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as far as it could without breaking, it at length breaks along the top of the ridge, and in proportion with the loss of lateral support thus caused, the weight of the adjacent parts of the surface press inwards, and the inner parts of the earth being in a state of liquid heat, the increased weight pressing upon the fluid part forces the fluid matter upwards through the fissures in the crack, and thus in some places mountain ranges of unstratified rock are formed as the fluid hardens on the surface; but here the accumulation of broken masses of stratified matter is so enormous that this part of the range seems to consist of nothing else.

The stratified surface to the east of the crack has here overlapped that to the west ; so that on the west the Pacific Ocean rolls against the disjointed masses that have been piled up abreast of it, whereas on the east, the elevated strata slopes away gradually to the Atlantic Ocean. That slope is itself undulated by pressure, but those undulations are probably precedent to the occurrence of the crack which led to the piling up of the Andes, most, if not all, subsequent readjustments of the surface having been arranged by movements along the still uniformly placed edges of the crack.

The sudden movements in this neighbourhood even now cause at times a shock or earthquake sufficient to overwhelm cities. In these movements also, either by direct pressure of the surface downwards, or oftener probably by water or other matter being suddenly brought into contact with intense heat, matter from below the stratified surface is, in a state of liquid heat, forced upwards through openings in the crack, thus forming, as the matter hardens on the surface, those high volcanic peaks which are here so numerous. Or in other places the same expansion, not having sufficient force to burst through the surface, simply raises it in the form of an evenly rounded hill.

EXERCISE.-58. MEANINGS OF WORDS. 1. Give the meaning of the following :-traversing, undulated, pampas, horizon, alert, parallel, stratified, derisive, gravitation, overwhelm, induction, deduction, conceivable, enormous, adjacent.

2. Distinguish between :- fissures, fishers; plains, planes ; seems, seams.

3. Illustrate the different micanings of :-mount, lies, leaves, traces, rock, mass, press, crack, stern.


GEORGE IV.; WILLIAM IV. ad-mit-tance (L. ad, to; mitto, to send], entrance, leave to enter. in-de-pen-dence (L. in, not; de, from ; pendeo, to hang], freedom from the control or power of others. op-po-si-tion [L. ob, against; pono, to place], any attempt to check, resistance. On the death of George III. the Prince Regent became king, under the title of George IV. He was the eldest of thirteen children, all of whom had been carefully trained, but he grew up a dissolute man, spending his days and nights in all kinds of revelry and dissipation.

Before he became king, the only event that induced seriousness on his part was the loss of his beloved daughter, the Princess Charlotte. She was the pride and favourite of the nation, and amid great rejoicing she had gone

forth as the bride of Prince Leopold, afterwards king of the Belgians. But a short year ended her happiness and her life, which proved a severe blow to her father and a source of grief to the people. Leopold, her husband, survived until 1866, full of age and honours, bearing the character of one of the wisest and most prudent of kings, indeed the Nestor of his day.

George IV. had long been separated from his wife, the Princess Caroline of Brunswick, and when the time of his coronation drew near, he heard with consternation that she intended to claim her rank and title, and on the day of the ceremony a great scandal was caused by her being forced from the door of Westminster Abbey to which she had demanded admittance. Her husband had also the meanness to have her tried on a charge of having been guilty of acts that were disgraceful to her as a queen and a woman. Being defended by the now celebrated Lord Brougham and others, she was acquitted, to the great joy of the multitude who had warmly espoused her cause, and threatened the king with grave annoyance if he persisted in his unpopular and unmanly conduct. The queen

did not long enjoy her triumph, for she died of grief shortly after the bill against her was withdrawn from the House of Lords.

So great became the unpopularity of the king in England that his advisers thought it prudent to recommend him to make a tour of the provinces. He accordingly visited Ireland and Scotland where he was most enthusiastically received ; but only because he was the first sovereign they had seen since the revolution of 1688. The war of Greek independence

was the next event of note. The Greeks rose against the Turks who had long oppressed them, and having shown by their prowess that they were worthy of assistance, they got it from England and other states, which destroyed the Turkish fleet in the battle of Navarino, 1827, an act which the Duke of Wellington characterised as an untoward event.”

George IV. died at Windsor Castle, on the 6th June, 1830, at the age of sixty-eight. His character may be summed up in a few words. He was insincere, vain, inordinately fond of pleasure, and had no idea of the value of morality : a character especially bad in one to whom millions naturally looked for an example.

The crown now devolved upon the third son of George III., who had borne the title of Duke of Clarence during his brother's life. He now became known as William IV. He had seen service in the navy, and, like all sailors, was remarkable for frankness, kindness of heart, and simple manners. These qualities soon gained the esteem of the masses, who looked upon him with much favour. His queen, too, Adelaide, a German princess, was very popular.

William had not been long upon the throne before France was, for the second time, in a state of revolution. Belgium, too, threw off the yoke of Holland, and formed an independent kingdom.

The most important event of the reign was the passing of the Reform Bill, in 1832. The king stoutly opposed it as long as he could, risking his popularity, but refusing to yield. Many politicians were in favour of the bill, and as many against it. Great was the excitement, and strongly expressed were the feelings on both sides. The mass of the people loudly declared their determination to have the “whole bill and nothing but the bill.”. Opposition had at last to give way, and it was passed amid great enthusiasm.

Another important event was the emancipation, in 1834, of the slaves in our colonies, which cost Britain the enormous sum of twenty millions sterling. Williana Wilberforce, member of parliament for York, had spent a lifetime in working for this noble end. Forty-two years had the bill struggled through parliament, and its triumph at last was a happy reward to the perseverance of Wilberforce and other philanthropists. Since then there has been no slave on British soil. As soon as one sets foot on any part of the British dominions, or comes on board a British ship, he is free : a glorious privilege which has been thankfully taken advan

William IV. died at the age of seventy-two, June 20th, 1837, warmly beloved by all

. He possessed good sound common sense, and the best that can be said of him is, that he was a striking contrast to his brother in every act of his short but useful and happy reign. He was succeeded by our present sovereign, Queen Victoria.

EXERCISE.-59. COMPOSITION. 1. Make a list of (a) persons (6) places (c) dates, with events, mentioncd in this lesson.

2. Give a short account of Caroline of Brunswick.
3. Describe in your own words the character of Geo. IV.
4. What is meant by the Reform Bill ?
5. When and how was slavery abolished in the British colonies ?

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FROM THE FRENCH. gaz-ing (A.-S. gesean, from seon, to see], looking intently. bound. less (F. borne, limit], without limit, vast. earth-ly [A.-S. earth, the earth), belonging to the earth, vile, worldly.

One summer eve, the skies were bright

With glancing rays of setting sun ;
The east was darkening, and the stars

Were gently peeping one by one.
Embowered 'mid vines, a cottage stood,

Round which the sweetest perfumes flowed :
A mother sang her babe to rest,-

With love the mother's bosom glowed.

Beside the sleeping babe there stood,

With shining wings an angel bright; Who, downward gazing, seemed to see On childhood's brow

the heavenly light. “Sweet child,” the angel whispered low,

“ Thou smilest like our heavenly band; Oh, come with me, we shall rejoice,

And happy be in yon bright land. “ The earth that seems so calm and fair,

Spread smiling 'neath the summer sky, Is not for thee, thou slumbering babe,

Thy home is heaven; there let us fly. « Shall tears bedim those azure eyes,

Or clouds bespread thy seraph brow? Shall sinful passions wring thy heart,

That beats so gently, sinless, now? "No, no! afar to shining worlds That roll through boundless fields of

space, With me thou 'lt ily and leave behind

This sinful, wretched, earthly race." The angel said—his glistening wings

Were spread athwart the gathering night : To lands unknown—the eternal home

They took their happy, silent flight. Thy mother's tears fell fast, sweet babe,

And trickled o'er thy seraph brow; But thou art happier 'mid the throng Of angels, where thou singest now.

EXERCISE.-60. PARSING, ETC. 1. Paraphrase the first three verses. 2. Explain the parsing and syntax of the phrases:-'one summer eve,' ‘one by one.'

3. If whispered' in the fourth versc is a transitive verb, where is its objective ?

4. Write out the clauses composing the fourth verse : supply any ellip-. ses that you may find in it.

5. Parse the fourth, fifth, and sixth verses. 6. Analyse the last verse.

7. What is the past indicative and the past participle of the verbs :stand, aco, let, ily, spread, wring, but, fall, sing?

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