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lifting up both his arms, and pouring out the unb man, and therefore may be thought a very thonder of his rhetoric amidst an audience of pagan improper person to give rules for oratory: but I philosophers.

will believe every one will agree with me in this, It is certain that proper gestures and vehement that we ought either to lay aside all kinds of gesture exertions of the voice cannot be too much studied (which seems to be very suitable to the genius of by a public orator. They are a kind of comment our nation), or at least to make use of such only as to what he utters, and enforce every thing he says, are graceful and expressive.-O. with weak hearers, better than the strongest argu. meut he can make use of. They keep the audience awake, and fix their attention to what is delivered to them, at the same tinie that they show the speaker No. 408.1 WEDNESDAY, JUNE 18, 1712. is in eamest, and affected himself with what he so Decet affectus animi neque se nimium erigere, nec subjacere passionately recommends to others. Violent ges

serviliter.-TULL de Finibiis. tures and vociferation naturally shake the hearts The affections of the heart ought not to be too much indulged, of the ignorant, and fill them with a kind of re

nor servilely depressed ligious horror. Nothing is more frequent than to

"MR. SPECTATOR, ste women staud and tremble at the sight of a "I have always been a very great lover of yonr moving preacher, though he is placed quite out of speculations, as well as in regard to the subject as their hearing; as in England we very frequently to your manner of treating it. I!uman pature I see people lulled asleep with solid and elaborate dis- always thought the most userul object of human courses of piety, who would be warmed and trans- reason; and to make the consideration of it pleasant ported out of themselves by the bellowing and dis- and entertaining, I always thought the best eu plnytortions of enthusiasm.

ment of human wit: other parts of philosophy may If nousevše, when accompanied with such an perhaps make us wiser, but this not only answers emotion of voice and body, has such an influence that end, but makes us better too. Hence it was on, men's minds, what might we not expect from that the oracle pronounced Socrates the wisest of many of those admirable discourses which are all men living, because he judiciously made choice printed in our tongue, were thry delivered with a of human nature for the object of his thoughts; an becoming ferrour, and with the most agreeable inquiry into which as much exceeds all other learngraces of voice and gesture !

ing, as it is of more consequence to adjust the true We are told that the great Latin orator very nature and measures of right and wrong, than to much impaired his health by the laterum contentio

, settle the distances of the planets, and compute the the vehemepce of action, with which be used to times of their circumvolutions. deliver himself. The Greek orator was likewise “One good effect that will immediately arise so very famous for this particular in rhetoric, that from a near observation of buman nature is, that one of his antagonists, whom he had banished from we shall cease to wonder at those actions which men Athens, reading over the oration which had pro- are used to reckon wholly unaccountable; for, as cared his banishment, and seeing his friends admire nothing is produced without a cause, so, by obit could not forbear asking them, if they were so serving the nature and course of the passions, we much affected by the bare reading of it, how much shall be able to trace every action from its first more they would have been alarmed, had they conception to its death. We shall no more admire heard him actually throwing out such a storm of at the proceedings of Catiline or Tiberius, when eloquence ?

we know the one was actuated by a cruel jealousy, How cold and dead a figure, in comparison of the other by a furious ambition : for the actions of these two great men, does an orator often make at men follow their passions as naturally as light does the British bar, holding up his head with the most heat, or as any other effect flows from its cause; insipid serenity, and stroking the sides of a long reason must be employed in adjusting the passions, mig that teaches down to his middle! The truth but they must ever remain the principles of action. of it is, there is often nothing more ridiculous than The strange and absurd variety that is so appathe gestures of an English speaker : you see some rent in men's actions, shows plainly they can never of them running their hands into their pockets as proceed immediately from reason; so pure a founfar as ever they can thrust them, and others looking tain emits no such troubled waters. They must with great attention on a piece of paper that has necessarily arise from the passione, which are to, nothing written on it, you may see many a smart the mind as the winds to a ship; they only can thetorician turning his hat in his hands, moulding it move it, and they too often destroy it: ir fair and into several different cocks, examining sometimes gentle, they guide it into the harbour : if contrary the lining of it, and sometimes the button, during and furious, ihey overset it in the waves, In the the whole course of bis barangue. A deaf man same manner is the mind assisted or endangered would think he was cheapening a beaver, when by the passions ; reason must then take the place perhaps he is talking of the fate of the British na- of pilot, and can never fail of securing her charge fion, I remember when I was a young man, and if she be not wanting to herself. The strength of tiked to frequent Westminster-hall, there was a the passions will never be accepted as an excuse for counsellor who never pleaded without a piece of complying with them; they were desigued for subpackthread in his hand, which he used to twist jection; and if a man suffers them to get the upper about a thumb or finger all the while he was speak- hand, he then betrays the liberty of his own soul. ing: the wags of those days used to call it "the “As nature has framed the several species of thread of his discourse," for he was not able to utter beings as it were in a chain, so man scems to be a word without it. One of his clients, who was placed as the middle link between angels and brutes. more merry than wise, stole it from him one day in Hence he participates both of flesh and spirit by an the midst of his pleading; but he had better have admirable tie, which in him occasions a perpetual war bat it alone, for he lost bis cause by his jest.

of passions; and as a man inclines to the angelic I have all along acknowledged myself to be al or brute part of his constitution, he is then reno.


minated good or bad, virtuous or wicked; if love, And surely it is a mighty mistake that the passions mercy, and good-nature prevail, they speak bim of should be so entirely subdued : for little irreguthe angel: if hatred, cruelty, and envy predominate, larities are sometimes not only to be borne with, they declare his kindred to the brute. Hence it but to be cultivated toq, since they are frequently was, that some of the ancients imagined, that as attended with the greatest perfections. All great men in this life inclined more to the angel or the geniuses have faulis mixed with their virtues, and brute, so after their death they should transınigrate resemble the flaming bush which has thorns among into the one or the other; and it would be no un- lights. pleasant notion to consider the several species of « Since therefore the passions are the principles brutes, into which we may imagine that tyrants, of human actions, we must endeavour to manage misers, the proud, malicious, and ill-natured, might them so as to retain their vigour, yet keep them be changed.

under strict command; we must govern theun rather As a consequence of this original, all passions like free subjects than slaves, lest, while we iutend are in all men, but all appear not in all; constitu- to make them obedient, they become abject, and tion, education, custom of the country, reason, and unfit for those great purposes to which they were the like causes, may improve or abate the strength designed. For my part I must confess I could of them ; but still the seeds remain, which are ever never have any regard to that sect of philosopbers ready to sprout forth upon the least encouragement. who so much insisted upon an absolute indifference I have heard a story of a good religious man, who, and vacancy from all passion : for it seems to me a having been bred with the milk of a goat, was very thing very inconsistent, for a man to divest himself modest in public by a careful reflection he made on of humanity in order to acquire tranquillity of his actions : but he frequently had an hour in mind; and to eradicate the very principles of acsecret, wherein he had his frisks and capers : and tion, because it is possible they may produce ill if we had an opportunity of examining the retire effects. ment of the strictest philosophers, no doubt but we “ I am, Sir, your affectionate Admirer, should find perpetual returns of those passions they 2.

"T. B." so artfully conceal from the public. I remember Machiavel observes, that every state should entertain a perpetual jealousy of its neighbours, that so No. 409.) THURSDAY, JUNE 19, 1712. it should never be unprovided when an emergency

-Musæo contingere cuncta lepore-Luca. 1. 933 happens; in like manner, should the reason be

grace each subject with enliv'ning wit. perpetually on its guard against the passions, and never suffer them to carry on any design that may Gratian very often recommends fine faste as the be destructive of its security: yet at the same time utmost perfection of an accomplished man. it must be careful that it do not so far break their As this word arises very often in conversation, I strength as to render them contemptible, and con- shall endeavour to give some account of it, and to sequently itself unguarded.

lay down rules how we may know wbether we are ** The understanding being of itself too slow and possessed of it, and how we may acquire that fino lazy to exert itself into action, it is necessary it taste of writing which is so much talked of among should be put in motion by the gentle gales of the the polite world. passions, which may preserve it from stagnating and Most languages make use of this metaphor, to corruption ; for they are as necessary to the health express that faculty of the mind which distinguishes of the mind, as the circulation of the animal spirits all the most concealed faults and nicest perfections is to the health of the body: they keep it in life, in writing: We may be sure this metaphor would and strength, and vigour; nor is it possible for the not have been so general in all tongues, had there mind to perform its offices without their assistance. not been a very great conformity between that menThese motions are given us with our being ; they tal taste, which is the subject of this paper, and that are little spirits that are born and die with us; to sensitive taste, which gives us a relish of erery some they are mild, easy, and gentle; to others different flavour that affects the palate. Accordwayward and unruly, yet never too strong for the ingly we find there are as many degrees of refinereins of reason and the guidance of judginent. ment in the intellectual faculty as in the sense which

“We may generally observe a pretty pice pro- is marked out by this common denomination. portion between the strength of reason and passion; I kuew a person who possessed the one in so the greatest geniuses have commonly the strongest great a perfection, that, after having tasted ten affectious, as, on the other hand, the weaker under different kinds of tea, he would distinguish, without standings have generally the weaker passions; and seeing the colour of it, the particular sort which it is fit the fury of the coursers should not be too was offered him; and not only so, but any two sorta great for the strength of the charioteer. Young of them that were mixed together in an equal pro. men, whose passions are not a little unruly, give portion; nay, he has carried the experiment so far, small hopes of their ever being considerable; the as, upon tasting the composition of three different fire of youth will of course abate, and is a fault, if sorts, to name the parcels from whence the three it be a fault, that mends every day; but surely, several ingredients were taken. A man of a fine unless a man has fire in youth, he can hardly have taste in writing will discern, after the same manner, warmth in old age. We must therefore be very not only the general beauties and imperfections of cautious, lest, while we think to regulate the pas- an author, but discover the several ways of thinking sions, we should quite extinguish them, which is and expressing himself, which diversify him from putting out the light of the soul; for to be without all other authors, with the several foreign infusions passion, or to be hurried away with it, makes a man of thought and language, and the particular authors equally blind. The extraordinary severity used in from whom they were borrowed. most of vür schools has this fatal effect, it breaks After having thus far explained what is generally the spring of the mind, and most certainly destroys meant by a fine taste in writing, and shown the more good geniuses than it can possibly improve. I propriety of the metaphor which is used on this

oscasion, I think I may define it to be “that faculty have inade, that men of great geuius in the same of the soul, which discerns the beauties of an author way of writing seldom rise up singly, but at certain with pleasure, and the imperfections with dislike.” periods of time appear together, and in a body; as If a man would know whether he is possessed of this they did at Rome in the reign of Augustus, and in faculty, I would have him read over the celebrated Greece about the age of Socrates. I cannot think works of antiquity, which have stood the test of so that Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Boileau, La Fonmany different ages and countries, or those works taine, Bruyere, Bossu, or the Daciers, would have araong the moderns which have the sanction of the written so well as they have done, had they not polier part of our contemporaries. If, upon the been friends and contemporaries. perusal of such writings, he does not find himself It is likewise necessary for a man who would delighted in an extraordinary manner, or if, upon form to himself a finished taste of good writing, reading the admired passages in such authors, he to be well versed in the works of the best critics, fods a coldness and indifference in his thoughts, he both ancient and modern. I must confess that I ought to conclude, noi (as is too usual among taste- could wish there were authors of this kind, who, less readers) that the author wants those perfections besides the mechanical rules, which a man of very which have been admired in him, but that he him- little taste may discourse upon, would enter into seif wants the faculty of discovering them.

the very spirit and soul of fine writing, and sbow He should, in the second place, be very careful to us the several sources of that pleasure which rises observe, whether he tastes the distinguishing per- in the mind upon the perusal of a noble work. fections, or, if I may be allowed to call them so, Thus, although in poetry it be absolutely necessary the specific qualities of the author whom he peruses; that the unities of time, place, and action, with whether he is particularly pleased with Livy for his other points of the same nature, should be thomanner of telling a story, with Sallust for his en- roughly explained and understood, there is still tering into those internal principles of action which something more essential to the art, something that arise from the characters and manners of the per- elevates and astonishes the fancy, and gives a greatsoos he describes, or with Tacitus for displaying ness of mind to the reader, which few of the critics thuse outward motives of safety and interest which besides Longinus have considered. gaie birth to the whole series of transactions which Our general taste in England is for epigram, be relles.

turns of wit, and forced conceits, which have yo He muy likewise consider, how differently he is manner of influence either for the bettering or en. affected by the sume thougbt which presents itself larging the mind of bim who reads them, and have in a great writer, from what he is when he finds it been carefully avoided by the greatest writers, boik delivered by a person of an ordinary genius ; for among the ancients and moderns. I have endea. there is as much difference in apprehending a voured, in several of my speculations, to banish this thought clothed in Cicero's language, and that of a Cinthic taste which has taken possession among us. common author, as in seeing an object by the light I entertained the town for a week together with an of a taper, or by the light of the sun.

essay upon wit, in which I eurleavoured to detect It is very difficult to lay down rules for the ac- several of those false kinds which have been admired quirement of such a taste as that I am here speaking in the different ages of the world, and at the same of. The faculty must in some degree be born with time to show wherein the nature of true wit conus; and it very often happens, that those who have sists. I afterward gave an instance of the great other qualities in perfection, are wholly void of this. force which lies in a natural simplicity of thought One of the most eminent mathematicians of the age to affect the mind of the reader, from such vulgar bas assured inc, that the greatest pleasure he took pieces as have little else besides this single qualiin readivg Virgil was in examining Æneas's voyage fication to recommend them. I have likewise exaby the map; as I question not but many a modern mined the works of the greatest poet which our compiler of history would be delighted with little more nation, or perhaps any other, bas produced, and in that divine author than the bare matters of fact. particularized most of those rational and manly

Bat notwithstanding this faculty must in some beauties which give a value to thai divine work. I measure be born with us, there are several methods shall next Saturday enter upon an essay on “ The for cultivating and improving it, and without which Pleasures of the Imagination,” which, though it it will be very uncertain, and of little use to the shall consider that subject at large, will perhaps person that possesses it. The most natural method suggest to the reader what it is that gives a beauty for this purpose is to be conversant among the to many passages of the finest writers both in prose writings of the most polito authors. A man who and verse. As an undertaking of this nature is bas aay relish for fine writing, either discovers new entirely new, I question not but it will be received beauties, or receives stronger impressions, from the with candour.-. masterly strokes of a great author, every time he peruses him; besides that he naturally wears himall into the same manner of speaking and thinking.

No. 410.) FRIDAY, JUNE 20, 1712. Conversation with men of a polite genius is

Dum foris sunt, nihil videtur mundius,

Nec magis compositum quidquam, nec magis elegans. another method for improving our natural taste. Quæ, cum amatore suo cum conant, ligurrunt. It is impossible for a man of the greatest parts to

Harum videre ingluviem sordes, inopiam: consider anything in its whole extent, and in all its

Quam inhoncstæ solæ sint domi, atque avida cibi:

Quo pacto ex jure hesterno panem atrum vorent , variety of lights. Every man, besides those general

Nosse omnia hæc, salus est adolescentulis. observations which are to be made upon an au

TER. Eum. act v. sc. 4. thør, forms several reficetions that are peculiar to when they are abroad, nothing so clean and nicely dressed, tus own manner of thinking; so that conversation and when at supper with a gallant, they do but piddle, and wil vaturally furnish tis with hipes which we did

pick the choicest bits : but to see their nasunens and po. but altend to, and make us enjoy other men's parts

verty at home, their gluttony, and how they devour black

crusts dipped in yesterday's broth, is a perfect antidor and reflections as well as our cwn. This is the best against wenching reason I can give for the obserration which several WILL HONEYCOMB, who disguises his present de.

eay by visiting the wenches of the town only by way My son, th' instruction that my words impart, of humour, told us, that the last raioy night, he,

Grave on the living tablet of thy heart:

And all the wholesome precepts that I give, with Sir Roger de Coveriey, was driven into the Observe with strictest reverence, and live. Temple cloister, whither had escaped also a lady Let all thy homage be to Wisdom paid, most exactly dressed from head to foot. Will Seek her protection, and implore her aid;

That she inay keep thy soul from harm secure, made no scruple to acquaint us, that she saluted

And turn thy footsteps from the harlot's door, him very familiarly by bis name, and turning im Who with ours'd charms lures the unwary in; mediately to the knight, she said, she supposed And soothes with flattery their souls to sin that was his good friend Sir Roger de Coverley :

Once from my window, as I cast mine eye

On those that pass'd in giddy numbers by, upon which nothing less could follow than Sir

A youth among the foolish youths I spyd, Hoger's approach to salutation, with “ Madam, the who look not sacred wisdom for this guide. same, at your service." She was dressed in a black Just as the sun withdrew his cooler light,

And evening soft led on the shades of nighi. tabby mantua and petticoat, without ribands; her

He stole in covert twilight to his fate, liuen striped muslin, and in the whole in an agree Aná pass'd the correr near the barlot's gate ble second mourning; decent dresses being often When lo, a woman cornes ! affected by the creatures of the town, at once con

Loose her allire, and such her glaring dress,

So aptly did the harlot's mind express:
sulting cheapness and the pretension to modesty. Subuje she is, and practis d in the arts
She went on with a familiar easy air, “ Your friend, By which the wanton conquer lieedless hearts:
Mr. Honeycomb, is a little surprised to see a woman

Siubborn and loud she is ; she hates her home;

Varying her place and form, she loves to roamn: here alone and unattended; but I dismissed my

Now she's withm, now in the street doth stray. coach at the gate, and tripped it down to my coun Now at each corner stands, and waits her prey. sel's chambers; for lawyers' fees take up too much The youth she seiz d; and laying yow aside of a small disputed jointure to admit any other ex.

All modesty, the female's justest pride,

She said with an embrace, ** Here at my house penses but mere necessaries." Mr. Honeycomb Peace-offerings are, this day I paid iny vows. begged they might have the honour of setting her I therefore caine abroad to meet my dear, down, for Sir Roger's servant was gone to call a

And lo, in happy hour, I find thee here. coach. In the interim the footman returned with

My chainber I've adornd, and o'er my bed

Are cov'rings of the richest tap'siry spread: "no coach to be had;" and there appeared nothing With linen it is deck'd from Egypt brought, to be done but trusting herself with Mr. Honeycomb And carvings by the curious artist wrought: and his friend, to wait at the tavern at the gate for

It wants no glad perfume Arabia yields

In all her citron groves and spicy fields; a coach, or be subjected to all the impertinence she Here all her store of richest odours meets, must meet with in that public place. Mr. Honey I'll lay thee in a wilderness of sweets; comb, being a man of honour, determined the Whatever to the sense can grateful be

I have collected there I want but thee. choice of the first, and Sir Roger, as the better

My husband's gone a journey far away, man, took the lady by the hand, leading her through Much gold he took abroad, and long will stay, all the shower, covering her with his hat, and gal

He named for his return a distant day." lanting a familiar acquaintance through rows of

Upon her tongue did such smooth inischief dwell,

And from her lips such welcome flatt'ry fell, young fellows, who winked at Sukey in the state she

Th' unguarded youth, in silken setters tyd, marched off, Will Honeycomb bringing up the rear. Resiyn d his reason, and with ease comply d. Much importunity prevailed upon the fair one to

Tbus does the ox to his own slaughter go,

Aud thus is senseless of th' impending blow: admit of a collation, where, after declaring she had

Thus fies the simple bird into the snare, no stomach, and having eaten a couple of chickens, That skilful fowlers for his life prepare. devoured a truss of salad, and drank a full bottle But let my sons attend. Attend may they

Whom youthful vigour may to sin betray: to her share, she sung the Old Man's Wish to Sir

Let thein false charmers fly, and guard their hearts Roger. The knight left the room for some time Against the wily wanton's pleasing arts; after supper, and writ the following billet, which he With care direct their steps, nor turn astray conveyed to Sukey, and Sukey to her friend Will

To tread the paths of her deceitful way:

Lest they too late of her fell pow'r coniplain, Honeycomb. Will has given it to Sir Andrew

And fall, where many mightrer have been slain. Freeport, who read it last night to the club:

MADAM, “I am not so mere a country gentleman, but I No. 411.) SATURDAY, JUNE 21, 1712. can guess at the law business you had at the

PAPER I. Temple. If you would go down to the country, and leave off all your vanities but your singing, let

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION, me know at my lodgings in Bow-street, Covent-gar

CONTENTS. den, and you shall be encouraged by your humble The perfection of our sight above our other senses The plea. servant, “ ROGER DE ČOVERLEY." sures of the imagination arise originally from sight. The

pleasures of the imagmation divided under two beads. The My good friend could not well stand the raillery pleasures of the imagination in some respects equal to these which was rising upon him; but to put a stop to it,

of the understanding. The extent of the pleasures of the

imagination. The advantages a man receives tuen a neid I delivered Will Honeycomb the following letter, of these pleasures. In what respect they are preferable to and desired him to read it to the board :

those of the understanding. “MR. SPECTATOR,

Avia Pieridum peragro loca, nullius ante

Trita solo: juvat iniegros accedere fontes, “ Having seen a translation of one of the chap

Atque haurire

LUCB. I. 425 ters in the Canticles into English verse inserted

In wild uncleard, to Moses a retreat, among your late papers, I have ventured to send

O'er ground untrod before, I devious roam. you the seventh chapter of the Proverbs in a And deep enamour d into latent sprays poetical dress. If you think it worthy appearing

Presume to peep at coy virgin Naiads among your speculations, it will be a sufficient Our sight is the most perfect and most delightful reward for the trouble of

of all our senses. It fills the mind with the largest “ Your constant Reader, variety of ideas, converses with its objects at the

“ A. B." greatest distance, and continues the longest in ac

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tion without being tired or satiated with its proper A man of a polite imagination is let into a great enjoyments. The sense of feeling can indeed give many pleasures that the vulgar are not capable of us a notion of extension, shape, and all other ideas receiving. He can converse with a pieture, and that enter at the rye, except colours; but at the find an agreeable companion in a statue. He saine time it is very much straitened, and confined meets with a secret refreshment in a description, in its operations to the number, bulk, and distance and often feels a greater satisfaction in the prospect of its particular objects. Our sight seems designed of fields and meadows, than another does in the to supply all these dečects, and may be considered possession. It gives him, indeed, a kind of property as a more delicate and diffusive kind of touch, that in every thing be sees, and makes the most rude spreads itself over an intinite multitude of bodies, uncultivated parts of nature administer to his pleacomprehends the largest figures, and brings into sures; so that he looks upon the world as it were in our reach some of the most remote parts of the another light, and discovers in it a multitude of universe.

charms, that conceal theinselves from the generality It is this sense which furnishes the imagination of mankind. with its ideas; so that by “ the pleasures of the There are indeed but very few who know how to imagination," or fancy” (which I shall use pro- be idle and innocent, or have a relish of any pleamiscuously), 1 here meau such as arise from visible sures that are not criminal ; every diversion they objects, either when we have them actually in our take is at the expense of some one virtue or another, view, or when we call up their ideas into our minds and their very first step out of business is into vice by painting, statues, escriptions, or auy the like or folly. A man should endeavour, therefore, to occasion. We cannot indeed have a single image make the sphere of his innocent pleasures as wide in the fancy that did not make its first entrance as possible, that he may retire into them with safety, through the sight; but we have the power of retain and find in them such a satisfaction as a wise man ing, altering, and compounding those images which would not blush to take. Of this nature are those We have once received, into all the varieties of pic of the imagination, which do not require sueb a ture aud vision thai are most agreeable to the ima- bent of thought as is necessary to our more serious ginatiou: fur by this faculty, a man in a dungeon employments, nor, at the same time, suffer ihe mini is capable of entertaining himself with scenes and to sink into that negligence and remissness, which landscapes more beautiful than any that can be are apt to accompany our more sensual delights, found in the whole compass of nature.

but, like a gentle exercise to the faculties, awaken There are few words in the English language them from sloth and idleness, without putting them which are employed in a more loose and uncircum- upun any labour or difficulty. scribed sense than those of the fancy and the ima We might here add, that the pleasures of the gination. I therefore thought it necessary to fix fancy are more conducive to health than those of and determine the notion of these two words, as I the understanding, which are worked out by dint of intend to make use of them in the thread of my thinking, and attended with too violent a labour of following speculations, that the reader may conceive the brain. Delightful scenes, whether in nature, rightly what is the subject which I proceed upon. painting, or poetry, have a kindly influence on the I must therefore desire him to remember, that by body as well as the mind : and not only serve to

the pleasures of the imagination," I mean only clear and brighten the imagination, but are able to such pleasures as arise originally from sigbt, and disperse grief and melancholy, and to set the animal that I divide these pleasures into two kinds: my spirits in pleasing and agreeable motions. For this design being first of all to discourse of those primary reason, Sir Francis Bacon, in his Essay upon Health, pleasures of the imagination, which entirely pro- has not thought it improper to prescribe to his ceed from such objects as are before our eyes; and reader a poem or a prospect, where he particularly in the next place to speak of those secondary plea- dissuades him from knotiy and subtle disquisitions, sares of the imagination which flow from the ideas and advises him to pursue studies that fill the mind of visible objects, when the objects are not actually with splendid and illustrious objects, as histories, before the eye, but are called up into our memo- fables and contemplations of nature. ries, or formed into agreeable visions of things that I have in this paper, by way of introduction, are either absent or fictitious.

settled the notion of those pleasures of the imaginaThe pleasures of the imagination, taken in their tion which are the subject of my present undertafull extent, are not so gross as those of sense, nor king, and endeavoured, by several considerations, to 80 refined as those of the understanding. The last recommend to my reader the pursuit of those are indeed more preferable, because they are founded pleasures. I shall in my next paper examine the on some new knowledge or improvement in the several sources from whence these pleasures are mind of man; yet it must be confessed, that those derived.-0. of the imagination are as great and as transporting as the other. A beautiful prospect delights the soul No. 412.] MONDAY, JUNE 23, 1712. as much as a demonstration; and a description in

Homer has charned more readers than a chapter in
Aristotle. Besides, the pleasures of the imagination

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION, have this advantage above those of the understanding, that they are more obvious and more easy to be Three sources of all the pleasures of the imagination, in our acquired. It is but opening the eye, and the scene

survey of outward objects. How what is great pleases the

imagination. How what is new pleases the imagination. enters. The colours paint themselves on the fancy, How what is beautiful in our species pleases the imagination. with very little attention of thought or application How what is beautiful in general pleases the imagination. of mind in the beholder. We are struck, we know What other accidental causes may contribute to the heigh bot how, with the symmetry of any thing we see,

tening of those pleasures. and iminediately assent to the beauty of an object,

Divisum sic breve fiet opus.-Mart. Ep. iv 83. without inquiring into the particular causes and oc

The work, divided apuy, shorter grows." cusions of it.

I SHALL first consider those pleasures of the


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