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cicada, the Spaniard cigarra, and the French cigale ; all which appellations conform unto the original, and properly express this animal. Whereas our word is borrowed from the Saxon gærsthoop, which our forefathers, who never beheld the cicada, used for that insect which we yet call a grasshopper.
Of the Picture of the Serpent tempting Eve.
In the picture of paradise, and delusion of our first parents, the serpent is often described with human visage,not unlike unto Cadmus or his wife in the act of their metamorphosis. Which is not a mere pictorial contrivance or invention of the picturer, but an ancient tradition and conceived reality, as it stands delivered by Beda and authors of some antiquity," that is, that Satan appeared not unto Eve in the naked form of a serpent, but with a virgin's head, that thereby he might become more acceptable, and his temptation find the easier entertainment. Which nevertheless is a conceit not to be admitted, and the plain and received figure is with better reason embraced.
For first, as Pierius observeth from Barcephas, the assumption of human shape had proved a disadvantage unto Satan, affording not only a suspicious amazement in Eve, 3 before
9 Whereas our word, &c.] This sen went upright and spake. 'Tis probable tence was first added in 6th edition. — (and thwarteth noe truth) that the serSee vol. iv, 185.
pent spake to Eve. Does not the text visage.] See Munster's Hebrew expressly saye soe ? The devil had as Bible, where in the letter which begins much power then as now, and yi now the first Y the serpent is made with a he can take upon him the forme of an Virgin's face.-Wr.
angel of light, why not then the face of In Munster's Hebrew and Latin Bible,
a humane creature as well as the voice of (Basil
, 1535, er Of. Bebeliana,) at the man?-Wr. commencement of the Psalms, is the 3 Eve.] Eve might easier entertaine initial letter B, which is a wood-cut of a suspicious annazement to heare a serAdam, Eve, and the serpent between pent speake in a humane voyce, than to them, with the face of a virgin.
heare a humane voyce in a humane shape; 2 antiquity.) See vol. ii, p. 230, where
nor was itt more wonder for Sathan to ashe quotes Basil saying, that the serpent sume one than both. It suited better with
the fact, in beholding a third humanity beside herself and Adam, but leaving some excuse unto the woman, which afterward the man took up with lesser reason, that is, to have been deceived by another like herself.
Again, there is no inconvenience in the shape assumed, or any considerable impediment that it might disturb that performance in the common form of a serpent. For whereas it is conceived the woman must needs be afraid thereof, and rather fly than approach it, it was not agreeable unto the condition of paradise and state of innocency therein; if in that place, as most determine, no creature was hurtful or terrible unto man, and those destructive effects they now discover succeeded the curse, and came in with thorns and briars; and therefore Eugubinus (who affirmeth this serpent was a basilisk) incurreth no absurdity, nor need we infer that Eve should be destroyed immediately upon that vision. For noxious animals could offend them no more in the garden than Noah in the ark; as they peaceably received their names, so they friendly possessed their natures, and were their conditions destructive unto each other, they were not so unto man, whose constitutions then were antidotes, and needed not fear poisons; and if (as most conceive) there were but two created of every kind, they could not at that time destroy either man or themselves, for this had frustrated the command of multiplication, destroyed a species, and imperfected the creation; and therefore also if Cain were the first man born, with him entered, not only the act, but the first power of murder, for before that time neither could the serpent nor Adam destroy Eve, nor Adam and Eve cach other, for that had overthrown the intention of the world, and put its Creator to act the sixth day over again.
Moreover, whereas in regard of speech, and vocal conference with Eve, it may be thought he would rather assume an human shape and organs, than the improper form of a
his crafte to deliver his wile by a face suit- thought not fit to reveale any more. Wee able to the voice of man, and since we be see the fathers differ in opinion, and Jieve the one, we may without error be- there is enough on either side to refute leire the other. But itt is safest to believe the scorne of Julia, who payd deare what we rude recorded of the buman inough for his atheistical, or rather antivoyce, and leave the other to llim who theisticall blasplıcmyc.-!l'r.
serpent, it implies no material impediment. Nor need we to wonder how he contrived a voice out of the mouth of a serpent, who hath done the like out of the belly of a Pythonissa, and the trunk of an oak, as he did for many years at Dodona.
Lastly, whereas it might be conceived * that an human
conceived.] Itt might wel bee con was this kinde of serpent, whose shape ceived (and soe it seemes itt was) by St. Satan assumed when he spake to Eve. * Basil, that a virgin's head (hee does not For since Moses tels us that God persaye a humane shape) was fittest for this mitted the serpent to deceive our grandintention of speakinge, itt being most mother by faigning the voyce of man, probable Eve would be more amazed to wee may reasonably acquit St. Basil of heare such a creature as a serpent speake error, or offring violence to trueth, that with a humane voyce, theu to heare a hee tooke it as granted by a paritye of human voyce passe through the mouth like reason, that the serpent would rather of a virgin face. To hear a voice without assume such a face and appearance of a head must needs (as the subtile serpent humane forme as might sute with a huknew full well) have started in Eve either mane voyce, at least would frame a huthe supposition of a causeles miracle, or mane visage as well as a human tounge, the suspition of an imposture; there- which is but a parte in the head of man, fore to cut off those scruples, which might for which the head (rather then for any have prevented and frustrated his ayme, other sense) seemes to have been made tis most probable the subtile tempter by God, that the spirits of men (which assumed the face as well as the voice of till they discover themselves by language a Virgin to conveigh that temptation cannot bee understood) might by the which he supposed Eve would greedily benefit of this admirable instrument, have entertain.
mutual commerce and intelligence, and Julius Scaliger, that magazin of all conveighe their inwarde conceptions each various learninge, in his 183rd exercita to other. Surely yf every such a strange tion and 4th section, speaking of certaine serpent as this which Scaliger describes strange kinds of serpents, reports that in were scene in the world, we must perMalabar, there are serpents 8 foote long, force grant that they are some of that of a horrible aspect, but harmless unless kinde which God at first created soe, and they bee provoked. These he cals boy- that Satan subtily choose to enter into lovers (pæderotas,) for that they will for that kinde which before the curse natumanye houres together stand bolt upright rally went upright (as they say the bagazing on the boyes at their sportes, never siliske now does,) and could soe easily, offring to hurte any of them.
soe nearly represent the appearance and These, saithe he, while they glide on shew of man not only in gate but in voyce the ground are like other serpents or as the Scripture speakes. That they eeles (like conger eeles,) but raising have no feete makes soe much the more themselves upright they spread them for the conjecture, and that however itt selves into such a corpulent breadthe, that seemes this kinde of serpent (which had they feet they would seeme to be Satan used as an instrument of his fraud) men, and therefore he cals them by a did originally goe upwright, and can yet coigned name, &.avgurous, eele- frame himselfe into that posture, yet by like men, though hee might more pro- God's just doome is now forced to creep perly call them oφιανθρώπους, dragon
on his belly in the duste; where though Now though we can yeeld they strike at our heele, they are liable noe greater beleefe to this story then the
to have their heade bruised and trampled Portuguez that traffique thither deserve,
on by the foote of man.-Wr. yet bycause the world owes many ex
Respecting the basilisk, see note 9, cellent discoveryes of hidden truths to
vol. ii. p. 414. his indefatigable diligence and learned
In one of the illustrations to Cædmon's labors, seldome taxed for fabulous asser- Paraphrase, mentioned p. 99, I find the Lions, why may we not think that itt serpent standing “bolt upright" receiving
See what I noted long since on Gen, iii, 14, 10 this purpose in the Geneva Bible.
shape was fitter for this enterprise, it being more than probable she would be amazed to hear a serpent speak; some conceive she might not yet be certain that only man was privileged with speech, and being in the novity of the creation, and inexperience of all things, might not be affrighted to hear a serpent speak. Besides, she might be ignorant of their natures, who was not versed in their names, as being not present at the general survey of animals when
his sentence, and another figure of him answers the description ? Most certainly lying on the ground, to indicate his con it does not, any more than the serpent. demnation to subsequent reptility. Some If on the other hand he means that the critics have complained of the painters creature, through whom Satan tempted for representing him without feet in his Eve, had previously possessed those adinterview with Eve, whereas, say they, vantages, but lost them as a punishment his creeping on his belly was inflicted on of that offence, then why not suppose it him as a punishment. Had those critics to have been a serpent, or any other been acquainted with professor Mayer's creature, as well as the ape? The theory assertion, that rudimental feet are found itself stultifies any attempt to discover in almost all the serpent tribe, they would the tempter among creatures now in exisdoubtless have regarded it as a confirma- tence, because we are required to suppose tion of their opinion, and would have their nature and habits to have totally contended that these imperfect and un- changed. The serpent certainly has one serviceable rudiments of feet were all the claim, which the ape has not, namely, traces lest to them of those locomotive that its present mode of going is in acpowers which this, as well as other verte cordance with the Scriptural description) brated animals, had originally enjoyed. on its belly; which, with deference to
Dr. Adam Clarke gives a very long and the learned Doctor, "going on all fours" elaborate article on the temptation of is not, unless he can justify what he in Eve. His opinion is that the tempter fact says, that quadrupeds and reptiles was an ape ; he builds his hypothesis on move alike! Moreover, his selection is the fact that the Hebrew word (nachash, specially unfortunate in this very respect, Gen. iii, 1,) is nearly the same with an that of all animals the ape now approaches Arabic word, signifying an ape and THE most nearly to the human mode of walk. Devil! He thus sums up: “In this ing, and exhibits therefore the most inaccount we find, 1. That whatever this complete example of the fulfilment of nachash was, he stood at the head of all the curse—" on thy belly shalt thou go." inferior animals for wisdom and under Hadrian Beverland, in his Peccatum standing. 2. That he walked erect, for Originale, 12mo. 1676, has published this is necessarily implied in his punish- his strange speculations as to the NATURE ment-on thy belly (i. e. on all fours) of the temptation, to which our mother shalt thou go.
3. That he was endued yielded. But after all, neither as one point with the gift of speech, for a conversation nor another, which has not been clearly is here related between him and the revealed, shall we be likely either to ob
4. That he was also endued tain or communicate any useful informawith the gift of reason, for we find bim tion. The indulgence of a prurient and reasoning and disputing with Eve. 5. speculative imagination on points which, That these things were common to this not having been disclosed, cannot be discreature, the woman no doubt having covered, and the knowledge of which often seen him walk erect, talk, and would serve no good purpose, were far reason, and therefore she testifies no better restrained. We know, alas, that kind of surprise when he accosts her in what constituted sin originally, has ever the language related in the text." Grant- been and ever will be its heinous feature ing, for a moment, the Doctor's five in the sight of the Great Lawgiver-viz. positions, I would ask, does he mean disobedience to his known and underthat the ape is a creature which now stood commands.
Adam assigned unto every one a name concordant unto its nature. Nor is this only my opinion, but the determination of Lombard and Tostatus, and also the reply of Cyril unto the objection of Julian, who compared this story unto the fables of the Greeks.
Of the Picture of Adam and Eve with Navels.
ANOTHER mistake there may be in the picture of our first parents, who after the manner of their posterity are both delineated with a navel; and this is observable not only in ordinary and stained pieces, but in the authentic draughts of Urbin, Angelo, and others. Which notwithstanding cannot be allowed, except we impute that unto the first cause, which we impose not on the second, or what we deny unto Nature, we impute unto naturity itself, that is, that in the first and most accomplished piece, the Creator affected superfluities, or ordained parts without use or office.
s and others.] It is observable in the of the serpent tribes are provided with rude figures of Adam and Eve, among the the rudiments of feet which can scarcely, illuminations of Cædmon's Metrical Para- if at all, be of any use to them ?-a fact phrase of Scripture History engraved in the which has been asserted recently by a 24th vol. of the Archaologia. But worse German naturalist of distinction, Dr. mistakes have been committed in depicting Mayer, as the result of long and very “our first parents.” In the gallery of extensive anatomical examination of the the convent of Jesuits, at Lisbon, there principal families of the serpents. He is a fine picture of Adam in paradise, thereon proposes a new division of the dressed (qu. after the fall?) in blue order,-into PHÆNOPTERA, those snakes breeches with silver buckles, and Eve whose rudimental feet are externally viwith a striped petticoat. In the distance sible, and comprising Boa, Python, Eryr, appears a procession of capuchins bearing Clothonia, and Tortrix; CRYPTOPODA, the cross.
in which the bony rudiments are entire6 Which notwithstanding, &c.] It ly concealed beneath the skin, containing seems to have been the intention of our Anguis, Typhlops, and Amphisvæna; and author, in this somewhat obscure sen CHONDROPODA and APODA, in which the tence, to object, that, in supposing Adam rudiments are scarcely, or not at all, obto have been formed with a navel, we servable.-Nova Acta Acad. Cæsar. Nasuppose a superfluity in that which was tura Curiosorum, tom. xii, p. 2. produced by nature (naturity,) while in Respecting the singular subject of disnature herself we affirm there is nothing cussion in this chapter; it appears to me superfluous, or useless. It is, however, that not only Adam and Eve, but all somewhat hazardous to pronounce that species, both of the animal, vegetable, and useless whose office may not be very inineral kingdoms, were created at once obvious to us. Who will venture to in their perfect state; and therefore all point out the office of the mamme in exhibiting such remaining traces of a less the male sex? or to say wherefore some perfect state, as those species, in their