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But they appear to have been few in number, whilst those of leading consequence were of spacious dimensions. The great hall, situated directly above the priucipal divisions of the ground-floor, was not less than 75 feel in dength, and 36 feet in breadth. This noble room, the seat of unlimited hospitality, is lighted by lofty, pointed windows, and is entered by two spacious doors, also of a pointed form.--So constructed, it is evident that it could not be intended for serious and lasting defence. The whole building, indeed, displays the characteristics of a grand, but rude, mansion, indeterminate in feature, and hesitatiug between hospitable confidence and armed precaution.

Naworth Castle, in Cumberland, which appears to have been built in the reign of Edward the Third, by Ranulphus Dacre, “ chiefly consists of two jarge square towers, united by other buildings, and enclosing a quadrangular court."* This structure, as is observed by Mr. King, t " has still more of the aukward attempt of introducing convenience and magnificence, and still less of the cautious provisions for munition and defence," than other buildings ascribed to the same reign. The interior contains a vast number of apartments; some few of which are spacious, but all gloomy and ill-contrived. Although it is probable that alterations have been effected in the disposal of many of these roonis, the general character of the building is an interesting specimen of the architectural mode of the age in which it is believed to have been erected. Situated on the bord and consequently much exposed to danger, this edifice must be amongst the last in which precautions of sullen security were sacrificed to fashion and a growing amenity of manners; yet, even here, we find the dismal and isolated keep abandoned, and ranges of apartments occupying the place of former embattled mural lines. I


• Beauties for Cumberland, p. 120.

+ Archæol. Vol. VI. $ The interior of this very curious building exhibits numerous contrivances

Hever Castle, in Kent, presents another instance of castellated buildings erected in the reign of Edward the Third; and displays, in its general character, a similar improvement in social arrangement, blended with decided efforts at exterior defence. This structure is surrounded by a moat, crossed by a drawbridge; and the “ entrance gateway, which consists of a centre, flanked by round towers, is embattled and strongly machicolated, and is also defended by a portcullis."* The inner buildings, however, unlike those of early Anglo-Norman castles, or of the mixed style immediately succeeding, “ form a quadrangle, enclosing a court.”

Not any architectural deviations of importance can be ascer. tained in castles erected, or altered, in the succeeding reign (that of Richard the Second ;) which period presents the latest examples of buildings strictly entitled to such a denoinination. A very few instances will, therefore, be sufficient for the satisfaction of the enquirer.

Bolton Castle, in Yorkshire, is said, by Leland, to have been built by Richard, Lord Scrope, in the time of King Richard the Second.' This was a stately pile, seated on an eminence. The whole building surrounded an open court, " and was disposed in the form of a parallelogram, with square towers at each extreme angle. A small tower rose near the centres of the north and south sides.”+ There were three ways of eutrauce; and the


of defence and retreat from the incursions of moss-troopers," or other marauding foes. The whole internal arrangement, indeed, seems " chiefly calculated to keep an enemy out, or elade his vigilance should he happen to get in. Ils hiding-holes are numerous; but it seems probable that many of its close recesses are even now unh nown.” The staircases are winding, dark, and narrow; and long successions of doors, opening to the more retired apartments, are strongly plated with iron.

• Beauties for Kent, p. 1315. + Arch. Anriqs. Vol. IV. p. 155.— According to Leland, this castle was " a makyuge XVIII yeres; and thic chargys of the buyldinge cam, by yese, to 1000 marks."

whole building appears to have been destitute of those defensive precautions adopted in earlier specimens of castellation, and sometimes evident in parts of other castellated edifices erected, or altered, in this reign.

The castle of Lumley, in the county of Durham* was originally constructed in the reign of Edward the First; but was altered, under a licence of fortification granted by Richard the Second, and Bishop Skirlaw, in the year 1389.+ It is difficult to distinguish, in this instance, between the works of different ages; but strong preparations for defence are apparent in many parts, intermingled with extensive and sumptuous ranges of domestic apartments. The buildings are situated on an elevated spot, and form a quadrangle, enclosing an area, and protected, at each angle, by octagonal machicolated turrets. The projecting gateway is, likewise, commanded by turrets and a machicolated gallery; and it is ascertained, by armorial sculpture, that this gateway underwent alteration by Sir Ralph Lumley, in the reign of Richard the Secoud. Three stories of apartments, in the east front, being that on which is placed the above gateway, have mullioned windows, guarded with iron.

A second instance of a baronial castle, altered according to the style of this reign, occurs in the castle of Raby, likewise in the county of Durham. But, in this noble pile, the marks of alter. ation in the time of King Richard are still more obscurely intermixed with buildings of much greater antiquity, and with subsequent improvements. In many parts, however, it still displays the modes prevailing about the year 1379, when John de Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland, obtained a licence “lo make a castle of his manor of Raby, and to embattle and crenellate its towers.” The strong, embattled, towers, either renovated, or entirely constructed, by that earl, are numerous. But the decisive traces of


* Beauties for Durham, p. 189; with an engraving.
+ Printed, by mistake, in the Beauties for Durham, 1329.

Beauties for Durham, p. 227.

the era in which he flourished, are most conspicuous in rude, but grand, efforts towards an increase of internal convenience and splendour. The ground -plau of the outworks is, probably, of a much more ancient date.

Thus reluctantly did the custom of living in massy fastnesses, wbich defied party-competition, and rendered an individual al. most superior to the reigning law of the land, pass away from pobles long accustomed to feudal manners, and intent op exacting, with arbitrary interest, from the middle classes and the commonalty, those dues of hoinage, and more solid advantages, which therselves rendered to the crown.

It is believed that we have not any remaining specimen of a building, really entitled to the name of castle, and intended for a noble dwelling, that was erected at a date subsequent to the reign of Richard the Second. Various circumstances accelerated the disuse of such structures, as places of residence for the noble and wealthy.-The increase of urbanity and refinement, attendant on the progressive substitution of commerce for chivalry, as the great dependance of the nation, must have created a dispo sition towards the relinquishment of such dreary and isolated recesses of stone. The same bias of national temper, necessarily produced, although by slow degrees, a more settled state of public affairs, favourable to the indulgence of the growing taste and enlarged liberality of sentiment.

But one obvious circunstance is, in itself, of sufficient weight to account for the abandonment of fortification, according to the ancient methods, without a reference to causes more conjectural and obscure. — The whole mode of warfare experienced so entire a change by the introduction of gunpowder and artillery, that the duplicated ramparts, with their crenelles and turrets, and even the massy walls of the keep, although proof to the cattus or the battering ram, were no longer secure guards against the assault of a determined foe. *


' A different opinion prevailed for a short time during the reign of Henry


To this inducement may, perhaps, be added (as an offspring of the substitution of commerce for chivalry) the increase of our vaval strength, and cousequent accession of security from foreign invasion.

From such causes conjoined, no baronial seats, regularly for. tified, were erected in ages succeeding the time of Richard the Second; and those already existing were gradually abandoned, except in casual times of public trouble.

In the sanguinary struggles between the rival houses of York and Lancaster, the more ancient and massy of these strong holds were often subjects of contentiou and enterprise. They afterwards returned to a happy state of neglect as fortifications; from which they were disastrously called in the 17th century.-It appears, that, in the year 1636, a commission was issued, appointing Lieutenant-Colonel Coningsby" commissary-general of, and for, all the castles and fortifications in England and Wales.” The express object of this measure has not, however, been ascertained. Duriug the calamitous civil war (painful in every point of view!) which brought the generous, but misguided, career of Charles to a fatal conclusion, many ancient castles were garrisoned, and defended, by the respective contending parties.

When the king's cause was lost, several of these structures (equally venerable and curious !) were dismantled, or utterly destroyed, by order of Parliament. Since that date, the inroads of dilapidation have been much more than commensurate with the progress of time. A busy and increasing commercial population has demolished, without scruple, many fragments of such cas


the Eighth. By that monarch were erected in haste, and, as it would almost appear, in trepidation, several fortresses for the defence of the coast against invasion. An instance of these block houses is noticed in the Beauties for Sussex, p. 199. The building there described (Winchelsea, or Cam. ber Castle) is a satisfactory example of the whole of the fortresses constructed by Henry the Eighth, with a view of protecting the coast. They usually consist of a large circular tower, with outworks, sometimes comprising smaller towers of the same forn.

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