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of high respectability, to be probably referable “ to the Norman æra.” But, in my brief index to such buildings in the circular style as are mentioned in the “ Beauties,” I deem it desirable to state this church of St. Peter, as a building quite open to the enquiries of the ingenious.
CATHEDRAL CHURCHES, EXHIBITING REMAINS
OF ANGLO-NORMAN ARCHITECTURE. Bristol.—The Chapter-house, and Elder Lady Chapel (a structure on the north side of the Cathedral) present vestiges of the original edifice, begon about the year 1160. Beaunes for Somersetshire, p. 664-669, with an engraved view.*
CANTERBURY.—The tower on the north-west appears to have been built by Archbishop Lanfranc, between the years 1070 and 1089; but has experienced some alteration. A rich display of Norman architecture, ascribed to the same period, commences in the vicinity of St. Michael's chapel, which adjoins the south transept. The “side walls of the aisles of the choir, as well as parts of the east transept, are of Norman architecture, and unquestionably formed part of Lanfranc's Cathedral, though they are somewhat obscured by alterations in the pointed style.” The groining of the roof, in the north aisle, is of the time of Heury the Second, and is ornamented with zig-zag mouldings. Other parts of this magnificent building, still retaining traces of AngloNorman architecture, are noticed in the description presented in the Beauties for Kent, p. 830-875. CARLISLE.-- The nave and transept exhibit soine massive re
• Such pages of the Beauties of England as are referred to, in regard in each Cathedral mentioned in this list, contain a description of that building. Some additional particulars, concerning the dates of erection, &c. are, in several instances, collected from other sources. It is possible that defi. ciencies and errors may be discovered; but, where they do not proceed from a want of research or care, the indulgence of the reader is confidently expected.
mains, supposed to be of the latter part of the 11th century. Beauties for Cumberland, p. 85-89, with an engraved view.
Chichester.— Although this structure suffered by fire, about the year 1187, it affords an interesting example of the architecture of an earlier period. The more ancient parts are of a plain and weighty character, and are believed to have been built after 1114, and before 1123. Beauties for Sussex, p. 37 -48.
DURHAM.—This fine and impressive fabric presents, throughout the whole of its most important parts, instructive remains of Norman architecture. It was founded in 1093, and the walls were completed, nearly to the roof, before the year 1133. Beauties for Durham, p 38-44.
ELY.—The great western tower, up to the first battlements, was built by Bishop Ridel, who died in 1189. The transepts are of the reign of Henry the First. The nave and its aisles, "except the windows of second tier, and those of the lower, all but three on the south side, are in the Anglo-Norman style, and were" chiefly finished, as is believed, in the year 1174.* Beauties for Cambridgeshire, p. 161-164, with an engraved view.
Exeter. – The towerst were erected by Bishop Warlewast, between the years 1100 and 1128. Some alterations, however, have been effected in the north tower. Architectural remains, probably of the same age, may be seen in the transepts; but the later pointed mode is greatly preponderant in this structure, Beauties for Devonshire, p. 54-72.
GLOUCESTER.—The lower part of the nave, the aisles round the choir, and the crypt, are believed to have been erected be
Description of Ely Cathedral, &c. by G. Millers, M. A. In the same work are noticed several less important parts of Ely Cathedral, which also in the Anglo. Norman style.
+ Two views of the towers of Exeter cathedral are given in the Beauties for Devonshire.
tween the years 1058 and 1104. Beauties for Gloucestershire, p. 539–550, with au engraving.
HEREFORD. - This cathedral, although much altered in the modes of various eras, presents considerable specimens of the latter part of the eleventh, and the early years of the twelfth centuries. The Anglo-Norman divisions of this structure were commenced shortly after the year 1079, and were nearly completed before 1115. Beauties for Herefordshire, p. 458—476, with an engraved view.
LINCOLN.-Owing to accident from fire, and other more ordinary causes, producing a great commixture of styles, there is much difficulty in appropriating the ancient portions of this building to distinct ages; but, amidst the splendour of renovation and improvement, are still to be seen many parts, probably erected between the years 1086 and 1147. The foundations were laid in the former year, but the structure was greatly injured by fire, about 1127. The lower division of the centre of the grand western front, affords an example of highly.ornamented AngloNorman architecture.* Beauties for Lincolnshire, p. 627 641.
NORWICH.—The east end; the choir and its aisles; the chapels of Jesus and St. Luke; and the transepts; are ascribed to the date of 1096. The nave and its aisles, to that of 1122. Beauties for Norfolk, p. 147–158.
Oxford.- The Anglo-Norman parts of this edifice were probably erected between the years 1111 and 1190, or in years nearly circumscribed by those dates. Beauties for Oxfordshire, p. 138–142, with a print.
PETERBOROUGH.-The choir, with its aisles, from the circular extremity at the east, to the commencement of the transept on the west, was begun in 1118, and compleled in 1143. The transept was erected between the years 1155, and 1177. The
• An engraved view of the western front of this cathedral is given in the Beauties for Lincolnshire.
nave and its aisles, to the termination of the pillars which divide the nave and side aisles on the west, are believed to have been built between the years 1177 and 1193. Beauties for Northamptonshire, p. 234—236, with a print.
ROCHESTER.-Great parts of the nave, and the west front, to. gether with the tower between the transepts on the north side, were built by Bishop Gundulph, who died in the year 1108. The west front is a splendid instance of Anglo-Norinan architecture. The ruins of the chapter-house exhibit a style rather later. This building was erected by Bishop Ernulph, who died in 1124. Beauties for Kent, p. 639-653, with views of the west door, and of the interior.
Wells.- Parts of the nave and choir. Beauties for Somerset. shire, p. 484-487, with a view of the interior.
WINCHESTER.--The tower and transepts are Anglo-Norman works, and were completed in 1093. Many windows of the transepts, however, have been altered in various fashions. The tower is a fine and interesting specimen. Beauties for Hampshire, p. 49-81, with a print.
WORCESTER.—The choir, and several other parts which exhibit traces of the circular style, are believed to have been erected between 1084 and 1089. Beauties for Worcestershire, p. 61-83.
PAROCHIAL CHURCHES, EXHIBITING REMAINS
OF ANGLO-NORMAN ARCHITECTURE.
Time of Erection. Noticed in the Beauties. Probably the reign P. 102-104.
of Henry I......
St. Sepulchre's, Cam
bridge, [circular part] * The church of Stunt.
ney, and the chapel of Sterebridge, in this county, are good specimens of the AngloNorman style ; but are not noticed in the Beauties for Cambridgeshire, on account of the narrow limits to which that division of the work is confined.
While noticing this building, it appears desirable to offer a few remarks on the subject of Round Churches, of which we have, in England, four examples remaining almost perfect :-St. Sepulchre's church, Cambridge ; St. Sepulchre's church, Northampton ; the Temple church, London ; and the church of Little Maplested, Esser.
A vulgar opinion long prevailed, that these curious structures were the works of the Jews! Enquirers into the history of our ancient architecture were dis. abused of such a notion by the late Mr. Essex, who published an essay on the subject of round churches, in the sixth volume of the Archäologia. A more comprehensive dissertation has since been produced by Mr. Britton, in the first volume of his Architectural Antiquities, together with additional remparks by an ingenious correspondent of that gentleman, Charles Clarke, Esq. F.S.A.
In regard to the mistake of attributing these buildings to the Jews, Mr. Essex observes, that “ their temple at Jerusalem was not of the circular form, neither was the tabernacle of Moses; nor do we find the modern Jews affect that figure in building their synagogues. It has, however, been generally supposed, that the round church at Cambridge, that at Northampton, and some others, were built for synagogues by the Jews, while they were permitted to dwell in those places; but, as no probable reason can be assigned for this supposition, and I thiuk it is very certain that the Jews, who were settled in Cambridge, had their synagogue, and probably dwelled together, in a part of the town now called the Jewry, so we may reasonably conclude, the round churches we find in other parts of this kingdom were not built by