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blood. And the same may be better made out, if (as some relate) their feathers on that part are sometimes observed to be red and tinctured with blood.9
Of the Picture of Dolphins.
That dolphins are crooked, is not only affirmed by the hand of the painter, but commonly conceived their natural and proper figure, which is not only the opinion of our times, but seems the belief of elder times before us. For, beside the expressions of Ovid and Pliny, the portraits in some ancient coins are framed in this figure, as will appear in some thereof in Gesner, others in Goltsius, and Lævinus Hulsius in his description of coins from Julius Cæsar unto Rodolphus the second.
Notwithstanding, to speak strictly, in their natural figure they are straight, nor have their spine convexed, or more considerably embowed, than sharks, porpoises," whales, and other cetaceous animals, as Scaliger plainly affirmeth ; Corpus habet non magìs curvum quàm reliqui pisces. As ocular enquiry informeth; and as, unto such as have not had the opportunity to behold them, their proper portraits will dis
9 A possibility, &c.] This paragraphed by the dean, is probably the common was first added in 6th edition.
dolphin,-Delphinus Delphis; but the porpoises.] Reade porkpisces. The porpoise is a different animal, Delphis porkpisce (that is the dolphin) hath his Phocæna, now constituted a distinct gename from the hog hee resembles in con
Ray, however, says, that the porvexity and curvitye of his backe, from the poise is the dolphin of the ancients. The head to the tayle: nor is hee otherwise following passage from his Philosophical curbe, then as a hog is: except that be- Letters, p. 46, corroborates the dean's fore a storme, hee tumbles just as a hog proposed etymology. It occurs in a runs.
That which I once saw, cutt up letter to Dr. Martin Lister, May 7, 1669. in Fish street, was of this forme and “ Totam corpus copiosâ et densâ pingueabove five foote longe: his skin not skaly, dine, (piscatores blubber vocant) duorum but smoothe and black, like bacon in the plus minus digitorum crassitie undique chin.ney; and his bowels in all points integebatur, immediate sub cute, et sulike a hog: and yf instead of his four pra carnem musculosam sita, ut in porfins you imagine four feete, hee would cis; ob quam rationem, et quod porcorum represent a black hog (ast it were) sweal'd grunnitum quadantenus imitetur, poralive.-Wr.
pesse, -i. e. porcum piscem, dictum eum This creature, so graphically describ existimo."
cover in Rondeletius, Gesner, and Aldrovandus. And as indeed is deducible from pictures themselves; for though they be drawn repandous, or convexedly crooked in one piece, yet the dolphin that carrieth Arion is concavously inverted, and hath its spine depressed in another. And answerably hereunto may we behold them differently bowed in medals, and the dolphins of Tarus and Fulius do make another flexure from that of Commodus and Agrippa.s
And therefore what is delivered of their incurvity, must either be taken emphatically, that is, not really, but in appearance; which happeneth when they leap above water and suddenly shoot down again : which is a fallacy in vision, whereby straight bodies in a sudden motion protruded obliquely downward, appear unto the eye crooked; and this is the construction of Bellonius : or, if it be taken really, it must not universally and perpetually; that is, not when they swim and remain in their proper figures, but only when they leap, or impetuously whirl their bodies any way; and this is the opinion of Gesnerus. Or lastly, it may be taken neither really nor emphatically, but only emblematically; for being the hieroglyphick of celerity, and swifter than other animals, men best expressed their velocity by incurvity, and under some figure of a bow; and in this sense probably do heralds
2 yet the dolphin that carrieth Arion.} being no fish else that loves the company " The Persian authors of high antiquity of men." say, that the delfin will take on his back “Some authors, more especially the anpersons in danger of being drowned, cients, have asserted that dolphins have from whence comes the fable of Arion. a lively and natural affection towards The word is derived from 937 stillare, the human species, with which they are
easily led to familiarize. They have ftuere, delf; because the dolphin was considered as the king of the sea, and recounted many marvellous stories on
this subject. All that is known with Neptune a monarch represented under
certainty is, that when they perceive a the image of this fish. Dolphins were the symbols of maritime towns and cities. ship at sea, they rush in a crowd before See Spanheim, 4to. 141, ed. 1671." Dr. it, surround it, and express their contiS. Weston's Specimen of the Conformity evolutions, sometimes bounding, leaping,
dence by rapid, varied, and repeated of the European with the Oriental Lan- and maneuvering in all manner of ways; guages, &c. 8vo. 1803, pp. 75, 76. See
sometimes performing complicated ciralso Alciati Emblem. xc.
cumvolutions, and exhibiting a degree of * And answerably, &c.] First added in 3rd edition.
grace, agility, dexterity, and strength, the hieroglyphick of celerity:] Syl- however they follow the track of vessels
which is perfectly astonishing. Perhaps vanus Morgan, in his Sphere of Gentry, with no other view than the hopes of (fol. 1661) p. 69, says that the dolphin preying on something that may fall from is the hieroglyphick of society! “there them". Cuvier, by Griffiths.
also receive it, when, from a dolphin extended, they distinguish a dolphin embowed.
And thus also must that picture be taken of a dolphin clasping an anchor;5 that is, not really, as is by most conceived out of affection unto man, conveying the anchor unto the ground; but emblematically, according as Pierius hath expressed it, the swiftest animal conjoined with that heavy body, implying that common moral, festina lentè : and that celerity should always be contempered with cunctation.
Of the Picture of a Grasshopper.
There is also among us a common description and picture of a grasshopper, as may be observed in the pictures of emblematists, in the coats of several families, and as the word cicada is usually translated in dictionaries. Wherein to speak strictly, if by this word grasshopper, we understand that animal which is implied by sérsit with the Greeks, and by cicada with the Latins, we may with safety affirm the picture is widely mistaken, and that for aught enquiry can inform, there is no such insect in England. Which how paradoxical soever, upon a strict enquiry, will prove undeniable truth.
a dolphin clasping an anchor.] The CICADA! Mr. John Curtis (since de. device of the family of Manutius, cele- servedly well known as the author of brated as learned printers at Venice and British Entomology,) was then residing Rome. See Alciati Emblem. cxliv, with me as draughtsman; and no doubt
o no such insect in England.] It is our united examinations were diligently perfectly true that, till recently, no spe- bestowed to find the little stranger among cies of the true Linnæan Cicadæ, ( T'etti- the described species of the continent; gonia, Fab.) had been discovered in but in vain. I quite forget whether we Great Britain.
About twenty years bestowed a MS. name ; probably not ; since, I had the pleasure of adding this as scarcely hoping that the first species disclassical and most interesting genus to covered to be indigenous, would also prove the British Fauna. Having, about that to be peculiar to our country, and be time, engaged Mr. Daniel Bydder, (a distinguished by the national appellation weaver in Spitalfields, and a very enthu of Cicada ANGLICA. Yet so it has prove siastic entomologist,) to collect for me in ed: Mr. Samouelle, I believe, first gave the New Forest, Hampshire, I received it that name; and Mr. Curtis has given from him thence many valuable insects an exquisite figure, and full description from time to time, and at length, to my of it, in the 9th vol. of his British Entosurprise and great satisfaction, a pair of mology, No. 392. I cannot however speak
For first, that animal which the French term sauterelle, we a grasshopper, and which under this name is commonly described by us, is named "Axgıs by the Greeks, by the Latins locusta, and by ourselves in proper speech a locust; as in the diet of John Baptist, and in our translation, “the locusts have no king, yet go they forth all of them by bands.”* Again, between the cicada and that we call a grasshopper, the differences are very many, as may be observed in themselves, or their descriptions in Matthiolus, Aldrovandus, and Muffetus. For first, they are differently cucullated or capuched upon the head and back, and in the cicadæ the eyes are more prominent: the locusts have antennæ or long horns before, with a long falcation or forcipated tail behind: and being ordained for saltation, their hinder legs do far exceed the other. The locust or our grasshopper hath teeth, the cicada none at all; nor any mouth, according unto Aristotle. The cicada is most upon trees; and lastly, the frittinnitus, or proper note thereof, is far more shrill than that of the locust, and its life so short in summer, that for provision it needs not have recourse unto the providence of the pismire in winter.
And therefore where the cicada must be understood, the pictures of heralds and emblematists are not exact, nor is it safe to adhere unto the interpretation of dictionaries, and we must with candour make out our own translations ; for in the plague of Egypt, Exodus x, the word "Anges is translated a locust, but in the same sense and subject, Wisdom xvi, it is translated a grasshopper; “ for them the bitings of grasshoppers and flies killed ;" whereas we have declared before the cicada hath no teeth, but is conceived to live upon dew,
• Proverbs xxx.
in so high terms of his account of its origi- events he ought to have recorded the nal discovery. I cannot understand why name of the poor man by whose indusbe has thus dryly noticed it: “C. Anglica try and perseverance the discovery was was first discovered in the New Forest, effected. about twenty years ago.” I should have 7 The locust, fc.] Both the locusta supposed that it might have given him and cicade are furnished with teeth—if some pleasure to attach to his narrative by that term we are to understand manthe name of an old friend, from whom he dibulæ and maxilla. But in cicada they had received early and valuable assistance, are not so obvious; being enclosed in the and to whom he was indebted for his labium. This conformation probably led acquaintance with the art he has so long Aristotle to say they had no mouth. and so successfully pursued. At all
and the possibility of its subsistence is disputed by Licetus. Hereof I perceive Muffetus hath taken notice, dissenting from Langius and Lycosthenes, while they deliver the cicade destroyed the fruits in Germany, where that insect is not found, and therefore concludeth, Tam ipsos quàm alios deceptos fuisse autumo, dum locustas cicadas esse vulgari errore crederent.
And hereby there may be some mistake in the due dispensation of medicines desumed from this animal, particularly of diatettigon, commended by Ætius, in the affections of the kidnies. It must be likewise understood with some restriction what hath been affirmed by Isidore, and yet delivered by many, that cicades are bred out of cuckoo-spittle or woodsear, that is, that spumous frothy dew or exudation, or both, found upon plants, especially about the joints of lavender and rosemary, observable with us about the latter end of May. For here the true cicada is not bred; but certain it is, that out of this, some kind of locust doth proceed, for herein may be discovered a little insect of a festucine or pale green, resembling in all parts a locust, or what we call a grasshopper. 8
Lastly, the word itself is improper, and the term grasshopper not appliable unto the cicada; for therein the organs of motion are not contrived for saltation, nor have the hinder legs of such extension, as is observable in salient animals, and such as move by leaping. Whereto the locust is very well conformed, for therein the legs behind are longer than all the body, and make at the second joint acute angles, at a considerable advancement above their backs.
The mistake therefore with us might have its original from a defect in our language, for having not the insect with us, we have not fallen upon its proper name, and so make use of a term common unto it and the locust; whereas other countries have proper expressions for it. So the Italian calls it
8 cicades are bred, &c.] Here is ano viz. homoptera, but very distinct in genether error. The froth spoken of is always ric character, and especially without the found to contain the larva of a little power of sound. It has no great reskipping insect, frequently mis-called a semblance to locusle, which belong to a cicada, but properly cercopis; allied in distinct order, viz. orthoptera. forin to cicada, and of the same order,