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Although the above observations embrace the whole procedure of sacred architecture in ages subsequent to the Norman Conquest, and are chiefly directed to the buildings of South Wales, they may be applied particularly to the style denominated AngloNorman, and are equally correct in regard to both divisions of the principality.

To the reasons assigned by Sir R. Hoare for that accordance of architectural features, which is to be observed between the ecclesiastical structures of England and Wales, it may be added, that such buildings in both countries were probably erected by the same workmen. When we consider the state of society, and of the arts, in the ages under examination, we are warranted in presuming that fraternities of masons (or of architects, as the associated builders of a period uot very distant are termed by Sir Christopher Wren*) travelled for employment through contiguous countries; and either executed the designs of ingenious clergy. men and monks, or presenteil patterns of previous works for their selection and adoption. The universal deference to the poutiff of Rome, led to a unity of interests and fashions between many nations, which were unhappily at variance in political feelings.

Remains of that style of architecture which was practised by the Anglo-Normans are to be seen in three of the Cathedral churches of Wales :- Bangor, St. Dovid's, and Landaff. In all these instances they are intermixed with the architecture of various succeeding dates : and the ancient parts of the two latler cathedrals are in a lamentable state of decay, or dilapidation.

Few parochial churches in the principality exhibit traces of the circular style. Those of Ewenny,t and Margan, are,

however,

* Parentalia, p. 306. The reinarks of Sir Christopher Wren, on this topic, are noticed more largely in that part of the present work which treats on the pointed, or English, style of architecture.

| Beauties for South Wales, p. 684-5.

Ibid, p. 704-5

however, very conspicuous and interesting examples of this mode.

The monastic architecture of each division of the principality, is now chiefly reduced to lingering masses of ruin, too far de. faced to allow of any minute discrimination respecting former architectural character. The round arch prevails among the few ruinous fragments of the once-splendid abbey of Strata Florida, and is, perhaps, more conspicuous in these decaying relics, than in the remains of any other monastic edifice throughout the whole of Wales. *

ON THE PROCEDURE OF THE ARTS MOST CLOSELY CONNECTED WITH TOPOGRAPHICAL INVESTIGATION, FROM THE PERIOD OF ANGLO-NORMAN ARCHITECTURE TO THE REIGN OF JAMES THE FIRST.

In the preceding sections I have submitted some materials, and opinions, towards information concerning those great eras in the history of Britain, which are of peculiar importance with the Topographer, as they involve political divisions of the country, and produce separate classes of very interesting antiquities. The changes in the aspect of our island, and the revolutions in art, science, and manuers, effected by the successive invasions of the Romans, Saxons, and Normans, were indeed striking and memorable,

How abrupt the transition from the Briton's chearless hut, illumined by no ray of refinement, to the villa of the polished, luxurious, Roman, decorated with sculpture, and provided with porticos and baths! How great the change in the military cha

racter

The abbey of Strata Florida (Ystrad Fflur) is noticed in the Beauties for South Wales, p. 472–477. A beautiful arched gateway, still remaining among these ruins, forms the vignette to that volume of the Beauties,

racter of the country, when we compare the Briton's rude caso trametation with the scientific, well-arranged, camp of his con

querors !

But nearly every work of art fell beneath the rapacious encroachments of the Saxons. The temples of Britain, and her novel pride of domestic architecture, were alike swept away by barbarians intent only on aggrandizement for the gratification of a sordid sensuality.

Recovering, by slow degrees, from the coarse, ruinous, complexiou inflicted by the Pagan-Saxous, we find the island regaining a comparative resemblance of wealth and architectural adornment, under their Christian descendants. Her fields are tilled by settled husbaudmen; cities arise, organised with political wisdom, and governed by salutary laws; castles of stone, ale though sew in number, crown some hills, or protect interspersed segions of cultivated low-land; churches, at once durable and ornamental, proclaim, in every priucipal town, the advancement of religious feeling, with contented social order for its altendant; and decorate even the intervals of far-spread woodland with their enassive but humble walls.

The efforts of population were still weak, and the spots enriched by art were few, and dispersed over a wide and chill expanse of forest and morass; like casual rays of sunshine id a vast profound of gluomy sky.

The scene was greatly eulivened, if not inuch ameliorated, by the enterprising spirit of the Normans. Many deep, thick, woods (the dank harbours of beasts of prey) fell beneath those babits of industry which they stimulated equally by precept and example. Under the Noripan sway, baronial castles, with all the pompous glitter of chivalric parade, gave animation to recesses buried, until that time, in profound quiet, sublime in the wildness of nature rather than attractive in her simplicity. Churches, the fair works of piety, raised their stately frouts in districts then first deemed worthy of architectural ornament; and monastic piles spread the influence of splendid superstition, over vales the most rural and sequestered.

monastic

In descending froin this date, we happily quit the last era in which a great and marked alteration has been effected in the aspect of the island, as relates to the fashion of architecture, in consequence of the introduction of a foreign dynasty. The revolutions in art to be noticed in our future pages, are produced by the inhabitants of Britain, coalesced as one great nation from the various stocks of invading powers, amalgamated with parts of the original population, and now first taking pride in the name of ENGLISAMEN, and becoming famous as such in the anuals of war and science.

It would be gratifying to enter into an examination of various effects, produced through the whole range of the useful and orna. mental arts, by this union of population, in the course of the centuries now to be noticed. But the scheme of the preseut work, and its limits, equally confine the writer to such circumstances as are of most obvious importance in Topographical Researches. Architecture, - Castellated, Domestic, and Ecclesiastical-is, therefore, constituted our leading article in the section which is to ensue; and an investigation of the procedure of this one uoble art, will implicate reunarks on several other topics, connected with an historical review of the national taste and manners in those successive ages.

ON THE SUBJECT OF CASTELLATED STRUCTURES, FROM TAS 'CLOSE OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN ERA OF ARCHITECTURE, TO THE TIME AT WHICH FURTIFIED BUILDINGS CEASED TO BE CONSTRUCTED AS DWELLINGS, IN ENGLAND AND WALES; INCLUDING SOME REMARKS ON THE CHARACTER OF SUCCEEDING MANSIONS, TO THE END OF THE REIGN OF JAMES THE FIRST.

It is much to be regretted that the subject of castellated ar

chitecture, chitecture, assuredly one of the most curious topics of antiquarian enquiry, since it is so intimately blended with a history of the customs and manners of many ages which are left in great obscurity by the scanty and ill-directed labours of contemporary historical writers, should have met with serious attention at a period too late for investigations completely satisfactory. The propriety of this remark will be admitted, when it is observed that there is great difficulty in finding a decisive specimen of the castellated style which prevailed between the reign of Stephen and that of Edward the First.

If we adopt the conclusions of Mr. King, * we may, however, consider the keep of Knaresborough Castle to present an ex. ample of the mode which obtained in the time of Henry the Third. The castle of Knaresborough is described in the “Beauties” for Yorkshire,t where we are told that its site comprised “ near two acres and a half within the walls, and that the walls were flanked with eleven towers; which, with several other buildings in the different wards, afforded convenience and accommodation for a numerous garrison.”

The respectable author of that portion of the Beauties of EngJand, ciles, as an authority, a modern historian of Knaresborough, according to whom, "a part of the principal tower still remaiuing, appears to have been built about the time of Edward the Third;" but I confess that I deem the opinion of Mr. King to be the more acceptable, and would rather, with that writer, suppose the keep to have been erected about the time of the third Henry. I shall speedily shew that the style which prevailed in the reign of Edward the Third, according to all known examples, was of a character far more capacious and magnificent; while it is equally unlikely, from many architectural particulars, that the tower was of a date earlier than the reign of Henry the Third, as is

stated

• Archæol. Vol. VI.
+ Beauties for Yorkshire, p. 636, et seq.

Sec Archæol. Vol. VI. p. 322.

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