« НазадПродовжити »
Beyond these places of public use were quartered the Ablecti, or select horse of the allies, forming the consul's guard; together with the Evocati, and volunteer horse. Still further distant, were placed the Evocati, and volunteer foot; and, at the extremity of the whole body, and with their front towards the intrenchment, were stationed the select foot of the allies, likewise making the guard of the consul.
From the central part of the Prætorium, a street, 50 feet in width, was carried in a direct line to the neighbouring gate, which, according to the above plan, we must term the Decuman gate.
On both sides of this street were encamped the extraordinary horse of the allies; and behind them, or nearer to the intrenchment, were placed the extraordinary foot of the same division of the army. The stations of these forces were on the rear of the whole camp, and the spaces which remained, on their right and left, were appropriated to the lodging and accommodation of such strangers as the various business of policy, or war, might lead to visit the army.
Thus were the inmates of the Roman castrum disposed ; * and between the tents and the intrenchments, on each side of the camp, was left a space of 200 Roman feet. It is stated by Ge. neral Roy, “ that this esplanade was of great use, not only for the easy going out, and coming in, of the legions, and their forming readily behind the rampart for its defence; but, likewise, for placing the cattle, and booty of all kinds, taken from the enemy, which was guarded there during the night. By this means, too, the troops in camp were farther removed from the enemy's darts.”'t
In regard to the particulars of individual allotment, it appears,
• In some instances, the lines of street laid down by the Ronians are still perceptible, in tbe thoroughfares of the English city or town. In no place is this more evident, than in Chester, which city produces numerous other curious vestiges of a Roman arrangement. See Beauties for Cheshire, p. 195, et seq.
Roy's Military Antiquities, p. 45.
from that curious fragment of Hyginus which has much assisted in explaining many circumstances of the Roman art of castrametation, and which was first introduced to the general notice of British antiquaries by General Roy,* that for every tent a space of ten feet was allowed, with the addition of a foot, all round for the convenience of pitching it. To this was added a space, of equal length with the tent, and five feet in breadth, for the deposit of arms; and a space of the same length, and nine feet in breadthi, for the bat-horses. One of these terts was usually allotted to eight men.
The following circumstances, although of no striking importance, may be noticed, as they assist in bestowing animation on our ideas of the Roman encampment. One maniple of the Triarii, succeeded by others in regular turn, constantly watched round the General's tent. Four soldiers, placed two before and two behind, attended as a guard of state, the tent of each Tribune; and the tents of the Præfects were attended by a similar guard, amongst the allies. The entrenchments of the camp were constantly watched by the Velites; and ten of the same light and agile soldiers held guard at every gate. To preserve on the alert the whole of those who watched the camp, four soldiers, chosen from the Equites, went the rounds, one at every watch; and this surveyor of the guard commenced his duty on the sounding of a trumpet at the tent of the first centurion of the Triarii, and took with bim some companions in arms, to bear witness to the truth of the report which he made to the Tribuues on the following morning.
The above deseription of a Roman castrametation applies to the cousular camp, for two legions, with their auxiliaries, amounting in the whole to about 19,200 men; and the accouut of its interual arrangement is according to the Polybian mode of encampment, or that which prevailed in early ages, conspicuous for vigorous simplicity of tactics, and strictness of discipline.
• Military Antiquities, No. II. p. 176.
A method of encamping, which differs from the above in many particulars, afterwards grew into practice, and has been banded down to posterity by Hyginus, who lived under the Emperors Trajan and Hadrian. A variation, as to external form, observe able in this latter system, is chiefly referable to such lines of intrenchments as were made for the use of the temporary camp; but many dissimilarities of internal organization apply to the regular station as well as to the hasty earth-work. It is observed by General Roy,* “ that, in the time of Marius, the military affairs of the Romans, no doubt, suffered a very considerable change. How far this immediately affected their ancient systein of castrametation it is impossible to determine; perhaps, at first, the difference in this respect was vot very great, and though the distinction by maniples of hastati, principes, and triarii, might have wholly ceased, yet the entire cohorts might, for a long time after, have preserved their position in the camp.”
Between that period, however, and the ages of mature imperial power in which Hyginus lived, it is certain that further, and more important alterations had taken place. To pass over various minutiæ respecting the disposal of the troops, it may be sufficient to notice the following circumstances, which affect the size and the proportions of the Roman castrametation.
Hyginus describes a complete imperial army, as consisting of three legions with their auxiliaries; and, consequently, the camp for its reception was divided into three parts. These were not exactly of an equal length, but each extended to the whole width of the area. The Hyginian camp, (or that which prevailed in the time of Hyginus, and is described by him) differs from the Polybian, in general features of outline; it usually being, instead of nearly, or quite square, one-third more in levgth than in width. The length of an imperial camp for three legions is stated by Hyginus to be 2400 feet; and the width 1600 feet. When the camp was longer than this proportion, it was termed Classica, “ because,
• Military Antiq. p. 177.
then, the ordinary signal given by the buccinum, or bugle-horn, at the front of the prætorium, could with difficulty be beard at the decuman gate; and, therefore, a general charge, or sounding of all the martial music together, seems to have become necessary.” The Hyginian camp is rounded at the angles, or corners.
In regard to the fortifications, the ditch was five feet broad at top, and three feet deep. The rampart is described as being eight feet broad, and six feet high; so that the soldiers (as is observed by General Roy) who were drawn up along the work for its defence, appear to have stood only one and a half, or two feet at most, above the common surface of the ground; having a small parapet, or breast-work, before them. The gates were usually four in number, as was the practice with the Polybian camps; but when the imperial army, on a great occasion of the state, consisted of five or six legions, two additional gates were formed at the ends of the quintan street. In this description of camp, the principal street was 60 feet broad, as was, also, the prætorian street. The quintan street was 30 feet in width; and a thoroughfare of similar dimensions, termed the sagular street, ran completely round the camp. But the width of the two latter streets was increased to 40 feet, in the instance of the army exceeding the number of three legions. The interval between the tents and the intrenchment on the exterior of the camp, was 60 feet broad in every direction; and it may be here observed that, in this mode of encamping, the legionary troops were generally placed nearest to the rampart.
The Hygivian camp differs, in a marked manner, from the Polybian, in respect to the situation of the Prætorium; which, in this form of encampment, was very long and narrow, and was placed nearly the centre of the general area, with the Forum and the Quæstorium immediately below it, and the Sacellum and Augurale in its front. The Prætorium was not less than 720 feet in length, and was sometimes as much as 220 feet in width.
Such appear to be the leading particulars of dissimilarity between the Polybian and the Hyginian, or the consular and imperial modes of encamping; and the above brief account of a large exemplar of each class will apply, in general characteristics, to the less capacious imitations which were formed, in various degrees of size, for smaller bodies of troops, as expediency might demand. The superior simplicity which prevails in the design of the more early camp, will be obvious on the slightest view; and it ninst be remembered that military discipline so greatly declined among the Romans, for some time previous to the fall of the empire, that Vegetirs, writing in the fourth centary, does not scruple to assert, that not only was the custom of fortifying a camp laid aside, but the very method of doing it entirely lost. * . From the notice already taken of the Roman castrum, may be deduced a general notion of its internal organization, in regard to the distribution of troops, and the system of discipline by which the camp was regulated. Respecting such as were adopted for STATIONS, some few remarks have been submitted in a previous page, and it is now desirable to make some additions to what has been there said.
Immediately on subduing a fresh tribe, or petty British nation, these judicious conquerors fortified such primary posts as were well suited to the purpose of their fatnre operations; and esta. blished secondary posts, to secure a line of communication. It has been already remarked that the sites of British towns were frequently adopted for the use of the Roman station; and, in other instances, the castrum for the abode of the conquering troups, was often placed in the close neighbourhood of such ancient towns. Where the British site was adopted, the irregularity of outline remained, although strengthened by the Roman art of fortification; and it is still in many places discernible, and imparts a decided character Co this species of Roman town. But, when these celebrated planters of military population acted free from the restraint of a previous outline, they bestowed on the
* Intreduction to the Itinerary of Antoninus, by the Rov. T. Reynolds, p. 10.