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enemy, to the regular station, guarded by walls which have, in some instances, proved triumphant over the assault of more than

K 4

sixteen

125 Gobannium, Abergavenny | 153 Brige, near Broughton 126 Magna, Kentchester

154 Sorbiodunum, Old Sarum 127 Branogenium, near Lentwardine| 155 Venta Geladia, Gussage Cow 128 Blestium, Monmouth

Down 129 Sariconiun, Berry hill

156 Durnovaria, Dorchester 130 Ad Antonam, on the Avon

157 Moridunum, Seaton 131 Alauna, Alcester

158 Durius Amnis, on the Dart 132 - - Chesterton

159 Tamara, on the Tamair 133 Ratis, Leicester

160 Voluba, on the Fowey 134 Venromentum, Willoughby 161 Cænia, on the Fal 135 Margidunum, Eust Bridgeford 162 Sylva Auderida, East Bourne 135 Ad Pontem, near Thorpe

163 Ad Fines, Brougham 137 Crococolana, Brugh

164 In Medio 138 Vindonis, near St. Mary Bourne 165 Ad Abum, Winterton 139 Venta Belgarum, Winchester | 166 Ad Petuariam, Brough 140 Ad Lapidem, Stoneham

167 Ad Fines, Temple Brough on the 141 Clausentum, Bittern, near South

Don amplon

168 - Tapton hill, near Ches142 Portus Magnus, Portchester

terfield 143 Regnum, Chichester

169

near Penkridge 144 Ad Decimum, on the Arun 170 Derventio, Little Chester 145 Anderida Portus, Pevensey 171 Ad Trivonam, Berry farm in 146 Ad Lemanum, on the Rother

Branston 147 Lemanianus Portus, Lymne 172 Brinavis, Black Ground neur 148 Dubræ, Dover

Chipping Norton 149 Regulbium, Reculver

173 Ælia Castra, Alcester, Oxford. 150 Madus, on the Medway

shire 151 Vagnaca, Barkfields in South- 174 Dorocina, Dorchester, Oxford. fleet

shire 152 Noviomagus, Holwood hill 175 Tamesis, on the Thames

Stations and Camps, not mentioned by Richard of Cirencester. Bedfordshire

Buckinghumshire.
I Sandy

IV Chipping Wycombe
Berkshire,

Cumbridgeshire.
II Lawrence Waltham

V Shelford III Roundabout, near Bagshot

Cornwall.

sixteen centuries. The remains of these places of defence are of such high antiquarian interest, and are so frequently noticed in

almost

Durham. XXXVI South Shields XXXVII Chester le Street

Esser. XXXVIII near Sturmere XXXIX Dunmow XL Chesterford XLI Harwich XLII. On the Black water

Cornuall. VI Bossens, in St. Erth VII near Stratton

Cumberlund. VIII

at Moresby IX

- Ellenborough

- Pap Castle XI

- Old Carlisle XII

- Whitbarrow XIII Bew Castle XIV Netherby XV Lidde Mount XVI at Castlesteeds, in Cas

tle Sowerby XVII

- Mawbrugli XVIII - Ponsonby XIX

- Whitestones XX

- Eskmeal XXI

- Cuningarth XXU

- Kirkland XXIII - Hardknot XXIV

- Bainscar

Derbyshire.
XXV Buxton
XXVI Brugh
XXVII Melendra Castle
XXVIII at Parwick
XXIX

- Chesterfield XXX

- Pentrich

Gloucestershire. XLIII Bourton on the water XLIV Durnton XLV Lydney XLVI near Cross-hands XLVIC near Dowdeswell

Hampshire. XLVIII Buckland, near Lymington

Herefordshire. XLIX Brandon camp, near Lent.

wardine

Huntingdonshire. L Newton

Lancashire. LI Colne Lil Overborough LIII near Rochdale

Devonshire, XXXI Countesbury XXXII Hembury Fort

Dorsetshire. XXXIII Isle of Portland XXXIV St. Anne's hill, west of

Christchurch XXXV Poundbury

Leicestershire.

Leicestech:
LIV Medbourn
LV Rathy

Lincolnshire.
LVI Ludlord
LVII Horncastle

Norfolk.
LVIII Taesborough

LIX Caistos

almost every volume of the “ Beauties of England and Wales,” that it appears desirable to present a comprehensive view of the

modes

LIX Caistor
LX Brancaster
LXI Castle Acre

Sussex. LXXXIII Rowlands Castle LXXXIV

near Pulborough LXXXV near Portslade

Westmorland. LXXXVI Watercrook LXXXVII Ambleside

Wiltshire. LXXXVIII Woodyates Inn LXXXIX Wanborough Nythe XC Easton Grey

Worcestershire. XCI Worcester

Yorkshire. XCII At Addle XCIII Maiden Castle, on Stain

more XCIV near Pickering

--- Wbitby XCVI

Askrig

Northamptonshire.
LXII Irchester
LXIII Wadenhoe
LXIV Cottestock
LXV Woodford
LXVI Cotton Mill

Northumberland.
LXVII Whitley Castle
LXVIII on the river Reed

Nottinghamshire.
LXIX Southwell
LXX Combs

Oxfordshire.
LXXI Stonefield

Rutland. LXXII Brig Casterton

Shropshire. LXXIII Chesterton

Somerselshire. LXXIV Ilchester (Ischalis) LXXV near Burrington

Staffordshire. LXXVI Rocester

Suffolk. LXXVII Ixworth LXXVIII Icklingham LXXIX Burgh Castle LXXX Creeting LXXXI Waltun LXXXII near Lawshall

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Wales.
XCVII Holyhead, Isle of Anglesey
XCVIII near Beaumaris,

Anglesey
XCIX c. Gai, near Bala, Merion-

ethshire
C Penalt, near Machynlleth
CI Caer Sws, Montgomeryshire
CII Guer, near Montgomery
CIIC Flint
CIV Caergwrle, Flintshire
CV Holt, Denbighshire
CVI On the Y than, Radnorshire
CVII Llanio-isau, Cardiganshire
CVIII Llanvair-ar-y-brin, Caermar.
thenshire

CIX Gaer,

modes of constrncling and occupying a fortress amongst the Romans, together with many other particulars, calculated to convey clear ideas of the character and history of Roman stations in Britain,

The term Station applies to such castra stativa, or fixed camps, as were used for the pernianent quarters of detachments of the Roman forces. Horsley observes, “ that the word statio is used in Cæsar, Tacitus, and other good writers, for the duty of soldiers upon guard, or for the men that were employed in this duty. But, in the later times, it is, by a metonymy, applied to the fort, or place, where the soldiers lodged, or were on their duty.” This mode of confining the ineaning of the word to a fortress, instead of extending it to a town, as is usual with many writers, is approved by Mr. Reynolds (Introduction to the Itinerary of Antoninus, p. 9.) But an indistinctness in the reception of the term appears still to prevail. It is certain that, in some instances, the castrametation remained peculiarly appropriated to the troops in garrison, while a town, in the immediate neighbourhood of the fortress, was gradually formed by the buildings raised for the purposes of traffic and security. But, in many other examples, the stationary castrum itself afforded a place of residence to the trader who sought commerce and protection from the military; aud thus, in itself, became a town or city. It

seems

CIX Gaer, near Brecon
CX Cwm Ju, Brecknockshire
CXI near Newcastle, Caer-

marthenshire
Stations and Camps, on, and
near, the walls of Antonine

and Severus.
CXII Cousins house
CXIII Newcastle
CXIV Benwel hill
CXV Rutchester
CXVI Hallon Chesters

CXVII Walwick Chesters
CXVIII Carrowbrugh
CXIX House-steeds
CXX Little Chesters
CXXI Great Chesters
CXXII Caervoran
CXXIII Burdeswold
CXXIV Cambeckfort
CXXV Watchcross
CXXVI Stanwick
CXXVII Burgh
CXXVIII Drumburgla
CXXIX Boulness

seems probable that such intermingled circumstances of inhabitation, within the walls of a fortress, chiefly occurred in camps like Silchester, formed on the spacious, but irregular, site of a British settlement.

It is well known that the Romans, in all their wars, were particularly careful, and evinced great judgment, in the choice of the site on which they encamped their troops. The skill with which they improved on the natural strength of the situation chosen on these occasions, is sufficiently evident from the security with which their armies reposed, in the interior of so many hostile countries.

The Roman camps are usually divided into two classes; Castra kyberna, and Custra æstiva. The former, which were merely, in the first instance, designed for the winter quarters of the invading army, were often adopted as stationary, or garrison, posts, when the district in which they were situated became tributary. These were sometimes placed on the site of British settlements ; in which case, the irregularity of form that prevailed amongst the Britons, who chiefly looked to natural advantages for the attainment of local strength, was preserved by the more scientific Romans.* But, in camps originally laid out by themselves, the figure was, almost invariably, square or oblong; sometimes having the augles obtuse, or rounded off. When a deviation occurs from this form of castrametation, the cause will be obvious, in some very peculiar circumstance of natural strength, or convenience, which is gained by the partial sacrifice of regularity.

Iu

• It is observed by Mr. Whitaker (Hist. of Manchester, Vol. I. p. 44 ) that the fact of Roman towns being frequently placed on the site of British fortresses, “ is abundantly shewn by the British names of the stations in the Roman Itineraries; near three fourths of the stations bearing British names, and thereby evincing themselves to be erected upon the sites of British fortresses. The latter were generally planted upon such ground as an intimale knowledge of the country recommended ; and such, therefore, as the policy of the Romans could not but approre.”—Instances of irregularity of formi, obviously arising from the adoption of a British site by the Romans, may be noticed in Silchester, Kentchester, Bath, Canterbury, &c.

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