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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount applied capitalist causes ceteris paribus circulating capital competition condition considerable consumed consumption cultivation degree demand desire of accumulation diminished division of labor duction East Flanders employment England exertion exist expense farmer fixed flax France funds greater gross produce human hundred quarters idle class improvement income increase individual industry interest kind labor employed laboring classes land landlord less limited machinery maize mankind manufacture manure material means ment metayer mode natural agents necessary objects obtained occupation operations peasant persons plough political economy population portion possession practice present principle productive consumers productive laborers productive power profit proportion purpose quantity remuneration render rent require saving serfs slavery slaves small farms society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus taxes things thousand tion tivation unless unproductive wealth whole workmen
Сторінка 151 - is one on which I cannot help thinking that more stress is laid by him and others than it deserves. To do full justice to his opinion, I will quote his own exposition of it. " The advantage which is gained by saving the time commonly lost in passing from one
Сторінка 271 - all from industry, or if there were any means of discriminating what is derived from each source, it not only would not be necessary, but it would be the * " Munificent bequests and donations for public purposes, whether charitable or educational, form a striking feature in the modern history of the United States, and especially of
Сторінка 407 - or, as it is often expressed, on the proportion between population and capital. By population is here meant the number only of the laboring class, or rather of those who work for hire; and by capital, only circulating capital, and not even the whole of that, but the part which is expended in the direct purchase of labor.
Сторінка 230 - with hands. The new mouths require as much food as the old ones, and the hands do not produce as much. If all instruments of production were held in joint property by the whole people, and the produce divided with perfect
Сторінка 474 - The different governors of the universities before that time appear to have often granted licenses to their scholars to beg." § 4. The demand for literary labor has so greatly increased since Adam Smith wrote, while the provisions for eleemosynary education have nowhere been much added to, and in the countries which have experienced
Сторінка 214 - labor, the produce is not increased in an equal degree ; doubling the labor does not double the produce ; or, to express the same thing in other words, every increase of produce is obtained by a more than proportional increase in the application of labor to the
Сторінка 256 - the diffusion, instead of the concentration of wealth, to encourage the subdivision of the large masses, instead of striving to keep them together ; the principle of individual property would have been found to have no real connection with the physical and social evils which have made so many minds turn eagerly to any prospect of relief, however desperate.
Сторінка 316 - his plot for mangel-wurzel, for hemp, and so on. He is his own master ; and he. and every member of his family, have the strongest motives to labor. You see the effect of this in that unremitting diligence which is beyond that of the whole world beside, and his economy which is still greater.
Сторінка 407 - To this, however, must be added all funds which, without forming a part of capital, are paid in exchange for labor, such as the wages of soldiers, domestic servants, and all other unproductive laborers. There is, unfortunately, no mode of expressing by one familiar term, the aggregate of what may be called the wages-fund of a country