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by a thousand low reverberating murmurs.

The whole was ineffably solemn and awe-inspiring:

In this cave are but few stalactites, and its grandeur is therefore unbroken by the fantastic variety of form which distinguishes the inner grottoes. When the magnesium wire was illuminated, the effect was absolutely startling. The light streamed out into the most distant recesses, the candles faded to dim red points, and the roof, which had before appeared of fabulous height, seemed almost to be falling upon us, its stalactites and rugged surface stood out so clear and well defined. When the light expired, the darkness deepened with almost oppressive heaviness. It needed all the persuasions of our guides, and the assurance that there were much more beautiful things to be seen beyond, before we could induce ourselves to leave this spot, and to ascend the steps upon the other side, which lead to the entrance to the inner caves.

The path which we followed through these was upwards of three miles long, and so arranged that we returned by a different series of grottoes to those before traversed. The variety of scenery displayed in this three miles was something extraordinary. Sometimes the way contracted into low narrow passages, at other times widened out into enormous halls. Chambers and corridors, fairy grottoes, and gloomy caves alternated with each other.

The three principal halls are termed the “Ball Room," the “Concert Room," and the “Calvary.” The “Ball Room” is of very great size, and of nearly the same proportions except that the height is not so great as the

Dome,” but its character is entirely different. It infinitely graceful and airy, and was illuminated with numerous chandeliers. The floor is perfectly smooth and level, and at one end an orchestra has been erected among a group of rocks and stalagmites.

This, once a year, is really used as a ball-room. Thousands of peasantry from the country round assemble to dance here upon Whit-Monday, and neither king nor kaiser can boast a ball-room so richly decked as theirs. From the walls and roof everywhere depend masses of stalactites of graceful and elegant forms. Floating draperies are feş

tooned around ; filmy semi-transparent veils seem to wave gently to and fro, as they sparkle in the numerous lights ; here are drooping pendants and tapering spike-like projections; there, majestic pillars and clustering columns.

The “Concert Room” is similar in character, but larger and narrower. Hence issued an immense and gloomy corridor more than a hundred feet high. The floor is covered with masses of loose rock, whose huge and rugged shapes loomed unnaturally distorted and uncouth in the faint light of our candles.

EXERCISE.-18. PARSING, ETC. 1. Parse syntactically the words :-some, sights, impossible, any, adequate, necessary, imagery, dozen, these, conscious, idea, myself.

2. Write out the prepositions in the first four paragraphs, naming the words or phrases they govern.

3. Name the moods of the verbs in the first two paragraphs.

4. Analyse the following sentences, and parse the words in italics :- The sides are quite perpendicular, and at about half their height a natural gallery runs partially round them ; The view from this is magnificent in the extreme.




gi-gan-tic [Gk. gigas, a giant], enormous, of great size. ma-te-ri-al (L. materies, matter, or substance], that of which anything is made. cas-cade (L. cado, to fall], a waterfall. Oc-cur-rence (L. ob, against; curro, to run), presentation to the view, incident. From the “Concert-room,” we entered the “ Calvary,” which appeared to me to be the largest of all the halls, and must have been 300 feet long, and pwards of 200 wide. At one end rises a lofty heap of rocks fallen from the roof, and cemented together by stalagmites. This mass bears a resemblance to a great shrine, and was brilliantly illuminated, while the rest of the vast space lay in deep and mysterious shadow.

From the lower end, where the observer stands, the floor slopes steeply up. It is composed of misshapen blocks of stone, for at some far distant time the whole vault, now a bare flat surface, fell with a mighty crash, brought down by the weight of stalactites formed upon it. That the catas

trophe happened long ages since, is evidenced by the fact that the whole floor is covered with stalagmites of various sizes and heights, and looks as if some forest of giant pines had once grown there, the trunks of which had been snapped short off by the swoop of some mighty whirlwind.

There was a weird grandeur about this hall which was almost appalling. In the corridors and caves between these principal chambers were an infinity of fantastic shapes, in which fancy could trace likenesses to almost every known form. Here stands a pulpit, there a throne, a butcher's shop with its various meats, a monster bee-hive, an overgrown tortoise, gigantic cauliflowers, huge fallen trees with lichens growing rankly over them, half rounded nodules, and great wart-like protuberances. In one place the roof is supported by Gothic columns, farther on by unshapely props and buttresses. In the corner, the rough stems of the ivy clung to the wall, there gnarled trunks of oaks thrust themselves up between the blocks. Above one cave grew a great tree, whose twined roots hung down from the roof. Long ranges of organ pipes, stems of palm trees with welldefined marks where the broad leaves had sprouted, basaltic columns, and wide steps are of constant occurrence. At intervals, couches are temptingly placed, with folds of a soft, white material thrown carelessly over them, while long flags and fringed draperies, of admirable texture and design, droop from chinks and crannies in the roof. Sculptured fonts, chalices exquisitely chased, imaged shrines, confessionals, squat heathen idols, groups of statuary, and roofs covered with a fretwork of the most delicate tracery abound. Here a cascade had been turned into stone, arrested in the very act of falling by an enchanter's wand; there a fountain glittered with diamond spray in the passing light. In one cave hung what were palpably strips of flesh. Was it here that Apollo skinned Marsyas ?11) and did the giant's howls re-echo through these vast caverns ? I know not; but here hung his flesh-great strips of muscle

(1) Apollo was the heathen god of poetry and music, and the patron of physicians and shepherds. Marsyas, a shepherd of Phrygia, who was extremely skilful in playing on the flute, challenged Apollo to a trial of his skill as a musician. The victory was with much difficulty adjudged to Apollo, who tied his antagonist to a tree and flayed him alive,

and tendon, some cold and stiff, others soft and limp, with the flesh-tint of life still warm upon them. It was terribly real.

Some of the stalactites are of a dirty-grey hue, and of a dull, coarse material ; some white as alabaster, pure and semi-transparent. The surface of many is smooth as polished marble, while others are rough and uneven as masses of coral. The tints, too, vary from clear white to cream. colour, orange, and red. In many places the stalactites are soft-looking and dull, and reflect no light; in others, they sparkle with a myriad coruscations of diamonds, emeralds, and rubies; or, rather, as they change and flash in the passing light, they resemble rocks over which a thin film of jewels is streaming. When struck, the hanging masses give out a clear, bell-like sound, varying from a sharp ring to the deep boom of a cathedral chime—the tone being much more pure and sweet from the semi-transparent blocks than from those of coarse material.

Many of the caves closely adjoining each other differ in an extraordinary manner. Some are dark and murky, fit abodes for gnomes and evil genii. In these all is dismal and gloomy: misshapen monsters lurk eerie and gruesome in obscure corners ; slimy and uncouth reptiles crawl and grovel in the damp mire; weird, shadowy things, with dank and dusky wings, hover from the roof. A nameless horror pervades the atmosphere, and the imagination is impelled to people the place with unearthly figures. From dark nooks and recesses ghouls seem to beckon and grin, they peer down from the twisted buttresses, and gloat, vampirelike, on the passer-by from behind the fallen' columns. Here even the most brilliant light failed to dispel the gathered blackness, and the strange shapes stood out more spectral and awe-inspiring than before. Here, too, the drip of water never ceases, and feeble echoes rustle with mysterious whisper throughout its shadowy cells.

From these drear abodes we passed on with a feeling of absolute relief. In delightful contrast were the caves, which could be the dwelling-place of none but fairies. Graceful pinnacles, delicate spires, tapering wands, and slender pillars, frosted alike with silvery rims. Rocks and

fairy couches spread with lace-like drapery, gauzy floating folds encrusted with sparkling gems, exquisite groups of flowers, and over and upon all, caskets of rich jewels strewn broadcast. Here the fays danced and footed it to the soft music of the Æolian lyre which stands in yonder corner, and near which that network screen partitions off the bedchamber of the fairy queen. Everywhere the lights flash and glitter, broken and refracted in a thousand colours by the countless myriads of crystals. There is no drop of water here, nature has perfected her work, and has ceased, unable to improve it.

Very lovely, too, are the caves which have belonged to the water sprites. Here are crystalline groves, long tapering icicles, branches of tangled coral ; long hair-like seaweeds stream from the roof; flags, and water plants, and long rows of slender reeds wave beside them. The floor is of white sparkling sand, scattered with gleaming shells.

Here the water fays floated, and the sea sprites played, and ' in the grottos behind chased the fish who ventured near them. Such are my impressions of Adelsberg, and any traveller who has ever had the opportunity of seeing it lit up, as I have done, will bear me out in saying, that so far from exaggerating, I have but touched upon a few of the varied and extraordinary beauties of the place.

EXERCISE.-19. MEANINGS OF WORDS. 1. Give the meaning of the following :-weird, myriad, coruscation, stalactite, catastrophe, pinnacle, buttress, stalagmite, spectral, ghouls, gnomes, protuberances, eerie, gruesome.

2. Distinguish between the meanings of :-hue, hew, Hugh; real, reel; howl, owl.

3. illustrate the different meanings the following words may have :chased, turned, real, changed, masses, peer.


ANONYMOUS. ro-bust [L. robustus, from robor, an oak, the emblem of strength], strong, lusty, vigorous. in-firm-i-ties (L. infirmus, from in, not; firmus, strong], weaknesses, maladies. an-te-ri-or [L, ante, before), prior, before in point of time. An old Greek writer says that upon the river Hypanis there exist little animals who live only one day. Those who die

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