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the keep was secured by strong outworks and deep fossæ; and had, around it, a large area for the use of the garrisou.

The outward walls formed an irregular parallellogram, of about 300 feet in length; and were strengthened by several square and round towers, embrazured, and provided with loop holes and machicolations. The shape of these towers was, however, not uniformly confined to the two modes noticed above; as the remains of one that was of a semicircular form are still to be seen in the south-east angle of the outward walls ; and it would, indeed, appear from many instances that the Anglo-Normans, generally, did not adhere to any particular fashion in constructing the towers of their outworks; but introduced, in the same structure, the square, the round, and the polygonal.*

The methods adopted for the protection of the garrison in time of close siege, and after the outworks should be taken, displayed many ingenious refinements on the science of defence.

In regard to the exterior aspect of the great tower, or keep, there were on the ground floor, no windows, and only a few loop holes ; which were not much more than six inches square. The story above was, likewise, lighted merely by loop holes. But the third story, containing the rooms of state, was accommodated with “ magnificent windows,” which, however, were placed high in the lofty apartments, for the purpose of security against weapons discharged from without.

Varions devices to nuislead the assaults of an enemy, by deceptively exhibiting an appearance of exterior weakness, where, in fact, lay the greatest strength of the citadel, are conspicuous in this tower. But similar efforts at deception are visible in cas.


• The outworks of Rochester castle were certainly much injured, and are said by Holinshed “ to have been thrown down," when the fortress was besieged in the reign of John. It is believed, however, that they were restored according to the original design. Even if they were rebuilt in a different taste, such a circumstance does not affect the propriety of the above assertion respecting the various shapes used by the Normans in minor towers of the same structure.

tles attributed by several writers to an earlier date; and are supposed, by those authors, to have been invented by the Anglo. Saxons.

The dungeon for the reception of prisoners (that invariable and dreadful portion of every ancient castle in this country) was constructed beneath the small square tower adjoining the body of the keep; and was descended by means of a very narrow and steep Aight of steps, cut in the wall. Air was admitted to this dreary receptacle only by an aperture in the roof, which was secured with a falling, or trap-door; and it is likely that the prisoners were often introduced to their cell through that secret doorway, and were supplied with provisions through the same medium of communication. The entrance to the keep was adapted to the double purpose

of state and security, and consisted of a grand portal, at a 001siderable height from the ground; which was ascended by a staircase, that went partly round two of the fronts of the castle on the outside. Before this portal could be entered, there was a draw. bridge to be passed, and also a strong gate. Nor did the grand portal lead immediately to the keep, but was merely the entrance of a small adjoining tower, the whole of which might be demolished “ without any material injury to the body of the castle." Beyond this tower, which acted as a kind of vestibule, was the real entrance to the keep; and both these portals were guarded by portcullises as well as by strong gates. There was no other mode of ingress or egress, except that afforded by a small sallyport, or narrow doorway, situated directly under the drawbridge, at a considerable height from the ground: and careful provision was made that in case the entrance thus strongly guarded should be forced, admission to the recesses of the keep should still be attained only with great difficulty and danger.

There are, within the inassy walls of this castle, three square wells, which open at the bottom on the ground floor, and are care ried to the top of the structure, having, in their ascent, branches of passage leading to galleries on the two upper floors. It is


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believed that such cellular passages within walls, first occur in castles constructed by Bishop Gundulph, or in attention to his designs; and the use for which they were intended has led to much conjecture and discussion. It has been hastily supposed by some persons that they were' niade merely for the purpose of drying the stone-work.” But it is forcibly observed in reply, that they are much larger than would be necessary for such an intention, and that they are, in fact, very ill-adapted to it, because they open inwards and not outwards." Their real use cannot be ascertained beyond controversial limits. But, according to the most ingenious surinise which bas hitherto been made towards their appropriation, they were designed "for the easy convey. ance of the great engines of war into the several apartments, and up to the top of the castle."*

Such were the improvements introduced in the latter years of William the First, and in the early part of his successor's reign. Modes so judicious, at once combining an increase in the security and stateliness of a fortified residence, were necessarily adopted by many of the powerful and discriminating. Several castles, evincing an imitation of Gundulph's methods, are described in the “Beauties of England." The following may be mentioned, as having chiefly engaged antiquarian notice : - Canterbury ; Dover; Ludlow ;t Richmond, in Yorkshire; and Hedingham, in Essex.

1 must be allowed to repeat that, although the above classification of styles will be found, as I believe, to afford characteristics of the majority of great castles erected shortly after the conquest, it is by no means descriptive of the whole of the castellated structures raised in those years. A departure from the prevalent out



* See arguments concerning the design of these passages, Archäol. Vul. IV. p. 38t; ibid, Vol. VI. p. 296.

+ Two views of Ludlow castle are presented in the Beauties for Shropshire.

The Beauties for Essex cuptain an engraved view of Hedingham castic.

lines of both modes, assuredly occurs in several remaining buildinys. But, still, the rise, and the frequent adoption in this country, of the two methods of military architecture mentioned above, are proved by the dates of the buildings there adduced as respective examples; and it will be seen, in the succeeding section, that the general principles of these two Anglo-Norman styles (the early and rude, and the later and improved,) prevailed through several ages, although many subordinate particulars underwent alterations, from changes in the modes of warfare, and an increased sociability and refinement of manners.

The Mixed, OR IRREGULAR, MILITARY ARCHITECTURE OF THE ANGLO-NORMANS.The variable modes of castellation which grew into use with the military architects who succeeded to Bishop Gundulph and his strict imitators, admit of no definite classification, as to a marked style of defensive arrangement existing at a positive date, until we arrive at an age far distant,--the martial, but more polite, and prosperous reign of Edward the First.

Although the methods of fortification, and the customs prevailing in regard to a disposal of the enclosed buildings, experienced no important change during those numerous intervening years, it was otherwise with such parts of the castellated structure as admitted a display of minor architectural fashion. The introduction of the pointed, or English style, supplanted in the principal divisions, even of such harsh buildings, the circular-beaded windows and doorways which had been so long in use; and it is, therefore, evidently desirable to apply the term of Anglo-Nor. man to the majority of castellated, as well as religious buildings, from the time of the Conquest until the accession of Richard the First. The succeeding pages will shew that such a consideration presents almost the sole inducement for distinguishing the military architecture of the periods now under notice, from those which subsequently occur, before the introduction of a more noble style by the first Edward. It has been already suggested that the evil long felt by Eng.


land, in a want of castles of stone strongly fortified, was carefully remedied by William the Conqueror and his immediate successors. But it is the common lot of human effort to produce no benefit without an intermixture of penalty. The erection of many royal castles, built by means of public contribution, and defended by national soldiery, was evidently a felicitous step towards the independence and security of the island. William the First, however, had an aim more selfish, blended with the advancement of the national prosperity. In the same course of policy he was followed by bis sons; and the barons,* thus stimulated, produced an assemblage of fortresses eventually dangerous to the reigning power, and most certaiuly injurious to the comforts, and fair privileges, of the inferior classes of society.

The active and military disposition of the Anglo-Normans is forcibly evinced by the celerity with which they raised fortifications so numerous and so massive, in a country lamentably deficient in artificial means of defence previous to their invasion. The great and good Alfred complained that he had few fortresses of stone to defend his upright government against the predatory Danes ; and the crown, perhaps, finally passed from an AngloSaxon dynasty, through the same vational poverty in castellated

Yet, before the termination of the 12th century, we find that the busy population of England, under the sway of the Normans, had so far loaded the island with fortified piles of stone, ጊ 2



• The reader will recollect that a residence in strong castles was not confined to thc lay barons, but that prelutes also constructed such edifices, and dwelt there, in a resemblance of military severity. This, however, appears to have been contrary to the canons of the church; but was only a natural consequence of that Anglo-Norman regulation, which compelled the bishops and abbots to serve the state in a military capacity, although by proxy.

An idea of the usual residence of a bishop, in the Anglo-Norman ages, may be formed from the ancient part of Durham castle, noticed in the Beauties for that county, p. 60; and from the ruins of Lawhaden castle, described in the Beauties for South Wales, p. 806,

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