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tle was built.”-On the right hand of this entrance, is a small and remarkable chamber in the wall, which is lighted by two very small loop windows. In this apartment are still to be seen four seats, formed in the wall, and adorned with pillars, “ having [in the opinion of Mr. King] truly Saxon capitals, and circular ornamental arches above.” On the left hand of the great entrance is another doorway, which led to a small chamber, or closet; and, at no great distance, is an arch leading by a passage on one side, to a staircase, which went quite to the top of the tower, and was lighted by loops in the outer wall. Althongh the rooms into which this floor was divided, must necessarily have been very small, it appears that the principal apartment was at least 20 feet in height.

In such lineaments of the third floor as are still be discovered in the walls, appear four recesses, leading to four great windows, which command an extensive view of the surrounding country. Here is, also, found an arched doorway, leading to a small closet in the wall, in which are still evident two large machicolations,* hanging over the side of the castle, and which appear to be directly over the door of the dungeon already secured with dreadful care, and situated at a great depth beneath. The state apartment in this upper division of the fortress, must have been more than 15 feet high; and it is remarkable that in this part of the building there are not any remains of doorways leading to more than one closet, or small chamber, in the wall.

Such are the remains of those parts of Guildford castle, which, from their style of architecture, have been attributed to the An. glo-Saxons. It is, however, probable that, even in the time of the earliest Anglo-Saxon possessors of this fortress, buildings of a less solid character, and possibly of wood, were constructed in the area between the surrounding wall and the keep, for the

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• It is observed by Mr. King, in his “ Sequel to the Observations on Ancient Castles,” that these machicolations " were undoubiedly added in latier ages."

accommodation of such attendants as their safety, if not their love of pomp, rendered necessary.

The genius of the great Alfred impelled bim to an improvement of the national architecture in all its branches, and his dangerous struggles with the Danes caused bim to bestow particular attention on the increase in nuinber and strength of fortified buildings. It is not, however, known that the keep of any castle raised during his reign, is now remaining. The noble augmentation of magnitude, and improved mode of military architecture, which he introduced, are mentioned by several early writers; and King Edward the Elder, the warlike son and successor of Alfred, is stated to have formed numerous fortresses, in attention to the advice of his illustrious father. * Relics of these are probably still to be seen in many places; but the alterations effecled in subsequent ages have so far obliterated the traces of original character, that no instance remains as a satisfactory specimen of the style pursued in castellaled structnres erected under his direction, or that of his memorable sister, Ethelfleda, Queen of Mercia.


* The principal of these, and the policy which induced their erection, are thus noticed in Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons : “As the Danes possessed the north of England, from the Humber to the Tweed, and the eastern districts, from the Ouse to the sea, Edward protected his own frontiers by a line of fortresses. The position of these fortresses demonstrates their utility. Wigmore, in Herefordshire; Bridgnorth and Cherbury, in Shropshire; Edes. bury, in Cheshire ; and Stafford and Wedesborough, in Staffordshire; were well chosen to coerce the Welsh upon the western limits. Runcorne and Thelwall, in Cheshire, and Bakewell, in Derbyshire, answered the double purpose of awing Wales, and of protectiog that part of the north fron!ier of Mercia from the incursions of the Northumbrian Danes. Manchester, Tamworth, in Staffordshire, Leicester, Nottingham, and Warwick, assisted to strengthen Mercia on this northern frontier; and Stamford, Towcester, Bedford, Hart. ford, Colchester, Witham, and Malden, presented a strong boundary of de. sence against the liostilities of the East Anglian Danes. The three last citics, placed in a country which Edward's power had extorted, watched three rivers, important for their atfording an easy debarkation from foreign paris."--Hist. of the Anglo-Saxons, Vol. I. p. 336.

Lu the opinion of several antiquarian writers, we may, however, look to the mutilated castle of Colchester, for an imperfect example of fortresses raised in the time of Edward the Elder; and, certainly, wany parts of this building are very unlike the usual manner of the Normans, although other divisions were undoubtedly erected by that people.

The castle of Colchester is built on an elevated spot, and is coustructed in the form of a parallelogram, of large dimensions.* Its walls (composed of stone, fint, and Roman bricks) are of a great thickness, and exhibit considerable traces of that style of masonry, which is lermed herring-bone work. The more an. cieut parts of this curious structure appear to have been originally lighted by loop-holes, which were constructed in a manner much less skilful than is observable in inost castles of a later date.

A deceased industrious and careful antiquary asserts that instances of the groundwork of Anglo-Saxon castles, constructed by Ed. ward the Elder, are still plainly visible at Malden and at Witham, both in Essex. From the account of these, as presented in his work, it appears that the keep was placed ou a slight artificial elevation, or low flat hill. The geueral form of the groundwork is round. The keep was encompassed by a thick wall; and around the whole work was a deep broad ditch, a strong vallum of earth, on which was built an exterior wall, turretted after the Roman fashion.”

It is contended by, soine writers, that from Norwich castle, a builling " raised in the eleventh century, by command of King Canute,”we are enabled to form the most just ideas of the




* For an account of the present appearance of this structure, see Beauties for Essex, p. 308, et seq.; and for many critical remarks concerning its pro. bable Anglo-Saxon original, see Archæologia, Vol. IV. p. 406—409. An en• graved view of Colchester cas: le is presented in the Beauties for Essex.

+ Strutt's Manners and Customs, Vol. I. p. 24–25. In opposition to the above, it will be observed that, in the Beauties for Essex, the earthworks at Balden and at Witham are supposed to be remaius of mere encampments.

# For arguments as to the propriety of ascribing the date of this building

castellated architecture of the Anglo-Saxons, in its days of mature splendour. Although this structure is said to have been raised under a sovereign of Danish extraction, it may be presumed that he employed Anglo-Saxon architects; and that he adopted Anglo-Saxon inodes, if this building be indeed his, is sufficiently evident.

Norwich castle is now used, with additions, as a gaol for the county in which it stands, and has lately undergone alterations injurious to its beauty and former architectural character. The keep, or great tower, is square, and is, in extent, 110 feet 3 inches, by 92 feet 10 inches; the height to the top of the battlements being rather more than 69 feet. This spacious building is placed on a natural elevation; and, from the basement story upwards, consists of three stories. The exterior of the basement division is faced with rough flint, and is destitute of ornament. But from this story upwards, the outside is faced with stone, and adorned with semi-circular arches, laboriously worked, and, in the greater part, intended merely for the purpose of embellishment. On three sides were very magnificent windows, at a great height, being on the floor where the principal and state-apartments were situated ;"* which, together with the subordinate rooms, appear to have been numerous, and of large dimensions.

In regard to the outworks, and other modes of defence used in this building, it is difficult to separate the traces of such as were formed by the presumed original builder, from those added in subsequent, Norman, ages. But, if we may trust to the guidance of a writer who has attentively examined the whole of the remains, the keep, or great tower of this castle, was surrounded by three wide ditches, of a circular form, each having on the inner side a wall of defence. According to the same antiquary,


to the reigu of Canule, and for a more extended description, see Archæologia, Vol. IV. ; ibid, Vol. XII. and Beauties sur Norsoll, p. 121–189.

• Archæol. Vol. IV. p. 401.

the area of the whole castle, including the three ditches by which it was circumscribed, could not contain less than 23 acres; and the principal entrance was approached by means of stone bridges, thrown over the vallums, one of which [“ probably the same that was originally built by the Anglo-Saxons”] still remains, *

From the above limited remarks it is hoped that a general idea may be formed of the supposed state of military architecture in this country, and of its distinguishing characteristics, during the long and eventful sway of the Saxons. In presenting an alleged specimen of each most important era, it has been observed that no researches have hitherto succeeded in affixing a certain date to any conspicuous example of Anglo-Saxon fortification. But a reference to the arguments advanced in support of the appropri. ation which I have adopted, is appended to each instance, for a satisfaction of the reader; and, if he admit that those arguments are valid, he will from these few examples, and the less circumscribed description of each, contained in the respective volumes of the Beauties of England, acquire an outline of intelligence which may, at least, act as a guide to local, or more particular, investigations.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon architectural antiquities is, however, involved in much perplexity. In the absence of positive dates, and generally unassisted even by useful historical hints towards intelligence, the antiquary has a field widely open to conjectural appropriation, which often seduces bis fancy at the expense of bis judgment, and betrays him into the labyrinth of untenable hypothesis. The shades of distinction between the known Anglo-Norman, and the presumed Anglo-Saxon styles, are so few and indefinite, that, most frequently, no conclusion can be drawn entirely satisfactory to the dispassionate enquirer. In this state of incertitude, many modern writers, intent on


• Mr. Wilkins's Essay towards a History of Norwich castle, &c Arcliæol. Vol. XII.

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