dear may bring you hither as soon as sion easily affected; for I must tell you, dear Jenny, his horses are in case enough to appear in town, I hold one máxim, which is an uncommon one, w and you be very safe agaiust any raillery you may wit, that our greatest charms are owing to affectaapprehend from me; for I am surrounded with cox- tion. It is to that our arms can lodge so quietly combs of my own muking, who are all ridiculous in just over our hips, and the fan can play without any a manner your good man, I presume, cannot exert force or motion, but just of the wrist. It is to arhimself. As men who cannot raise their fortunes, fectation we owe the pensive attention of Deidamia ayd are uneasy under the incapacity of shining in at a tragedy, the scornful approbation of Dulciumara courts, rail at ambition; so do awkward and insipid at a comedy, and the lowly aspect of Lanquicelsa women, who cannot warm the hearts, and charm at a sermon. the eyes of men, rail at affectation : but she that “ To tell you the plain truth, I know no pleasure has the joy of seeing a man's heart leap into his but in being admired, and have yet never failed of eyes at beholding her, is in no pain for want of es- attaining the approbation of the man whose regard teem among the crew of that part of her own sex, I had a mind to. You see all the men who make a who have no spirit but that of envy, and no lan- figure in the world (as wise a look as they are guage but that of malice. I do not in this, I bope, pleased to put upon the matter) are moved by the express myself insensible of the merit of Leodacia, same vanity as I am. What is there in ambi. who lowers her beauty to all but her husband, and tion, but to make other people's wills depend upon

beser spreads her charms but to gladden him who yours? This indeed is not to be aimed at by one who 3 has a right to them; I say, I do honour to those who has a genius no higher than to think of being a

can be coquettes, and are not such; but I despise very good housewife in a country gentleman's all who would be so, and, in despair of arriving at family. The care of poultry and pigs are great it themselves, hate and vilify all those who can. enemies to the countenance; the vacant look of a

But be that as it will, in answer to your desire of fine lady is not to be preserved, if she admits any 3. knowing my history: oue of my chief present plea- thing to take up her thoughts but her own dear

sures is in country-dances ; and in obedience to me, person. But I interrupt you too long from your as well as the pleasure of coming up to me with a cares, and myself from my conquests

. good grace, showing themselves in their address to "I am, Madam, your most humble Servant." others in my presence, and the like opportunities, “Give me leave, Mr. Spectator, to add her friend's they are all proficients that way: and I had the answer to this epistle, who is a very discreet ingehappiness of being the other night where we made nious woman.” six couple, and every woman's partner a professed lover of mine. The wildest imagination can not

“ Dear GATTY, form to itself, on any occasion, higher delight than “I take your raillery in very good part, and am I acknowledge myself to have been in all that even obliged to you for the free air with which you speak ing. I chose out of my admirers a set of men who of your own gaieties. But this is but a barren sumost love nie, and gave them partners of such of my perficial pleasure ; for, indeed, Gatty, we are made Ovu sex who most envied me.

for man; and in serious sadness I must tell you, wheMy way is, when any

man who is my admirer ther you yourself know it or no, all these gallantries pretends to give himseli airs of merit, as at this tend to no other end, but to be a wife and a mother une a certain gentleman you know did, to mortify as fast as you can, bim by favouring in his presence the most insigni "I am, Madam, cant creature I can tind. At this ball I was led


" Your most obedient Servant." into the company by pretty Mr. Fantly, who, you know, is the most obsequious, well-shaped, well-bred woman's man in town. I, at first entrance, declared No.516.] WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 22, 1712. kim my partner if he danced at all; which put the whole assembly into a grin, as forming no terrors

Immortale odium, et nunquam sanabile vulmus : fron such a rival. But we had not been long in the

Inde furor vulgo, quod numina vicinorum

Odit uterque locus; quum solos credit habendos mom before I overheard the meritorious gentleman

Esse deos, quos ipse colat.above mentioned say with an oath, • There is no

-A grutch, time out of mind, begun rallery in the thing, she certainly loves the puppy.'

And mutually bequeath'd from sire to son; My gentleman, when we were dancing, took an oc

Religious spite and pious spleen bred first

The quarrel which so long the bigots nurst: casion to be very soft in his oglings upon a lady he

Each calls the sther's god a senseless stock : danced with, and whom he knew of all women ! loved most to outshine. The contest began who Of all the monstrous passions and opinions which should plague the other most. I, who do not care have crept into the world, there is none bo wonderful a farthing for hiin, had no hard cask to outrex bim. as that those who profess the common name of I made Faufly, with a very little encouragement, Christians, should pursue each other with rancour cut capers coupée, and then sink with all the air and and hatred for differences in their way of following tenderness imaginable. When he performed this

, the example of their Saviour. It seems so natural I observed the gentleman you know of fall

into the that all who pursue the steps of any leader should same way, and imitate as well as he could the de- form themselves after his manners, that it is imposspied Panfly. I cannot well give you, who are

so sible to account for effects so different

from what we urare a country lady, the idea of the joy we have might expect from those who profess themselves ful. when we see a stubborn heart breaking, or a man of lowers of the highest pattern of meekness and chaSense turning fool for our sakes ; but this happened rity, but by ascribing such effects to the ambitivo to our friend, and I expect his attendance whenever and corruption of those who are so audacious with

go to church, tu court, to the play, or the park. souls full of fury, to serve at the altars of the Gud This is a sacrifice due to us women of genius, who of Peace. have the eloquence of beauty, an easy mien. I

The massacres to which'the church of Rome las mean by an easy mien, one which can be cn occa-l animated the ordinary people, are dreadful instauces

Juv. Sat. 15. 34

His own divine.-TATE.

of the truth of this observation; and whoever reads his virtue, and gild his vice at so high a rate, that the history of the Irish rebellion, and the eruelties he without seoru of the one, or love of the other, which ensued thereupon, will be sufficiently con- would alternately and occasionally use both ; * vinced to what rage poor ignorants may be worked that his bounty should support him in his rapides, up by those who profess holiness, and become in- bis mercy in his cruelties. cendiaries, and, under the dispensation of grace, “Nor is it to give things a more severe look than promote evils abhorrent to nature.

is natural, to suppose such must be the consequences The subject and catastrophe, which deserve so of a prince's having no other pursuit than that of well to be remarked by the Protestant world, will, his own glory; for if we consider an infant born inte I doubt not, be considered, by the reverend and the world, and beholding itself the mightiest thing learned prelate thrat preaches to-morrow before many in it, itself the present admiration and future prosof the descendants of those who perished on that la- pect of a fawning people, who profess themselve mentable day, in a manner suitable to the occasion, great or mean, according to the figure be is to make and worthy his own great virtue and eloquence. amongst them, what fancy would not be debauched

I shall not dwell upon it any further, but only tran- to believe they were but what they professed the scribe out of a little tract, called the Christian Hero, selves—his mere creatures, and use them as such, published in 1701, what I find there in honour of by purchasing with their lives a boundless report, the renowned hero, William III., who rescued that which he, for want of a more just prospect, vald pation from a repetition of the same disasters. His place in the number of his slaves, and the extent el late majesty, of glorious' memory, and the most his territories? Such undoubtedly would be the Christian king, are considered at the conclusion of tragical effects of a prince's living with no religion, that treatise as heads of the Protestant and Roman which are not to be surpassed but by his having a Catholic world in the following manner :

false one. “There were not ever, before the entrance of the If ambition were spirited with zeal, what would Christian name into the world, men who have main- follow, but that his people should be converted into tained a more renowned carriage, than the two great an army, whose swords can make right in powet rivals who possess the full fame of the present age, and solve controversy in belief? And if men sberald and will be the theme and examination of the future. be stiff-necked to the doctrine of that visible church, They are exactly formed by nature for those ends to let them be contented with an oar and a chain, in which Heaven seems to have sent them among us. the midst of stripes and anguish, to contemplate on Both animated with a restless desire of glory, but Him whose yoke is easy and whose burden is light. pursue it by different means, and with different mo “ With a tyranny begun on his own subjects, and tives. To one it consists in an extensive undisputed indignation that others draw their breath indepenempire over his subjects, to the other in their ra- dent of his frown or smile, why should be not prin tional and voluntary obedience. One's happiness is ceed to the seizure of the world? And if nothing founded in their want of power, the others in their but the thirst of sway were the motive of his actione

, want of desire to oppose him. The one enjoys the why should treaties be other than mere words

, or summit of fortune with the luxury of a Persian, the solemn national compacts be any thing but a balt other with the moderation of a Spartan. One is in the march of that art.y, who are never to by made to oppress, the other to relieve the oppressed down their arms until all men are reduced to the The one is satisfied with the pomp ard ostentation necessity of hanging their lives on his wayward wil: of power to prefer and debase his inferiors; the who might supinely, and at leisure, expiate his own other delighted only with the cause and foundation sins, by other men's sufferings, while he daily beof it to cherish and protect them. To one therefore ditates new slaughter and new conquests ? religion is but a convenient disguise, to the other a “For mere man, when giddy with unbridled vigorous motive of action.

power, is an insatiate idol, not to be appeased with • For, without such ties of real and solid honour, myriads offered to his pride, which may be paffel up there is no way of forming a monarch, but after the by the adulation of a base and prostrate world into Machiavelian scheme, by which a prince must ever an opinion that he is something more than huniani, seem to have all virtues, but really to be master of by being something less: and alas ! what is there none; but is to be liberal, merciful, and just; only that mortal man will not believe of himself when as they serve his interests; while with the noble art complimented with the attributes of God? He can of hypocrisy, empire would be to be extended, and then conceive thoughts of a power as omoipresett a new conquests be made by new devices, by which his. But, should there be such a foe of mankind prompt address his creatures might insensibly give now upon earth, have our sins so far provoked Hea. law in the business of life, by leading men in the ven, that we are left utterly naked to his fury: 1 entertainment of it.

there no power, no leader, no genius, that can cto“ Thus, when words and show are apt to pass for duct and animate us to our death, or our defence? the substantial things they are only to express

, Yes; our great God never gave one to reign by his there would need

no more to enslave a country but permission, but he gave to another also to reign by to adorn a court; for while every man's vanity his grace. makes him believe himself capable of becomiug “ All the circumstances of the illustrious life of luxury, enjoyments are a ready bait for sufferings, our prince seem to have conspired to make him the and the hopes of preferment invitations

to servitude; check and bridle of tyranny; for his mind has been which slavery would be coloured with all the agree-strengthened and confirmed by one continuedare ments, as they call it, imaginable. The noblest gle, and Heaven has educated him by adversity to arts and artists, the finest pens and most elegant a quick sense of the distresses and miseries of mat. minds, jointly employed to set it off with the various kind, which he was born to redress. Iu just scort einbellishments of sumptuous entertainments, charm- of the trivial glories

and light ostentations of parents ing assemblies, and polished discourses, and those that glorious instrument of Providence moves, like apostate abilities of men, the adored monarch might that, in a steady, calm, and silent course

, ir depeu profusely and skilfully encourage, while they flatter dent either of applause or calumpy; which reudero

VIRG. Æn. ii. 325.

him, if not in a political, yet in a moral, a philoso- poor widow woman, and her fatherless children, phic, an heroic, and a Christian sense, an absolute that had been wronged by a neighbouring gentlemonarch; who, satisfied with this unchangeable, man; for you know, Sir, my good inaster was always just, and ample glory, must needs turn all his re- the poor man's friend. Upon his coming home, the gards from himself to the service of others; for he first complaint he made was, that he had lost his begias his enterprises with his own share in the suc- roast-beef stomach, not being able to touch a surloin, cess of them; for integrity bears in itself its reward, which was served up according to custom; and you por can that which depeuds not on event ever know know he used to take great delight in it. From that disappointirent.

time forward he grew worse and worse, but still kept “With the updoubted character of a glorious a good heart to the last. Indeed we were once in captain, and (what he much more values than the great hopes of his recovery, upon a kind message that most splendid titles) that of a sincere and honest was sent him from the widow lady whom he had man, he is the hope and stay of Europe, a universal made love to the forty last years of his life; but this good; not to be engrossed by us only, for distant only proved a lightning before death. He has bepotentates implore his friendship, and injured em- queathed to this lady, as a token of his love, a great pires court his assistance. He rules the world, not pearl necklace, and a couple of silver bracelets set by an invasion of the people of the earth, but the with jewels, which belonged to my guod old lady his address of its princes; and, if that world should be mother. He has bequeathed the fine white gelding again roused from the repose which his prevailing that he used to ride a hunting upon to his chaplain, arms bad given it, why should we not hope that because he thought he would be kind to him; and has there is an Almighty, by whose influence the terri- left you all his books. He has, moreover, bequeathed ble enemy that thinks himself prepared for battle, to the chaplain a very pretty tenement with good may find he is but ripe for desiruction ?-and that lands about it. It being a very cold day when he there may be in the womb of time great incidents, made his will, he left for mourning to every man in which may make the catastrophe of a prosperous lite the parish a great frieze-coat, and to every woman a as unfortunate as the particular scenes of it were black riding-hood. It was a most moving sight.to successful for there does not want a skilful eye see him take leave of his poor servants, commending. and resolute arm to observe and grasp the occasion. us all for our fidelity, whilst we were not able to A prince, who from

speak a word for weeping. As we most of us are Fuit Ilium, et ingens

grown gray-headed in our dear master's service, he Gloria."

has left us pensions and legacies, which we may live Troy is no more, and llium was a town.-DRYDEN. very comfortably upon the remaining part of our T.

days. He has bequeathed a great deal more in charity, which is not yet come to my knowledge ;

and it is peremptorily said in the parish, that he has No. 517.) THURSDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1712. left money to build a steeple to the church: for he

Heu pietas ! heu prisca fides Virg. Æn. vi. 878. was heard to say some time ago, that, if he lived two Mirror of ancient faith!

years longer, Coverley church should have a steeple Undaunted worth! Inviolable truth !--DRYDEN, to it. The chaplain tells everybody that he made a We last night received a piece of ill news at our very good end, and never speaks of him without club, which very sensibly afflicted every one of us.

tears. He was buried, according to his own direcquestion not but my readers themselves will be tions, among the family of the Coverleys, on the left troubled at the hearing of it. To keep them no hand of his father Sir Arthur. The coffin

was car, longer in suspense, Sir Roger de Coverley is dead! ried by six of his tenants, and the pall held up by He departed this life at his house in the country, six of the quorum. The whole parish followed the after a few weeks sickness. Sir Andrew Freeport corpse with heavy hearts, and in their mourning has a letter from one of his correspondents in those suits ; the

men in frieze, and

the women in riding, parts, that informs him the old man caught a eold boods. Captain Sentry, my master's nephew, has of the county-sessions, as he was very warmly pro- taken possession of the Haú-house, and the whole moting an address of his own penning, in which he estate. When my old master saw him a little before succeeded according to his wishes. But this parti- his death, he shook him by the hand, and wished eylar comes from a whig justice

of peace, who was him joy of the estate which was falling to him, dealways Sir Roger's enemy and antagonist. I have siring him only to make a good use of it, and to pay letters both from the chaplain and Captain Sentry, the several legacies, and the gifts of charity, which which mention nothing of it

, but are filled with he told him he had left as quit-rents upon the estate. many particulars to the honour of the good old man. The captain truly seems a courteous mau, though I have likewise a letter from the butler, who took so he says but little. He

makes much of those whom much care of me last summer when I was at the my master loved, and shows great kindness to the knight's house. As my friend the butler mentions, old house-dog, that you know my poor master was, in the simplicity of his heart, several circumstances so fund of. It would have gone to your heart to have the others have passed over in silence, I shall give heard the moans the dumb creature niade on the day ny reader a copy of his letter, without any altera- of my master's death. He has never enjoyed hip

self since; no more has any of us. It was the me lancholiest day for the poor people that ever hapa

pened in Worcestershire. This being all from, “Knowing that you" was my old master's good frienai , 'I could not forbear sending you the melan

“ Honoured Sir, your most sorrowful Servant, choly news of his death, which bas afflicted the

« EDWARD BISCUIT. whole country, as well as his poor servants, who “P S. My master desired, some weeks before he poved hit, I may say, better than we did our lives. died, that a book, which comes up to you by the I am afraid he caught his death the last county carrier

, should be given to Sir Andrew

Freeport in sessions, where he would go to see justice done toʻal his name.”

tion or diminution.


Juv. Sat. viii. 76.

This letter, potwithstanding the poor butler's

Also to breathe their last, nine years before,

And now have left their father to deplore manner of writing it, gave us such an idea of our

The loss of all his children, with his wife, good old friend, that upon the reading of it there Who was the joy and comfort of his life. was not a dry eye in the club.. Sir Andrew, open: “ The second' is as follows:ing the book; found it to be a collection of acts of parliament. There was in particular the Act of Here lies the body of Daniel Saul, Uniformity, with some passages in it marked by Sir Spitalfields weaver, and that's all. Roger's own hand. Sir Andrew found that they re

“ I will not dismiss you, whilst I am upon this lated to two or three points which he had disputed subject without sending a short epitaph which I with Sir Roger, the last time he appeared at the once met with, though I cannot possibly recollect club. Sir Andrew, who would have been merry at the place. The thought of it is serious, and in my such an incident on another occasion, at the sight of opinion the finest that I ever met with upon this octhe old man's hand-writing burst into tears, and put casion. You know, Sir, it is usual, after having the book into his pocket. Captain Sentry informs told us the name of the person who lies interred, to me that the knight has left rings and mourning for launch out into his praises. This epitaph takes : every one in the club.-0.

quite contrary turn, having been made by the person himself some time before his death.

Hic jacet R. C. in expectatione diei supremi. No. 518.1 FRIDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1712. Qualis erat, dies iste indicabit.'.

Here lieth R. C. in expectation of the last day
Miserum est aliorum incumbere famæ,
Ne collapsa ruant subductis tecta columnis.

What sort of a man he was that day will discover.'

“ I am, Sir,” &c. "Tis poor relying on another's fame For, take the pillars but away, and all

The following letter is dated from Cambridge: The superstructure inust in ruins fall.-STEPNEY.

“Sir, This being a day of business with me, I must make the present entertainment like a treat at a

Having lately read among your speculations an house-warming, out of such presents as have been essay upon physiognomy, I cannot but think that,

if sent me by my guests. The first dish which I serve

you made a visit to this apcient university, you. up is a letter come fresh to my hand.

might receive very considerable lights upon that

subject, there being scarce a young fellow in it who “ MR. SPECTATOR,

does not give certain indications of his particular “ It is with inexpressible sorrow that I hear of the humour and disposition, conformable to the rules of death of good Sir Roger, and do heartily condole that art. In courts and cities every body lays a with you upon so melancholy an occasion. I think constraint upon his countenance, and endeavours to you ought to have blackened the edges of a paper look like the rest of the world; but the youth of which brought us so ill news, and to have had it this place, having not yet formed themselves by coustamped likewise in black. It is expected of you versation, and the knowledge of the world, give their that you should write his epitaph, and if possible, limbs and features their full play. fill his place in the club with as worthy and divert As you have considered human nature in all its ing a member. I question not but you will receive lights, you must be extremely well apprised, that many recommendations from the public of such as there is a very close correspondence between the will appear candidates for that post.

outward and the inward man; that scarce the least “Since I am talking of death, and have mentioned dawning, the least parturiency towards a thought, an epitaph, I must tell you, sir, that I have made can be stirring in the mind of man, without pro discovery of a churchyard' in which I believe you ducing a suitable revolution in his exteriors, which might spend an afternoon with great pleasure to will easily discover itself to an adept in the theory yourself and to the public. It belongs to the church of the phiz. Hence it is that the intrinsic worth of Stebøn-Heath, commonly called Stepney. Whe. and merit of a son of Alma Mater is ordinarily eal. ther or no it be that the people of that parish have a culated from the cast of his visagę, the contour of particular genius for an epitaph, or that there be his person, the mechanism of his dress, the disposi

. some poet among them who undertakes that work by tion of his limbs, the manner of his gait and air, the great, I cannot tell: but there are more remarkable with a number of circumstances of equal cause inscriptions in that place than in any other I have quence and information. The practitioners in this met with; and I may say, without vanity, that there art often make use of a gentleman's eyes to give thema is not a gentleman in England better read in tomb- light into the posture of his brains; take a bandle stones than myself, my studies having laid very much from his nose to judge of the size of his intellects; in churchyards. I shail beg leave to send you aand interpret the overinuch visibility and pertbees couple of epitaphs, for a sample of those I have of one year as an infallible mark of reprobation, just now mentioned. They are written in a dif- and a sign the owner of so saucy a member fears ferent manner; the first being in a diffused and neither God nor man. In couforinity to this scheme, luxuriant, the second in the close contracted style. a contracted brow, a lumpish downcast look, a sober The first has much of the simple and pathetic ; the sedate pace, with both hands dangling quiet and, second is something light but nervous. The first steady in lines exactly parallel to each lateral pocket is thus :

of the galligaskins, is logic, metaphysics, and mathe

matics, in perfection, 'So likewise the belles-lettres Here Thomas Sapper lies interr'd. Ah, why? Born in New England, did in London die;

are typified by a saunter in the gait, a tall of oue Way the third son of eight, begat upon

wing of the peruke backward, an insertion of one His mother Martha, by his father John.

hand in the fob, and a negligent swing of the other, Much favour'd hy his prince he 'gan to be, But nipt by death at the age of twenty-three.

with a pinch of right fine Barcelona between finger Fatal to him was that we gmail-pox name,

and thumb, a due quantity of the same upon the Ry which his another and two brethren came upper lip, and a noddle-case loaden with paleil.

Virg. n. vi. 728.

Again, a grave, solemn, stalking pace is heroic is only made as the basis and support of animals, poetry, and politics; an unequal one, a genius for and that there is no more of the one than what is nethe ode, and the modern ballar; and an open breast, cessary for the existence of the other. with an audacious display of the Holland shirt, is. Intinite goodness is of so communicative a nature, construed a fatal tendency to the art military. that it seenis to delight in the conferring of existence

" I might be much larger upon these hints, but upon every degrec of perceptive heing. As this is I know whom I write to. If you can graft any spe-a speculation which I have often pursued with great culation upon them, or turn them to the advaituye pleasure to myself, I shall enlarge further upon it, of the persous concerned in them, you will do a by considering that part of the scale of beings which work very becoining the British Spectator, and comes within our kuowledge. oblige, “ Tour very bumble Servant, There are some living creatures which are raised

" Tom TWER." but just above dead matter. To mention only that

species of shell-fish, which are formed in the fashion

of a cone, that grow to the surface of several rocks, No. 519.) SATURDAY, OCTOBER 25, 1712.

and immediately die upon their being severed from Inde bominum pecudunque genus, vitaque rolatum.

the place where they grow. There are many other Et qua marinorco fert inoustra sub æquore poutus.

creatures but one remove from these, which have no

other sense besides that of feeling and taste. Others Heoce men and beasts the breath of life obtain,

have still an additional one of hearing; others of And birds of air, and monsters of the main.-DRYDEN. smell, and others of sight. It is wonderful to obTuough there is a great deal of pleasure in con.

serve by what a gradual progress the world of life templating the material world, by which I mean advances through a prodigious variety of species, that system of bodies into which nature has so cu- before a creature is formed that is complete in ali riquals vrouyht the mass of dead matter, with the its senses; and even among these there is such a several relations which those bodies bear to one and different degree of perfection in the sense which one other; there is still, inethinks, soinething more won- animal enjoys beyond what appears in another, that, derful and surprising in contemplations on the world though the sense in different animals be distinof life, by which I njean all those animals with which guished by the same common denomination, it seems Frery part of the universe is furnished. The ma-almost of a different nature. If after this we look terial world is only the shell of the universe; the into the several inward perfections of cunning and world of life are its inhabitants.

sagacity, or what we generally call instinct, we find If we consider those parts of the material world thein rising after the same manner imperceptibly which lie the nearest to us, and are therefore sub- one above another, and receiving additional imjest to our observations and inquiries, it is anazing provements, according to the species in which they to consider the infinity of animals with which it is are implanted. This progress in nature is so very Hocked. Every part of matter is peopled ; every gradual, that the most perfect of an inferior species green leaf swarins with inhabitants. There is comes very near to the most imperfect of that which scarce a single humour in the body of man, or of any

is immediately above it. other animal, in which our glasses do not discover

The exuberant and overflowing goodness of the mpiads of living creatures. The surface of ani- Supreme Being, whose mercy extends to all his nals is also covered with other animals, which are works, is plainly seen, as I have before hinted, from in the same manner the basis of other animals that his having made so very little matter, at least what live upon it; nay, we find in the most solid bodies, falls within our knowledge, that does not swarm with a in marble itself, innumerable cells and cavities life. Nor is his goodness less seen in the diversity, that are crowded with such imperceptible inhabitants than in the multitude of living creatures. Had he w are too little for the naked eye to discover. On only made one species of animals, none of the rest the other hand, if we look into the more bulky parts would have enjoyed the happiness of existence: he of nature, we see the seas, lakes, and rivers, teem- has, therefore, specified in his creation every degree ng with numberless kinds of living creatures. We of life, every capacity of being. The whoie chasm find every mountain and marsb, wilderness and in nature, from a plant to a man, is filled up with road, plentifully stocked with birds and beasts ; and divers kinds of creatures, rising one over another, every part of matter affording proper necessaries and by such a gentle and casy ascent, that the little conveniences for the livelihood of multitudes which transitions and deviations from one species to aaTuhabit it.

other are almost insensible. The intermediate space The author of the Plurality of Worlds draws a is so well husbanded and managed, tliut there is very good argument from this consideration for the scarce a degree of perception which does not appear peopling of every planet; as indeed it seems very in some one part of the world of life. Is the goudprobable , from the analogy of reason,

that if no part nifested in this his proceeding?

ness or the wisdom of the Divine Being more maof matter which we are acquainted with, lies waste and useless, those great bodies, which are at such a There is a consequence, besides those I have aldistance from us, should not be desert and unpeopled, ready mentioned, which seems very naturally debut rather that they should be furnished with beings ducible from the foregoing considerations. if the adapted to their respective situations.

scale of being rises by such a regular progress 80 Existence is a blessing to those beings only which high as man, we may, by a parity of reason, suppose ate endowed with perception, and is in a manner that it still proceeds gradually through those

being lares away upon dead matter, any further than as which are of a superior nature to bim: since there it is subservient to beings which are conscious of is an infinitely

greater space and room for

different their existence, Accotdingly, we find, from the degrees of perfection between the Supreme Being Ladies which lie under our observation, that matter and mau, than between man and the most despi

cable insect. This consequence of so great a vaFontenelle.- This book was published in 1986, and is riety of beings which are superior to us, from that belga the chimerical Vortices of Descartes.

variety which is inferior to us, is made by Mr. Loeke, SPECTATOX-Nos. 75 & 70.

2 Q

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