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the cessation of hostilities, and peace was confirmed by the signing of the treaty of Paris, in March, 1856.
EXERCISE.-69. PARSING, ETC. 1. Write out the verbs in the last forty lines, and say whether they aro transitive or intransitive, regular or irregular.
2. Parse and analyse the first and third paragraph. 3. Write out the prepositions used as adverbs in the last forty lines. 4. What are the words derived from the Latin in the last fifteen lines ?
5. Give the derivations of :-sagacious, St. Petersburg, Constantinople, succession, possession, Catholic, exploits, reconnoitred, artillery, September, November, sabred, premier.
THE WARDEN OF THE CINQUE PORTS.(1)
HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW. dri-ving (A.-S. drifan, to drive), pushing forward with force and haste, guiding horses.couch-ant (Fr. coucher, to lie down), lying down with the head raised. de-fi-ance (F. défler, from L. dis, apart; fido, to trust), daring, a challenge to fight.
A Mist was driving down the British Channel,
The day was just begun,
Streamed the red autumn sun.
And the white sails of ships ;
Hailed it with feverish lips.
Were all alert that day,
When the fog cleared away.
Their cannon, through the night,
The sea-coast opposite.
On every citadel; (1) This poem is written on the death of the Duke of Wellington, who held the office of Warden of the Cinque Ports from 1828 till his death in 1852. (2) These were the five ports that originally formed the Cinque Ports. Winchelsea and Rye were afterwards added.
Each answered each, with morning salutations,
That all was well.
Replied the distant forts,
And Lord of the Cinque Ports.
No drum-beat from the wall,
Awaken with its call !
The long line of the coast,
his post !
In sombre harness mailed,
The rampart wall has scaled.
The dark and silent room,
The silence and the gloom.
But smote the Warden hoar ;
from shore to shore. Meanwhile, without, the surly cannon waited,
The sun rose bright o'erhead; Nothing in Nature's aspect intimated That a great man was dead.
EXERCISE.-70. MEANINGS OF WORDS. 1. Give the meaning of the following :-warden, panel, pennon, rampart, couchant, citadel, salutations, azure, embrasure, sombre, impartial.
2. Distinguish between :-Eails, sales ; mist, missed ; mail, male; cannon, canon; him, hymn; panes, pains.
3. Illustrate the different meanings of ;-intimate, waits, sleeper, blow, post.
DIAGRAM SHOWING THE INCLINATION OF THE EARTH'S AXIS
ON THE EARTH'S MOTION.
an-tag-o-nist-ic [Gk. anti, against ; agon, à contest], contending against, opposing. e-qui-lib-ri-um [L. æquus, equal; libra, a balance], equality of weight or force, even balancing. di-ur-nal (L. dies, a day], daily. an-nu-al [L. annus, a year), yearly. ro-ta-tion (Li rota, a wheel], the act of turning as a wheel on its axis. al-ter-na-tions, (L. alterno, to do anything by turns, from alter, the other, another), interchanges, successive changes.
The earth rotates on its axis and revolves in its orbit; and this twofold motion secures to it those alternations of light and darkness, as well as that succession of seasons, without which, organized as we are, our very existence would be impossible. That this beautiful combination of motions is not due to accident is proved by the admirable harmony which prevails throughout creation; by the wonderful adaptation of means to the end proposed, which is everywhere perceptible; by the skil. ful balance of antagonistic forces, so as to establish a constant equilibrium; and by the production of good from seeming confusion and evil.
The relations between the earth and sun are such that they would scarcely admit of any modifications compatible with those forms of animal and vegetable life that are known to us. If the earth had been left in a state of rest, how different would have been its condition from that which exists at present! If it did not revolve on its axis, or if, like the moon with regard to the earth, it always presented very nearly the same surface to the sun, on account of its diurnal and annual revolutions
being performed in the same time, there would be no distinction between day and night, the happy alternations of which are so well adapted to those successive periods of exertion and repose that are a necessity of our nature. Changes of temperature, winds, and tides, which are indispensable to the purification of the atmosphere and the waters, could not occur. Half the earth's surface would be shrouded in perpetual darkness, and consigned to eternal cold; and half of it would be ex. posed, from the endless duration of its day, to a tem. perature such as neither 'animals nor plants could endure.
Any spontaneous change in the axis of the earth's rotation would be fatal to us; but such a change is rendered impossible by its revolving on its shortest axis. This is a necessary consequence of the laws by which it has been decreed by Providence that matter should be governed. Being at first, most probably, in a gaseous state, the earth assumed the spherical form on account of the attraction of gravitation; and the centrifugal force generated by its revolution changed it into an oblate spheroid—that is, a spherical body flattened at the ex. tremities of its axis of rotation, and bulged out at its equator.
The mere diurnal rotation of the earth would not suffice to render it capable of maintaining organized beings on any considerable portion of it. The days and nights would remain constantly equal in length; the solar rays would fall too obliquely, and for too short a period during each day, on a large part of its surface. It has been made, therefore, to revolve round the sun in a plane which makes an angle with the plane of its equator. This simple arrangement produces the most important results; for to it is due the constant succession of the seasons, with all the advantages we derive from them. By means of it the sun, during its apparent annual revolution, is found alternately north and south of the equator. The days are longer than the nights in that hemisphere in which it is; and, as it rises to a greater height above the horizon than it would have
done were it to remain constantly over the equator, its rays descend less obliquely, and therefore a larger amount of them fall' upon a given surface of that hemisphere.
Both the length of the day and the sun's altitude increase as the distance from the equator increases—that is, the sun becomes, in other respects, less powerful. But, when the day is longer, there is more time for the sun's rays to accumulate, and less for them to pass off by radiation. Since the temperature of a place depends very much on the duration of its exposure to the sun's rays, the increasing length of the summer day, as either pole is approached, makes up to a great extent for unfavourable position with reference to the sun; and hence the hot summers which are found even in very high latitudes. If the obliquity of the ecliptic, that is, the angle its plane makes with the plane of the equator, were less than it is, the seasons would not be sufficiently varied; if it were greater than it is, there would be extremes of temperature incompatible with organic life.
That the earth's orbit should be an ellipse, and not a circle, is a consequence of the general law of gravitation. It has been supposed that this ellipticity causes some modifications in the relative temperatures of the northern and southern hemispheres; and the more severe cold experienced in high southern than in high northern latitudes has been ascribed to the sun being nearer to the earth during the northern than the southern winter.
This difference of temperature is, however, fully accounted for in another way. The climate of any place depends, not only on the number of solar rays which it receives, but on the relative amount of land and water, on altitude above the sea, on proximity to the ocean, etc. It makes a great difference, if, as is the case in the southern hemisphere, the surface consists of water, into which the heat rays penetrate, instead of being, as in the northern hemisphere, chiefly land, which reflects the heat rays into the atmosphere, so as to raise its temperature.
The elliptical form of the earth's orbit produces in