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The progressive advantages derived by the Britons, from this intermixture of population with their polished invaders, are unquestionable, and truly splendid; although, as a nation, they were subject to some humiliation and to many penalties. We view, indeed, the progress of mind in every step of the conquer. ing legious; and, whilst contemplating so attractive a picture, subjugation itself loses all deformity of aspect.
Inspirited by the lessons of Roman industry, the inhabitants even of deep inland districts now placed their neglected soil under the operation of the plough; and 80 successful were the efforts of agricultural labour, that Britain soon exported, annually, large quantities of corn, and assisted greatly in supplying with grain the Roman armies on the continent.
The manufacturing arts accompanied the cultivation of the British soil; and commerce received a new and powerful impulse. Fresh ports were opened ; and the Briton, aroused from the slumber of sylvan inactivity, was instructed in the natural wealth and mercantile capacities of his country.
Induced, by precept and example, to prefer social interchange to sullen and ferocious seclusion, he quitted by slow degrees his gloomy embowered retreat, and entered on the joys and confidence of busy congregation. The city arose on the site of dark woodland buts; and the Briton was courted, even by his conquerors, to become its inmate.
The motive which suggested this persuasion towards urbanity, might be merely political and selfish; but its instruments of action were noble, for they consisted in a communication of such arts as dignify lise, and render society desirable, by exhibiting its courtesies.
The Roman language, and its stores of literary treasure, were imparted to the rude natives of Britain with sedulous care; and thus, with an abruplness almost unprecedented in the anuals of nations, a profound ignorance of letters received, at once, the illumination of the highest efforts of philosophy and correct taste. With the literature of Italy was introduced a relish for the elegant
indolence of the portico and the bath; a fondness for delicate at. tire; and a love of those social parties in which eloquence, classical learning, and the graces of personal deportment, obtained opportunities of exercise and distinction.
A transition so speedy reseinbles the change of scenery in his. trionic exhibition. The Britons, indeed, by their quick adoption of the refined notions of their conquerors, would appear to have avoided the tedious process of many stages usual with the cultivation of the human mind; and to have passed, at once, from the gloom of barbarous life to a familiarity with that standard mass of lettered intelligence, which forms the proudest acquisition of the scholar at the present day.
These rapid improvements in art and science, were necessarily productive of a striking change in the general face of the country. Large tracts were cleared of their unprofitable burthen of thickly matted trees; and the increasing towns and villages were rendered easy of communication by lines of solid road, formed in altention to the priuciple of those great military highways, which, under the guidance of the Romans, intersected the island in various directions, and which will shortly meet with particular notice, as the inost distinguished vestiges of this important era. It will be readily supposed that the domestic architecture introduced by the Romans communicated hints for improvement in the British style of building ; whilst public edifices for legislative purposes now first adorned the cities of the Britons.
With the familiar customs of the Romans was adopted, by a great part of the conquered inhabitants of this island, their system of theology; and the vast circular temple, placed deeply in the mysterious sanctity of thick woods, was now abandoned for temples of hewn stone, situated in the unidst of towns, and decorated with sculptured devices. This first remove from an extreme rudeness of divine worship, was quickly succeeded by the introduction of Christianity. The enlightening beams of this beneficent religion were coinmunicated to Britain, according to the opinions of those who bave most attentively considered the
subject, before the close of the first century. Their diffusion, however, was gradual; and the poverty of the early Christians debarred them from adorning the country with edifices proportioned in splendour to their religious zeal. The chief, or, perhaps, the only tangible religious relics of this era, which have descended to the present day, are connected with the votive piety of heathen Rome.
ROMAN ANTIQUITIES IN BRITAIN.*
ROMAN STATIONS, AND CAMPS OF VARIOUS KINDS.-Independant of a consideration of their roads, the most important
• The contents of the map which accompanies this section of our work, are briefly explained by a table of references. In that table it is shewn that each of the Roman roads mentioned in the Itinerary of Richard of Cirencester, together with nomerous recent discoveries of roads not noticed either by Richard or Antonine, are laid down, and expressed by lines of a different character and colour. A reference is, also, afforded to such Stations as are mentioned by Richard ; and to many stations, and camps, not noticed by that useful writer. The whole is the result of actual investigation, chiefly made by the Rev. Thomas Leman, to whom this work is indebted for a contribution of the original drawing, containing such discoveries as have been made since the appearance of Mr. Hatcher's edition of Richard of Cirencester.
It is confidently presumed that a satisfactory view is thus presented of such vestiges of Romanized Britain, as have been ascertained to exist, at the present day, by positive local examination.
In addition to the explanation contained in the table of reference, it is necessary to present an enumeration of the stations laid down in the map; and to attach to each its Roman name, according to the opinion of the antiquary by whom the design for the map is contributed.
I first enumerate the stations mentioned by Richard of Cirencester; and subsequently, present an enumeration of such stations and camps as are not mentioned by Richard ;-prefixing to each the figure by which it is correspondently denoted in the body of the map. But it will be observed (as is explained in the table of reference) that the stations mentioned by Richard are marked, in the map, with Italic figure ; whilst those not mentioned by
vestiges of the Romans consist in the remains of their castrametations, which are seen in many parts of this island, and curiously K 3
Richard (and to which, in the following list, are prefixed Roman characters,) are designated, in the map, by Upright, or Print figures. The last mentioned list is classed in counties, ranged alphabetically, in attention to the plan adopted in describing counties in the Beauties of England and Wales.
Stations mentioned by Richard of Cirencester. 1 Rhutapis, Richborough
31 Sturius Amnis, on the Stour 2 Durovernum, Canterbury
32 Cambretonium 3 Durosevum, Ospring
33 Sitomagus 4 Durobrivæ, Rochester
34 Venta Cenom, Castor near Nor5 Londinium, London
wich 6 Sulomagus, Brockley hill 35 Camboricum, Cumbridge 7 Verulamium, Verulam
36 Durolispons, Godmanchester 8 Forum Dianæ, Dunstable
37 Durnomagus, Caster 9 Magiovinium, neur Fenny Strat. 38 Isinnis, Ancuster ford
39 Lindum, Lincoln 10 Lactorodum, Towcester
40 Argolicum, Littleborough 11 Isanta Varia, Burntwalls
41 Danum, Doncaster 12 Tripontium, near Lilburn
42 Legiolium, Castleford 13 Benonis, High Cross
43 Eburacum, York 14 Manduessedum, Munceter 44 Isurium, Aldborough 15 Etocetum, Wall
45 Cattaracton, Catterick 16 Pennocrucium, on the Peak 46 Ad Tisam, Pierce Bridge 17 Uxacovium, Red hill, Okenyate 47 Vinovium, Binchester 18 Uriconium, Wroietet
48 Epiacum, lanchester 19 Banchoriom, Banchor
49 Ad Murum, Halton Chester 20 Deva, Chester
50 Alauna Amnis, on the Coquet 21 Varis, near Pont Ryffin
51 Tueda Flumen, on the Tweed 22 Conovium, Cuer Hun
52 Ad Vallum, The Wall 23 Segontium, Caer Segont
53 Curia 24 Hereri Mons, Tommen Y Mur 54 Ad fines, Chew Green 25 Mediolanum, Claudd Goch 55 Bremenium, Riechester 26 Rutunium, Rowton
56 Corstopitum, Corbridge 27 Durositum, near Rumford
57 Vindomora, Enchester 28 Cæsaromagus, near Chelmsford 58 Derventio, near Stamford bridge 29 Canonium, near Kelvedon
59 Delgoricia 30 Camulodunum, Colchester
60 Preturium, Flamborough head
vary in strength, and care of construction, from the temporary earth-work thrown up in haste, and perhaps within sight of the
61 Calcaria, Tadcaster
92 Varis, Fores 62 Cambodunum, Sluck
93 Ad Tuessim, Crondall on Spey 63 Bancunium, Manchester
94 Tamea, Braemar castle 64 Fines Maximæ et Flaviæ, Stret 95 Barra castle on lla I ford
96 In Medio, Inchstuthill 63 Condate, Kinderton
97 Brocavinocis, Brougham 66 Portus Sistuntiorum, Freckleton 98 Ad Alaunam, Lancaster 67 Rerigonium, Ribchester
99 Coccium, Blackrode 68 Alpes Peninos, Burrens
100 Mediolanum, Chesterton 69 Alicana, Ilkley
101 Salinæ, Droit wich 70 Lataris, Bowes
102 Glevum, Gloucester 71 Vataris, Brough
103 Corinum, Cirencester 72 Brovonacis, Kirby Thur
104 Aqua Sulis, Bath 73 Vorreda, Plumpton Wall
105 Ad Aquas, probably Wells 74 Luguballia, Carlisle
106 Ad Uxellain, probably Bridge75 Trimontium, Birrenswork hill
water 76 Gadanica
107 Isca, Exeter 77 Corium
109 Ad Abonam, Bitton 78 Alauna, Kier
109 Ad Sabrinain, Sea Mills 79 Lindun, Ardech
110 Statio Trajectus. Severn side 80 Vittoria, Dealgin Ross
111 Venta Silurum, Caerwent 81 Ad Hiernam, Strageth
112 Isca Colonia, Caerleon 82 Orrea, on the Tay above Perth
113 Tibia Amnis, on ihe Tauf 83 Ad Tavum, near Invergowrie
114 Bovium, Evenny 84 Ad Æsicam, Brechin on South
115 Nidum, Neath Esk
116 Leucarum, perhaps Lughor 85 Ad Tinam, Foruun
117 Ad Vigesimum, Castle Flemish B6 Devana, Norman Dykes
118 Ad Menapiam, St. David's 87 Ad Itunam, Glonimailin on the
119 Verlucio, Highfeld near Sandy Ithan
lane 88 dd Montem Grampium, near
120 Cunctio, Folly furn, near MarlKnock hill
borough 89 Ad Selinam, on the Cullen, near
121 Spinæ, Spene Deskfiird
122 Calieba, Silchester 90 Tuessis, on the Spey, near Pellier
123 Bibracie 91 Pirulone, Burgh head
124 Bultrumu, Usk