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indeed niore speculative, but are less instructive. In his nicest care to avoid. The several weaknessus to a word, Sir, I would have you turn your thoughts which youth, old age, and manhood are exposed, to the advantage of such as want you most; and have long since been set down by many both of the show that simplicity, innocence, industry, and tem- poets and philosophers; but I do not remember to perance, are arts which lead to tranquillity as much have met with any author who has treated of those as learning, wisdom, knowledge, and contemplation. ill habits men are subject to, not so much by reason "I am, Sir, your most humble Servant,

of their different ages and tempers, as the particuT. B."

lar professions or business in which they were edu

cated and brought up. " Mr. SPECTATOR,

Hackney, Oct. 12. I am the more surprised to find this subject so "I am the young woman whom you did so much little touched on, since what I am here speaking justice to some time ago, in acknowledging that I of is so apparent, as not to escape the most vulgar am perfect mistress of the fan, and use it with the observation. The business men are chiefly converutmost knowledge and dexterity. Indeed the world, sant in does not only give a certain cast or turn to as malicious as it is, will allow, that from a hurry their minds, but is very often apparent in their of laughter I recollect myself the most suddenly, outward behaviour, and some of the most indifferent make a curtsey, and let fall my hands before me, actions of their lives. It is this air diffusing itself closing my fan at the same instant, the best of any over the whole man, which helps us to find out a woman in England. I am not a little delighted person at his first appearance; so that the most that I have had your notice and approbation; and careless observer fancies he can scarce be mistaken however other young women may rally me out of in the carriage of a seaman, or the gait of a tailor. envy, I triumph in it, and demand a place in your The liberal arts, though they may possibly have friendship. You must therefore permit me to lay less effect on our external mien and behaviour, before you the present state of my mind. I was make so deep an impression on the mind, as is very reading your Spectator of the 9th instant, and apt to bend it wholly one way, thought the circumstance of the ass divided between The mathematician will take little else than dethe two bundles of hay, which equally affected his monstration in the most common discourse, and senses, was a lively representation of my present the schoolman is as great a friend to definition and condition; for you are to know that I am extremely syllogisms. The physician and divine are often enamoured with two young gentlemen, who at this heard to dictate in private companies with the same time pretend to me. 'One must hide nothing when authority, which they exercise over their patients one is asking advice, therefore I will own to you, and disciples : while the lawyer is putting cases, that I am very amorous, and very covetous. 'My and raising matter for disputation, out of every lover Will is very rich, and my lover Tom very thing that occurs. handsome. I can have either of them when I please; may possibly some time or other animadvert but when I debate the question in my own mind, 1 more at large on the particular fault each profession cannot take Tom for fear of losing Will's estate, is most infected with; but shall at present wholly nor enter upon Will's estate, and bid adieu to Tom's apply myeelf to the cure of what I last mentioned, person. I am very young, and yet no one in the namely, that spirit of strife and contention in the world, dear Sir, has the main chance more in her conversations of gentlemen of the long robe. head than myself. Tom is the gayest, the blithest This is the more ordinary, because these gentlecreature! He dances well, is very civil, and di. men, regarding argument as their own proper proverting at all hours and seasons. Oh! he is the joy vince, and very often making ready money of it, of my eyes! But then again Will is so very rich think it unsafe to yield before company. They are and carefal of the main. How many pretty dresses showing in common talk how zealously they could does Tom appear in to charm me! But then it defend a cause in court, and therefore frequently immediately occurs to me, that a man of his circum- forget to keep their temper, which is absolutely stances is so much the poorer. Upon the whole, I requisite to render conversation pleasant and in. have at last examined both these desires of love and structive. avarice, and upon strictly weighing the matter, I Captain Sentry pushes this matter so far, that I begin to think I shall be covetous longer than fond; have heard him say, “ he has known but few therefore if you have nothing to say to the contrary, pleaders that were tolerable company." I shall take Will. Alas, poor Tom!

The captain, who is a man of good sense, but dry “ Your humble Servant, conversation, was last night giving me an account T. “ BIDDY LOVELESS." of a discourse, in which he had lately been engaged

with a young wrangler in the law. “ I was giving

my opinion,” says the captain," without appreNo. 197.] TUESDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1711. bending any debate that might arise from it, of a Alter rixatur de lana sæpe caprina,

general's behaviour in a battle that was fought some Propugnat nugis armatus : scilicet, ut non

years before either the templar or myself were bora. Sic mihi primo fides; et, vere quod placet, ut non

The young lawyer immediately took me up, and by Ambigitur quid enim! Castor sciat, an Docilis plus, reasoning above a quarter of an hour upon a subject Brundusium Numici melius via ducat, an Appi.

which I saw he understood nothing of, endeavoured + HOR. 1 Ep. xviii. 15.

to show me that my opinions were ill-grounded. On trifles some are earnestly absurd;

Upon which,” says the captain, to avoid any furYou'll think the world depends on every word What! is not every mortal free to speak ?

ther contests, I told him, that truly I had not con. I'll give my reasons, though I break my neck!

sidered those several arguments which he had And what's the question? Is it shines or rains ;

brought against me, and that there might be a great ' Whether 'tis twelve or fifteen miles to Staines.Pitt. deal in them.” “Ay, but,” says my antagonist, Every age a man passes through, and way of life who would not let me escape so, there are several be engages in, has some particular vice or imper- things to be urged in favour of your opinion which fertion naturally cleaving to it

, which will require you have omitted;" and thereupon began to shine

Acriter elatrem? Pretium ætas altera sordet.

on the otber side of the question. “Upon this,” not of your opinion. The interests, education, and says the captain," I came over to my first senti- means by which men attain their knowledge, are so ments, and entirely acquiesced in his reasons for my very different, that it is impossible they should all so doing. Upon which the templar again recovered think alike; and he has at least as much reason to his former posture, and confuted both himself and be angry with you, as you with him. Sometimes, ne a third time. In short," says my friend, "I to keep yourself cool, it may be of service to ask found he was tesolved to keep me at sword's length, yourself fairly, what might have been your opinion, and never let me close with him; so that I had had you all the biasses of education and interest nothing left but to hold my tongue, and give my your adversary may possibly have? But if you antagonist free leave to smile at his victory, who contend for the honour of victory alone, you may found, like Hudibras, could still change sides, and lay down this as an infallible maxim, that you can still confute."*

not make a more false step, or give your antagonists For my own part, I have ever regarded our inns a greater advantage over you, than by falling into of court as nurseries of statesmen and lawgivers, a passion, which makes me often frequent that part of the When an argument is over, how many weighty town with great pleasure.

reasons does a man recollect, which his heat and · Upon my calling in lately at one of the most violence made him utterly forget! Doted Temple coffee-houses, I found the whole It is yet more absurd to be angry with a man beroom, which was full of young students, divided into cause he does not apprehend the force of your reaseveral parties, each of which was deeply engaged in sons, or gives weak ones of his own. If you argue some controversy. The management of the late for reputation, this makes your victory the easier ; ministry was attacked and defended with great vi he is certainly in all respects an object of your pity, goer; and several preliminaries to the peace were rather than anger; and if he cannot comprehend proposed by some, and rejected by others; the de- what you do, you ought to thank nature for her molishing of Dunkirk was so eagerly insisted on, favours, who has given you so much the clearer and so warmly controverted, as had like to have understanding. produced a challenge. In short, I observed that You may please to add this consideration, that the desire of victory, wbetted with the little preju- among your equals no one values your anger, which dices of party and interest, generally carried the ar-only preys upon its master; and perhaps you may gument w such a height, as made the disputants find it not very consistent either with prudence or insensibly conceive an aversion towards each other, your ease, to punish yourself whenever you meet and part with the highest dissatisfaction on both with a fool or å knave. sides,

Lastly, if you propose to yourself the lrue end of The managing an argument handsomely being so argument, which is information, it may be a seasonnice a point, and what I have seen so very few excel able check to your passion; for if you search purely in, I shall here set down a few rules on that head, after truth, it will be alınost indifferent co you where #bicb, among other things, I gave in writing to a you find it. I cannot in this place omit ab wbserva. poang kinsman of mine, who had made so great a tion which I have often made, pamely, That nothing proficiency in the law, that he began to plead in procures a man more esteem and les obry from company, upon every subject that was started.

the whole company, than if he cłoose: tbe part of Having the entire manuscript by me, I may, moderator, without engaging directly on aber side perbaps, from time to time, publish such parts of it in a dispute. This gives him the character of imas I shall think reqnisite for the instruction of the partial, furnishes him with an opportunity of sifting British yonth. What regards my present purpose things to the bottom, showing his judgment, and of is as follows:

sometimes making handsome complimenis to each Avoid disputės as much as possible. In order to of the contending parties. appear easy and well-bred in conversation, you may I shall close this subject with giving you ope cauassure yourself that it requires more wit, as well as tion. When you have gained a victory do not more good humour, to improve than to contradict push it too far; it is sufficient to let the company the notions of another: but if you are at any time and your adversary see it is in your po.zen tut that obliged to enter on an argument, give your reasons you are too generous to make use of it.with the utmost cooloess and modesty, two things which scarce ever fail of making an impression on the bearers. Besides, if you are neither dogmatical, No. 198.] WEDNESDAY, OCTOBES 17, 1711. dor show either by your actions or words that you

Cerve* luporum præda rapacium, are fall of yourself, all will the more heartily rejoice Sectamur ultro, quos opimus at your victory. Nay, should you be pinched in 6 - Fallere et effugere est trigmphus. * your argument, you may make your retreat with a Fery good grace. You were never positive, and are We, like “ weak hinds," the brinded wolf provoke, Dow glad to be better informed. This has made And when retreat is victory,

Rush on, though sure to die.OLDISWORTI. some approve the Socratical way of reasoning, wbere, while you scarce affirm any thing, you can There is a species of women, whom I shall dis. hardly be caught in an absurdity; and though postinguish by the name of salamanders. Now a salasibly you are endeavouring to bring over another to mander is a kind of heroine in chastity, that treads your opinion, which is firmly fixed, you seem only upon fire, and lives in the midst of fames without to desire information from him.

being hurt. A salamander knows no distinction of In order to keep that temper which is so difficult, sex in those she converses with, grows familiar with and yet so necessary to preserve, you may please to a stranger at first sight, and is not so narrow-spiconsider, that nothing can be more unjust or ridi- rited as to observe whether the person she talks to caloos-than-to be angry with another because he is

• All the editions of Horace read cervi: the Spectator al.

tered it to cerva, to adapt it more peculiarly to the subject of • Part i. cant. I. ver. 69, 70.

this pap:r. SPECTATOR-Nos. 29 & 30.

HOR. 4 Od. iv. 50.



bo in breeches or petticoats. She admits a male liberty, demanded a most exorbitant price for their visitant to her bed-side, plays with him a whole ransom. The Castilian, though he would rather afternoon at 'picquet, walks with him two or three have died in slavery himself

, than have paid such a hours by moonlight, and is extremely scandalized at sum as be found would go near to ruin him, was so the unreasunableness of a husband, or the severity moved with compassion for his wife, that he sent of a parent, that would debar the sex from such in- repeated orders to his friend in Spain (who hapnocent liberties. Your salamander is therefore a pened to be his next relation), to sell his estate, perpetual declaimer against jealousy, an admirer of and transmit the money to him. His friend hoping the French good breeding, and a great stickler that the terms of his ransom might be made more for freedom in conversation. In short, the sala- reasonable, and unwilling to sell an estate which he mander lives in an invincible state of simplicity and himself had some prospect of inheriting, formed so innocence. Her constitution is preserved in a kind many delays, that three whole years passed away of natural frost. She wonders what people mean without any thing being done for the setting them by temptations, and defies mankind to do their worst. at liberty. Her chastity is engaged in a constant ordeal, or There happened to live a French renegado in the fiery trial: 'like good Queen Emma, the pretty in- same place where the Castilian and his wife were nocent walks blindfold among burning ploughshares, kept prisoners. As this fellow had in him all the - Without being scorched or singed by them. vivacity of his nation, he often entertained the cap

It is not therefore for the use of the salamander, lives with accounts of his own adventures; to which whether in a married or a single state of life, that i he sometimes added a song or a dance, or some design the following paper; but for such females Other piece of mirth, to divert them during their only as are made of flesh and blood, and find them- confinement. His acquaintance with the manners -selves subject to human trailties.

of the Algerines enabled him likewise to do them As for this part of the fair sex who are not of the several good offices. The Castilian, as he was one salamander kind, I would most earnestly advise day in conversation with this renegado, distovered them to observe a quite different conduct in their to him the negligence and treachery of his corres behaviour; and to avoid as much as possible what pondent in Castile, and at the same time asked his religion calls temptations, and the world opportuni- advice how he should behave himself in that exidies. Did they but know how many thousands of gency: he further told the renegado, that he found their sex have been gradually betrayed from iono- it would be impossible for him to raise the money, .cent freedoms to ruin and infamy; and how many unless he might go over to dispose of his estate

. millions of ours have began with flatteries, protest. The renegado, after having represented to him that ations, and endearments, but ended with reproaches, his Algerine master would never consent to his reperjury, and perfidiousness; they would shun like lease upon such a pretence, at length contrived a death the very first approaches of one that might method for the Castilian to make his escape in the lead them into inextricable labyrinths of guilt and habit of a seaman. The Castilian succeeded in his misery. I must so far give up the cause of the male attempt; and having sold his estate, being afraid world, as to exhort the feniale sex in the language lest the money should miscarry by the way, and of Chamont in the Orphan :

determined to perish with it rather than lose one Trust not to man, we are by nature false,

who was much dearer to him than his life, he reDissembling, subtle, cruel, and inconstant :

turned himself in a little vessel that was going to When a man talks of love, with caution trust lim;

Algiers. It is impossible to describe the joy he felt But if he swears, he'll certainly deceive thee.

upon this occasion, when he considered that he I might very much enlarge upon this subject, but should soon see the wife whom he so much loved, shall conclude it with a story which I lately heard and endear himself more to her, by this uncommon from one of our Spavish officers,* and which may piece of generosity, show the danger a woman incurs by too great fami

The renegado, during the husband's absence, so diarities with a male companion.

insinuated himself into the good graces of his young An inhabitant of the kingdom of Castile, being a wife, and so turned her head with stories of gal. man of more than ordinary prudence, and of a lantry, that she quickly thought him the finest grave composed behaviour, determined about the gentleman she had ever conversed with. To be fiftieth year of his age to enter upon wedlock. In brief, her mind was quite alienated from the bonest order to make himself easy in it, he cast bis eye Castilian, whom she was taught to look upon as a upon a young woman who had nothing to recom-formal old fellow, unworthy the possession of $0 mend her but her beauty and her education, her charming a creature. She had been instructed by parents having been reduced to great poverty by the renegado how to manage herself upon his ar the wars, which for some years have laid that whole rival; so that she received him with an appearance country waste. The Castilian having made his ad- of the utmost love and gratitude, and at leogth per. dresses to her and married her, they lived together suaded him to trust their common friend the rene in perfect happiness for some time ; 'when at length gado with the money he had brought over for their the husband's affairs made it necessary for him to ransom; as not questioning but he would beat take a voyage to the kingdom of Naples, where a down the terms and negociate the affair more to great part of his estate lay: The wife loved him too their advantage than they themselves could do tenderly to be left behind him. They had not been The good man admired her prudence, and followed a-shipboard above a day, when they unluckily fell her advice. I wish I could conceal the sequel of into the hands of an Algerine pirate, who carried this story; but since I cannot, I shall dispatch it in the whole company on shore, and made them slaves. as few words as possible. The Castilian having The Castilian and his wife had the comfort to be slept longer than ordinary the next morning, Mpoti under the same master; who seeing how dearly his awaking found his wife had left him. Heim they loved one another, and gasped after their mediately arose and inquired after her, but was told

. Viz. one of the English officers who had been employed that she was seen with the renegado about break of in the war in Spm

day. In a word, her lover having got all things ready for their departure, they soon made their riches alone do not make you happy, and yet give escape out of the territories of Algiers, carried away up every thing else when it stands in competition the money, and left the Castilian in captivity; who with riches. Since the world is so bad, that relipartly through the cruel treatment of the incensed gion is left to us silly, women, and you men act Algerine his master, and partly through the unkind generally upon principles of profit and pleasure, I usage of his unfaithful wife, died some few months will talk to you without arguing from any thing but after.-L.

what may be most to your advantage, as a man of

the world. And I will lay before you the state of No. 199.) THURSDAY, OCTOBER 18, 1711. make me your mistress or your wife, and hope to

the case, supposing that you had it in your power to -Scribere jussit amor.-OVID. Ep. iv. 10. convince you that the latter is more for your interest, Lore bade me write.

and will contribute more to your pleasure. The following letters are written with such an you were now in expectation of the approaching

“We will suppose, then, the scene was laid, and air of sincerity that I cannot deny the inserting evening wherein

I was to meet you, and be carried of them :

to what convenient corner of the town you thought * MR. SPECTATOR,

fit, to consummate all which your wanton imagina“ Though you are every where in your writings ation has promised to you in the possession of one friend to women, I do not remember that you have who is in the bloom of youth, and in the reputation directly considered the mercenary practice of men of innocence. You would soou have enough of in the choice of wives. If you will please to em- me, as I am sprightly, young, gay, and airy. When ploy your thoughts upon that subject, you would fancy is sated, and finds all the promises it made easily conceive the miserable condition many of us itself false, where is now the innocence which are in, wbo not only from the laws of custom and charmed you? The first hour you are alone, you modesty are restrained from making any advances will find that the pleasure of a debauchee is only towards our wishes, but are also, from the circum- that of a destroyer. He blasts all the fruit he stance of fortune, out of all hopes of being addressed tastes; and where the brute has been devouring, to by those whom we love. Under all these disad- there is nothing left worthy the relish of the man. Fantages I am obliged to apply myself to you, and Reason resumes her place after imagination is hope I shall prevail on you to print in your very cloyed: and I am with the utmost distress and connext paper the following letter, which is a declara- fusion to behold myself the cause of uneasy reflection of passion to one who has made some faint tions to you, to be visited by stealth, and dwell for addresses to me for some time. I believe he ar- the future with two companions (the most unfit for dently loves me, but the inequality of my fortune each other in the world) solitude and guilt, I will not makes him think he cannot answer it to the world, insist upon the shameful obscurity we should pass our it be pursues his designs by way of marriage; and time in, nor run over the little short snatches of I believe, as he does not want discerning, he dis- fresh air, and free commerce, which all people must covered me looking at him the other day unawares,

be satisfied with, whose actions will not bear exain such a manner, as has raised his hopes of gain, have seen enough of that life, of which I have but

mination, but leave them to your reflections, who ing me on terms the men call easier. But my heart was very full on this occasion, and if you

a mere idea. know what love and honour are, you will pardon

“On the other hand, if you can be so good and me that I use no further arguments with you, but generous as to make me your wife, you may promise hasten to my letter to him, whom I call Oroon- yourself all the obedience and tenderness with which dates;* because if I do not succeed, it shall look gratitude can inspire a virtuous woman. Whatlike romance; and if I am regarded, you shall re

ever gratifications you may promise yourself from ceive a pair of gloves at my wedding, sent to you

an agreeable person, whatever compliances from an under the name of Statira."

easy temper, whatever consolations from a sincere

friendship, you may expect as the due of your ge" To OROONDATES.

nerosity. What at present in your ill view you “ Sie,

promise yourself from me, will be followed with “After very much perplexity in myself, and re-distaste and satiety; but the transports of a virtu volving how to acquaint you with my own senti- ous love are the least part of its happiness. Thy ments, and expostulate with you concerning yours, raptures of innocent passion are but like lightning I have chosen this way; by which means I can be to the day, they rather interrupt than advance the at once revealed to you, or, if you please, lie con- pleasure of it. How happy, then, is that life to be, cealed. If I do not within a few days find the effect where the highest pleasures of sense are but the which I hope from this, the whole affair shall be lowest parts of its felicity? bariert in oblivion. But, alas! what am I going to “Now am I to repeat to you the unnatural redo, when I am about to tell you that I love you ? quest of taking me in direct terms. I know there But after I have done so, I am to assure you, that stands between me and that happiness, the haughty with all the passion which ever entered a tender daughter of a man who can give you suitability to keart, I know I can banish you from my sight for your fortune. But if you weigh the attendance and erer, when I am convinced that you have no incli- behaviour of her who comes to you in partnership nations towards me but to my dishonour. But, of your fortune, and expects' an equivalent, with alas ! Sir, why should you sacrifice the real and that of her who enters your house as honoured and essential happiness of life to the opinion of a world, obliged by that permission, whom of the two will that moves upon no other foundation but professed you choose? You, perhaps, will think fit to spend a error and prejudice ? You all can observe that day abroad in the common entertainments of men

of sense and fortune; she will think herself ill-used A celebrated name in Mademoiselle Scudery's French in that absence, and contrive at home an expense fomance of The Grand Cytus, &c.

proportioned to the appearance which you make in

the world. She is in all things to have a regard to. On the other hand, if it should please God to the fortune which she brought you, I to the fortune drop from heaven a new people, equal in number to which you introduce me. The commerce, be and riches to the city, I should be ready to think tween you two will eternally have the air of a bar- their excises, customs, and house-rent would raise gain, between us of a friendship; joy will ever enter is great a revenue to the crown as would be lost in into the room with you, and kind wisbes attend my the former case. And as the consumption of this benefactor when he leaves it. Ask yourself how, new body would be a new market for the fruits of would you be pleased to enjoy for ever the pleasure the country, all the lands, especially those most ad. of having laid an immediate obligation on a grateful jacent, would rise in their yearly value, and pay mind ? Such will be your case with me. lu the greater yearly taxes to the public. The gain in this other marriage you will live in a constant compa- case would be as sensible as the former loss. rison of benefits, and never know the happiness of Whatsoever is assessed upon the general, is levied conferring or receiving any.

upon individuals. It were worth the while then to " It may be you wil

, after all, act rather in the consider what is paid by, or by means of, the meanprudential way, according to the sense of the ordi- est subjects, in order to compute the value of every pary world. Í know not what I think or say, wher subject to the prince. that melancholy reflection comes upon me; but shal! For my own part, I should believe that sevenonly add more, that it is in your power to make me eighths of the people are without property in themyour grateful wife, but never your abandoned mis- selves, or the heads of their families, and forced to tress.-T."

work for their daily bread; and that of this sort there are seven millions in the whole island of Great

Britain; and yet one would imagine that seven. No. 200.1 FRIDAY, OCTOBER 19, 1711.

ighths of the whole people should consume at least Vincit amor patriæ. Virg. Æn. vi. 823.

three-fourths of the whole fruits of the country. If

this is the case, the subjects without property pay The noblest motive is the public good.

three-fourths of the rents, and consequently enable The ambition of princes is many times as hurtful the landed men to pay three-fourths of their taxes, to themselves as to their people. This cannot be Now if so great a part of the land-tax were to be doubted of such as prove unfortunate in their wars, divided by seven millions, it would amount to more but it is often true too of those who are celebrated than three shillings to every head.' And thus as for their successes. If a severe view were to be the poor are the cause, without which the rich could taken of their conduct, if the profit and loss by not pay this tax, even the poorest subject is, upon their wars could be justly balanced, it would be this account, worth three shillings yearly to the rarely found that the conquest is sufficient to repay prince. the cost.

Again: one would imagine the consumption of As I was the other day looking over the letters seven-eighths of the whole people should pay twoof my correspondents, I took this hint from that of thirds of all the customs and excises, · And if this Philarithmus; which has turned my present thoughts sum too should be divided by seven millions, siz. upon political arithmetic, an art of greater use than the number of poor people, it would amount to more entertainment. My friend has offered an Essay than seven shillings to every head': and therefore towards proving that Lewis XIV. with all his ac- with this and the former sum, every poor subject, quisitions, is not master of more people than at the without property, except of his limbs or labour, is beginning of his wars; nay, that for every subject worth at least ten shillings yearly to the sovereign. he had acquired, he had lost three that were bis in- So much then the queen loses with every one of her heritance." If Philarithmus is not mistaken in his old, and gains with every one of her 'new'subjects. calculations, Lewis must have been impoverished When I was got into this way of thinking, 'I by his ambition.

presently grew conceited of the argument, and was The prince for the public good has a sovereign just preparing to write a letter of advice to a 'inem. property in every private person's estate; and con- ber of parliament, for opening the freedom of our sequently his riches must increase or decrease in towns and trades, for taking away all manner of proportion to the number and riches of his subjects. distinctions between the natives and foreigners, for For example; if sword or pestilence should destroy repealing our laws of parish settlements, and reall the people of this metropolis (God forbid there moving every other obstacle to the increase of the should be room for such a supposition ! but if this people. But as soon as I had recollected with what should be the case), the queen must needs lose a inimitable eloquence my fellow-labourers had ex. great part of her revenue, or at least what is aggerated the mischiefs of selling the birth-right of charged upon the city must increase the burden Britons for a shilling, * of spoiling the pure British upon the rest of her subjects, Perhaps the inha- blood with foreign mixtures, of introduciog a conbitants here are not above a tentu part of the fusion of languages and religions, and of letting in whole; yet as they are better fed, and clothed, strangers to eat the bread out of the mouths of our and 'loulged, than her other subjects, the customs own people, I became so humble as to let my proand excises upon their consumption, the imposts ject fall to the ground, and leave my country to inupon their houses, and other taxes, do very procrease by the ordinary way of generation. bably make a fifth part of the whole revenue of the As I have always at heart the public good, so I crown. But this is not all; the consumption of the am ever contriving schemes to promote it; and I city takes off a great part of the fruits of the whole think I may without vanity pretend to have con. island; and as it pays such a proportion of the rent trived some as wise as any of the castle-builders. I of yearly value of the lands in the country, so it is the cause of paying such a proportion of taxes upon This is an ironical allusion to some of the popular arguthose lands. The loss then of such a people mustments that had been urged in the year 1708, when a bul was needs be sensible to the prince, and visible to the brought in for the naturalization of foreign protestants ; which,

on account of the 'odium raised against it, did not pass toto whole kingdom.

a law

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