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The Effects of Civilization on the People in European States
Попередній перегляд недоступний - 2018
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Сторінка 39 - ... produce of his lands which is over and above the maintenance of the cultivators, consumes the whole in rustic hospitality at home. If this surplus produce is sufficient to maintain a hundred or a thousand men, he can make use of it in no other way than by maintaining a hundred or a thousand men. He is at all times, therefore, surrounded with a multitude of retainers and dependents, who, having no equivalent to give in return for their maintenance, but being fed entirely by his bounty, must obey...
Сторінка 48 - ... worst, pigeon of the flock: sitting round, and looking on. all the winter, whilst this one was devouring, throwing about, and wasting it: and if a pigeon, more hardy or hungry than the rest, touched a grain of the hoard, all the others instantly flying upon it. and tearing it to pieces: - if you should see this, you would see nothing more than what is every day practised and established among men.
Сторінка 48 - Among men, you see the ninety and nine toiling and scraping together a heap of superfluities for one, (and this one too, oftentimes the feeblest and worst of the whole set, a child, a woman, a madman, or a fool...
Сторінка 20 - The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects too are, perhaps, always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
Сторінка 20 - He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. The torpor of his mind renders him not only incapable of relishing or bearing a part in any rational conversation, but of conceiving any generous, noble, or tender, sentiment, and consequently of forming any just judgment concerning many even ' of the ordinary duties of private life.
Сторінка 91 - Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defence of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property against those who have none .at alL...
Сторінка 20 - In the progress of the division of labour, the employment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is, of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations ; frequently to one or two.
Сторінка 78 - Any carrion, the carcase of a dead dog or cat, for example, though half putrid and stinking, is as welcome to them as the most wholesome food to the people of other countries. Marriage is encouraged in China, not by the profitableness of children, but by the liberty of destroying them. In all great towns several are every night exposed in the streets, or drowned like puppies in the water. The performance of this horrid office is even said to be the avowed business by which some people earn their...
Сторінка 21 - In such societies the varied occupations of every man oblige every man to exert his capacity, and to invent expedients for removing difficulties which are continually occurring. Invention is kept alive, and the mind is not suffered to fall into that drowsy stupidity which, in a civilized society, seems to benumb the understanding of almost all the inferior ranks of people.