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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount assignats bank notes Bank of England bankers benefit bill bills of exchange bullion capitalists cause cheaper circulation circumstances coin commerce commodities consequence consumers corn corn laws cost of production currency dealers debt degree demand depend depreciation desire diminished economical effect employed employment England equal equivalent exchange exchange value exist expense exports fall favor foreign France Germany greater imports improvement income increase industry issuers labor and capital land landlords law of value less linen loans lower means ment mode modities necessary obtain paid paper payment persons Poland population portion precious metals present principle produce proportion purchase raise rate of interest rate of profit rent rise of price saving seignorage sell speculation sufficient sumers supply suppose taxation theory things tion trade transactions value of money wages wealth whole
Сторінка 313 - Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being. They have enabled a greater population to live the same life of drudgery and imprisonment, and an increased number of manufacturers and others to make fortunes. They have increased the comforts of the middle classes. But they have not yet begun to effect those great changes in human destiny, which it is in their nature and in their futurity to accomplish.
Сторінка 310 - I confess I am not charmed with the ideal of life held out by those who think that the normal state of human beings is that of struggling to get on ; that the trampling, crushing, elbowing and treading on each other's heels, which form the existing type of social life, are the most desirable lot of human kind, or anything but the disagreeable symptoms of one of the phases of industrial progress.
Сторінка 489 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political 'economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Сторінка 346 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute to the support of the government, as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Сторінка 118 - It is hardly possible to overrate the value, in the present low state of human improvement, of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves, and with modes of thought and action unlike those with which they are familiar.
Сторінка 315 - According to the former theory, the lot of the poor, in all things which affect them collectively, should be regulated for them, not by them. They should not be required or encouraged to think for themselves, or give to their own reflection or forecast an influential voice in the determination of their destiny.
Сторінка 311 - It is only in the backward countries of the world that increased production is still an important object: in those most advanced, what is economically needed is a better distribution, of which one indispensable means is a stricter restraint on population.
Сторінка 360 - Suppose that there is a kind of income which constantly tends to increase, without any exertion or sacrifice on the part of the owners ; those owners constituting a class in the community, whom the natural course of things progressively enriches, consistently with complete passiveness on their own part.