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1. Definitions.-2. Is Political Economy a Science.-3. Politi-

cal Economy also an Art.—4. The Deductive, a priori, or

Metaphysical Method.–5. Decline of the Metaphysical

and Rise of the Historical Method.-6. Carey's Corrective

Influence.—7. The Historical Method is Not a History

of Opinion Merely.-8. Limitations on the Historical

Method.-9. Relation of Economics to Ethics.-10. The

Scientific Method.-11.–The Philosophy of Statistics. -

12. The Result of Statistics.-13. Utility of Statistics.-

14. Regularity of Phenomena Shown by Statistics.-15.

Statistics Taken with a Bias.-16. The American Impulse
toward Economic Progress.-17. The United States as an

Economic Instructor.


18. Wealth and Poverty-Social.-19. Savage Life-Social

Poverty.-20. Ownership by the Tribe - Barbarism.-21.

Tribal Ownership Depends on Occupancy and Use.--22.

Tribal Precedes State Ownership.-23. Charitable and

Religious Communism. – 24. Relative Inducement

Effort under Both Systems.–25. Wealth Dependent on

Exchange-How Far.--26. Private or Individual (Includ-

ing Corporate) Wealth.-27. The Commonwealth.--28.

The Family and Its Wealth.-29. Social and Spiritual
Wealth.-30. The Wealth of Nations.-31. The Evanes-

cence of Wealth.-32. Can Poverty be Abolished ?


33. What is Value ?–34. Fallacy of Resting Value on Labor.

--35. Whence Comes Value -The Consumer.-36. The

Consumer's Place in Industry.-37. Karl Marx's Theory

of Value.-38. Why Men Exchange.--39. The Theory of

Value.-40. Markeis are the Index of Values.-41. Free-

dom in Establishing Prices.--42. Cornering the Market.-

43. How Prices are Made.—44. Errors Concerning Causes

of Prices.-45. Tooke on Prices.-46. Prices Rise in Dis-

proportion to Scarcity.--47. Permanent and Temporary

Cheapness.-48. Relation of Prices Freedom.--49.

Countries of Low and High Prices.


75. Definitions.--76. Distribution of Wealth Precedes and

Causes Production,–77. Is Economic Distribution Just ?

–78. Dispersion of Capital is a Mode of Destroying It.-

79. How Distribution of Wealth Attends its Accumulation

and Getting Rich is Doing Good.-80. The Greater the

Accumulation of Reproductive Wealth, the More Equal

the Diffusion of Enjoyable Wealth.--81. Capital as
Laborer.-82. Forms of Capital.—83. Capital as an Eman-
cipator.–84. Re-distribution of Ill-used Wealth.-85.
Distribution by Luxury —86. Its Humanity Arraigned.-
87. Society's Gain by Economy.--88. Society's Gain by
Large Accumulations.--89. Large Capitals Lessen Con-
sumption.-90. Effects of Large Capitals on Rates of
Wages.--91. Constancy of Returns.-92. What Makes
High Profits?–93. Malthus' So called Law.-94. Fewer
Producers--Less Production.-95. Wages are Also Capital.

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109. Definition of Labor.–110. Work Differs from Labor.-

111. All Labor Can Not be Agreeable.--112. Labor Less

Broad than Production.-113. The · Wage Fund"

Doctrine.—114. The Rate of Wages and Margin of Profits.

-115. Is Population a Check on Wages? --116. Countries

of High and Low Wages.-117. Labor-Saving Machines.

-118. Labor Combinations. -119. Arbitration and Labor

Courts.—120. Labor Agitations for a Social Revolution.-

121. Causes which Compel Men to Work for Wages-—122.

The Organization of Labor in Industry.–123. The Terms

of Partnership, Labor, and Capital.-124. Effect of Impor-

tation of Competing Products on the Wages of Labor.-

125. Effect of Military Protection to Foreign Trade on

Home Wages.—126. Diversity of Industries Essential to

High Wages.-127. Exclusion of Immigration as a Measure

to Promote Wages.—128. The Barter of Domestic Labor

for Domestic Labor Promotes Domestic Wages.—129.

Wages of Social Labor.–130. Wages of Women.


131. What is Money ?–132. Origin of Money.-133. The Form

of Money.-134. The Substance of Coins.-135. Changes

in British Coinage.-136. The Standard.—137. The Ratio

between the Money Metals.–138. Exchangeable Credit as

Quasi Money.-139. Bills of Exchange and Notes.—140.

Money of Account.–141. Bank Deposits and Checks.-

142. Bank Notes.-143. Government Notes and Debts.-

144. The Volume of Credit.-145. Relative Cost and

Economy of Coin and Credit-Fiat Money.-146. Variations
in the Volume of Money.--147. The Single and Double

Standard.–148. Rate of Production of Gold and Silver.


149. Crises Defined.—150. Crises Produced by Excessive Im-

portation of Competing Products.--151. Competing Im-

ports Again the Cause.-152. Exhaustion of Capital.-153.

Great Wars Seldom, if Ever, Produce, but Often Avert or

Remedy Crises.—154. The American Crisis of 1837.—155.
Crisis of 1857.-156. The Crisis of 1866.-157. The Crisis
of 1873-9.-158. The Balance of Trade.--159. Doctrine

of the Balance of Trade.-160. Are Crises Useful or Penal?


161. Government Is Natural.—162. Interest Organizes Indus-

try.-163. The Motive Force in Industry.-164. Forms of

Government Dependent on the Evolution of Occupations.

-165. Governments Classified.-166. Parliamentary and

Representative States,--167. Diversity of Form in Repub-

lics.--168. Diversity of Functions and Objects. - 169.

Local Govern ment.–170. The State as Related to

Industry.-171. Coercion and Attraction in the State.-

172. Government by Force.-Voting by Males.—173.

Armies and Their Cost. -174. Crime and Its Punishment.

-175. Social Crimes and Insanities,-176. The Recent

Growth of Debt.

187. France. — Conditions. — 188. France. -- Revenues. - 189.

France, as Discussed by Smith.-190. Taxation as a Cause

of Production. Beet Sugar. — 191. The Sophisms of

Bastiat.–192. Modern Germany.--Protective Taxation a

Source of National Unity.-193. Germany's Present System
of Taxation. — 194. Revenue System of Russia.—195.
English Colonies.—196. China and Japan.

197. Methods of Argument Concerning Protection and So-

called Free Trade.-198. Sidgwick on Protection to Native

Industry.-199. Moffat on Protection in Growing Coun-

tries. -- 200. Devas on Protection.--201. Prof. Perry's

Free-Trade Methods.-Does or Does Not Free Trade

Employ Foreign Labor?-202. Why Canadians May Not

Have Free Trade with Vermont.--203. The Profit Argu-

ment.-Protection Profits a Nation or Nations Would

Not Protect. —204. Cost of Labor in America and Europe.
-205. Making Taxes Productive.-206. Collecting Taxes
from Foreign Producers.--207. Whether the Duty Raises
the Price on the Whole Domestic Product.—208. Getting
Cutlery by Making Buttons.-209. Must a Nation Import
Commodities in order to Export em, or Buy Them in
order to Sell Them?-210. The Theory of Barter Does
Not Aid the Free-Trade Criticism.-211. Private, Special,
and Public Interests.-212. Protection Universal.

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