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ber; such only, saith Aristotle, whose egg or spawn is arenaceous : whereby are excluded all cetaceous and cartilagineous fishes; many pectinal, whose ribs are rectilineal; many costal, which have their ribs embowed; all spinal, or such as have no ribs, but only a back-bone, or somewhat analogous thereto, as eels, congers, lampreys; all that are testaceous, as oysters, cockles, wilks, scollops, muscles; and likewise all crustaceous, as crabs, shrimps and lobsters. So that, obobserving a spare and simple diet, whereby they prevent the generation of crudities; and fasting often, whereby they might also digest them; they must be less inclinable unto this infirmity than any other nation, whose proceedings are not so reasonable to avoid it.

As for their generations and conceptions, (which are the purer from good diet,) they become more pure and perfect by the strict observation of their law; upon the injunctions whereof, they severely observe the times of purification, and avoid all copulation, either in the uncleanness of themselves, or impurity of their women. A rule, I fear, not so well observed by Christians; whereby not only conceptions are prevented, but if they proceed, so vitiated and defiled, that durable inquinations remain upon the birth. Which, when the conception meets with these impurities, must needs be very potent; since in the purest and most fair conceptions, learned men derive the cause of pox and meazles, from principles of that nature; that is, the menstruous impurities in the mother's blood, and virulent tinctures contracted by the infant, in the nutriment of the womb.

Lastly, experience will convict it; for this offensive odour is no way discoverable in their synagogues where many are,8 and by reason of their number could not be concealed: nor is the same discernable in commerce or conversation with such as are cleanly in apparel, and decent in their houses. Surely the Viziers and Turkish bashas are not of this opinion; who, as Sir Henry Blunt informeth, do generally keep a Jew of their private council. And were this true, the Jews themselves do not strictly make out the intention of their

many are,] See the evidence hereof, p. 36, undeniably prooved.-Wr.

law, for in vain do they scruple to approach the dead, who livingly are cadaverous, or fear any outward pollution, whose temper pollutes themselves. And lastly, were this true, yet our opinion is not impartial; for unto converted Jews who are of the same seed, no man imputeth this unsavoury odour; as though aromatized by their conversion, they lost their scent with their religion, and smelt no longer than they savoured of the Jew.

Now the ground that begat or propagated this assertion, might be the distasteful averseness of the Christian from the Jew, upon the villany of that fact, which made them abominable and stink in the nostrils of all men.

Which real practice and metaphorical expression did after proceed into a literal construction; but was a fraudulent illation; for such an evil savour their father Jacob acknowledged in himself, when he said his sons had made him stink in the land, that is, to be abominable unto the inhabitants thereof.* Now how dangerous it is in sensible things to use metaphorical expressions unto the people, and what absurd conceits they will swallow in their literals, an impatient 9 example we have in our own profession; who having called an eating ulcer by the name of a wolf, common apprehension conceives a reality therein, and against ourselves ocular affirmations are pretended to confirm it.

The nastiness of that nation, and sluttish course of life, hath much promoted the opinion, occasioned by their servile condition at first, and inferior ways of parsimony ever since ; as is delivered by Mr. Sandys: they are generally fat, saith he, and rank of the savours which attend upon sluttish corpulency. The epithets assigned them by ancient times, have also advanced the same; for Ammianus Marcellinus describeth them in such language, and Martial more ancient, in such a relative expression sets forth unsavoury Bassa.

Quod jejunia sabbatariorum
Mallem, quàm quod oles, olere, Bassa.

Gen. xxxiv.

9 impatient.] Lege insufferable-Wr. enoughe, leaving the cause to further

Trank, &c.] Which Mr. Fulham inquisition.-Wr. confirmd as above, p. 36. This is

From whence, notwithstanding, we cannot infer an inward imperfection in the temper of that nation; it being but an effect in the breath from outward observation, in their strict and tedious fasting; and was a common effect in the breaths of other nations, became a proverb among the Greeks* and the reason thereof begot a problem in Aristotle."

Lastly, if all were true, and were this savour conceded, yet are the reasons alleged for it no way satisfactory. Hucherius,t and after him Alsarius Crucius, I imputes this effect unto their abstinence from salt or salt meats ;? which how to make good in the present diet of the Jews, we know not; nor shall we conceive it was observed of old, if we consider they seasoned every sacrifice, and all oblations whatsoever; whereof we cannot deny a great part was eaten by the priests. And if the offering were of flesh, it was salted no less than thrice, that is, once in the common chamber of salt, at the footstep of the altar, and upon the top thereof, as is at large delivered by Maimonides. Nor, if they refrained all salt, is the illation very urgent: for many there are not noted for ill odours, which eat no salt at all; as all carnivorous animals, most children, many whole nations, and probably our fathers after the creation; there being indeed, in every thing we eat, a natural and concealed salt,“ which is separated by digestions, as doth appear in our tears, sweat, and urines, although we refrain all salt, or what doth seem to contain it.

Another cause is urged by Campegius, and much received by Christians; that this ill savour is a curse derived upon them by Christ, and stands as a badge or brand of a generation that crucified their Saloator. But this is a conceit without all warrant, and an easy way to take off dispute in what point of obscurity soever. A method of many writers, which much depreciates the esteem and value of miracles; that is, therewith to salve not only real verities, but also non-existen

Nnorcías ölelv. Jejunia olere. De Sterilitate. Cruc. Med. Epist.

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? salt meats.] Which they supply with But the many circulations of them aconyons and garlick, ut supra.-Wr. quiring saltnes from the naturall heate,

not noted, fc.] This is contraryed send out that unnecessary saltnes in by experience. Supra, p. 36.-Wr. sweat and teares and urine, and gene

sall.] The earthy being separat rally in salivation.— Wr. ed, leaves the other sweet, not salt.

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cies. Thus have elder times not only ascribed the immunity of Ireland from any venomous beast unto the staff or rod of Patrick, but the long tails of Kent unto the malediction of Austin.5

Thus therefore, although we concede that many opinions are true which hold some conformity unto this, yet in assenting hereto many difficulties must arise ; it being a dangerous point to annex a constant property unto any nation, and much more this unto the Jew; since their quality is not verified by observation ; o since the grounds are feeble that should establish it; and lastly, since if all were true, yet are the reasons alleged for it of no sufficiency to maintain it.

CHAPTER XI.

Of Pygmies.

By pigmies we understand a dwarfish race of people, or lowest diminution of mankind, comprehended in one cubit, or as some will have it, in two foot or three spans; not taking them single, but nationally considering them, and as they make up an aggregated habitation. Whereof, although affirmations be many, and testimonies more frequent than in any other point which wise men have cast into the list of fables, yet that there is, or ever was such a race or nation, upon exact and confirmed testimonies, our strictest enquiry receives no satisfaction.7.

5 long-tails of Kent.] Bailey gives the of St. Thomas of Canterbury's horse, following notice of these gentry :—“The who, being out of favour with King HenKentish men are said to have had long ry II, riding towards Canterbury upon tails for some generations; by way of a poor sorry horse, was so served by the punishment, as some say, for the Kent common people." ish Pagans abusing Austin the monk and 6 not verifiable, &c.] It is, ut supra, his associates, by beating them, and op- p. 36.-Wr. probriously tying fish-tails to their back 7 By pygmics, &c.] Ross contends,sides ; in revenge of which, such appen as he almost invariably does-for the dants grew to the hind parts of all that truth of the old saying. He argues that generation. But the scene of this lying “it stands with reason there should be wonder was not in Kent, but in Carne, such, that God's wisdom might be seen in Dorsetshire, many miles off. Others in all sorts of magnitudes; for if there again say it was for cutting off the tail have been giants, why not also pygmies,

I say

“exact testimony," first, in regard of the authors from whom we derive the account: for, though we meet herewith in Herodotus, Philostratus, Mela, Pliny, Solinus, and many more, yet were they derivative relators, and the primitive author was Homer: who, using often similies, as well to delight the ear, as to illustrate his matter, in the third of his Iliads, compareth the Trojans unto cranes, when they descend against the pigmies; which was more largely set out by Oppian, Juvenal, Mantuan, and many poets since, and being only a pleasant figment in the fountain, became a solemn story in the stream, and current still among us.

Again, many professed enquirers have rejected it. Strabo, an exact and judicious geographer, hath largely condemned it as a fabulous story. Julius Scaliger, a diligent enquirer, accounts thereof but as a poetical fiction. Ulysses Aldrovandus, a most exact zoographer, in an express discourse hereon, concludes the story fabulous, and a poetical account of Homer; and the same was formerly conceived by Eustathius, his excellent commentator. Albertus Magnus, a man ofttimes too credulous,' herein was more than dubious; for he affirmeth if any such dwarfs were' ever extant, they were surely some kind of apes; which is a conceit allowed by Cardan, and not esteemed improbable by many others.

There are, I confess, two testimonies, which from their authority, admit of consideration. The first, of Aristotle, * whose words are these, ori de ó Tótos, &c. That is, Hic locus est quem incolunt pygmæi, non enim id fabula est, sed pusillum genus ut aiunt. Wherein indeed Aristotle plays the Aristotle, that is, the wary and evading assertor ; for though with non est fabula he seem at first to confirm it, yet at the last he claps in ut aiunt, and shakes the belief he put before upon it. And therefore I observe Scaliger hath not trans

* Hist. Animal. lib. viii.

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nature being as propense to the least, as cited below.--Wr. to the greatest magnitude. He adduces Cardan.] Rightly does he quote the testimony of Buchanan, who, speak- Cardan, who in the 8th book, De Varieing of the isles of Scotland, amongst the tate, cap. xl, p. 527, approves of Strabo's rest sets down the Isle of Pygmies. judgement of Homer's fiction : and con

8 Again.] This paragraph is taken cludes they were mistaken, being noe almost verbatim from Cardan in the place other then apes. ---Wr.

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