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Chap. 11. Of some others more briefly. 326 to 329
338 to 341 Chap. 15. Of the lake Asphaltites
341 to 345 Chap. 16. Of divers other relations : viz, of
the woman that conceived in a bath ; of
Crassus that never laughed but once, &c. 345 to 353
of Belisarius; of fluctus decumanus, or the
Bacon's brazen head that spoke; of Epicurus 353 to 362
that the army of Xerxes drank whole rivers
362 to 369
370 to 374
THE GARDEN OF CYRUS
375 to 448 Editor's preface to the Garden of Cyrus, Hydriotaphia, and Brampton Urns .
377 to 380
449 to 496
497 to 505
THE FOURTH BOOK.
TAE PARTICULAR PART CONTINUE D.
OP MANY POPULAR AND RECEIVED TENETS CONCERNING MAN
That only Man hath an erect figure.
That only man hath an erect figure, and for to behold and look up toward heaven, according to that of the poet:
Pronaque cum spectant animalia cætera terram,
is a double assertion, whose first part may be true if we take erectness strictly, and so as Galen hath defined it, for they only, saith he, have an erect figure, whose spine and thigh bone are carried in right lines, and so indeed, of any we yet know, man only is erect. For the thighs of other animals do stand at angles with their spine, and have rectangular positions in birds, and perfect quadrupeds. Nor doth the frog, though stretched out, or swimming, attain the rectitude of man, or
1 The poet.] Ovid. Met. i, 84. Seeing a perfectly erect attitude, and though also Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii, 56. they occasionally assume a position nearly
? Man only is erect.] But itt is most so, yet even this they cannot long retain. evident that baboones and apes doe not Their narrowness of pelvis, the cononly as a man, but goe as erect figuration of their thighs and lower exalso.-Wr.
tremities, the situation of their flex or This is incorrect. Man alone, un- muscles, and the want of muscular calves questionably, is constructed for an erect and buttocks, constitute together an inposition. The apes, which resemble him capacity for perfect or continued verticity in their conformation more closely than of attitude in the quadrimuna. any other animals, are incapable of attainVOL. III.
carry its thigh without all angularity. And thus is it also true, that man only sitteth, if we define sitting to be a firmation of the body upon the ischias ; wherein, if the position be just and natural, the thigh-bone lieth at right angles to the spine, and the leg-bone or tibia to the thigh. For others, when they seem to sit, as dogs, cats, or lions, do make unto their spine acute angles with their thigh, and acute to the thigh with their shank. Thus is it likewise true, what Aristotle allegeth in that problem, why man alone suffereth pollutions in the night, because man only lieth upon his back,-if we define not the same by every supine position, but when the spine is in rectitude with the thigh, and both with the arms lie parallel to the horizon, so that a line through their navel will pass through the zenith and centre of the earth. And so cannot other animals lie upon their backs, for though the spine lie parallel with the horizon, yet will their legs incline, and lie at angles unto it. And upon these three divers positions in man, wherein the spine can only be at right lines with the thigh, arise those remarkable postures, prone, supine, and erect, which are but differenced in situation, or angular postures upon the back, the belly, and the feet.
But if erectness be popularly taken, and as it is largely opposed unto proneness, or the posture of animals looking downwards, carrying their venters or opposite part of the spine directly towards the earth, it may admit of question. For though in serpents and lizards we may truly allow a proneness, yet Galen acknowledgeth that perfect quadrupeds, as horses, oxen, and camels, are but partly prone, and have some part of erectness; and birds, or flying animals, are so far from this kind of proneness, that they are almost erect; advancing the head and breast in their progression, and only prone in the act of volitation or flying ; and if that be true which is delivered of the penguin or anser Magellanicus, often described in maps about those straits, that they go erect like men, and with their breast and belly do make one line perpendicular unto the axis of the earth, it will almost make up the exact erectness of man.* Nor will that insect come very
• Observe also the Urias Bellonii and Mergus major.
short, which we have often beheld, that is, one kind of locust which stands not prone, or a little inclining upward, but in a large erectness, elevating always the two fore legs, and sustaining itself in the middle of the other four; by zoographers called mantis, and by the common people of Provence, Prega Dio, the prophet and praying locust, as being generally found in the posture of supplication, or such as resembleth ours, when we lift up our hands to heaven.
As for the end of this erection, to look up toward heaven, though confirmed by several testimonies, and the Greek etymology of man, it is not so readily to be admitted; and, as a popular and vain conceit, was anciently rejected by Galen, who in his third De usu partium, determines that man is erect, because he was made with hands, and was therewith to exercise all arts, which in any other figure he could not have performed, as he excellently declareth in that place, where he also proves that man could have been made neither quadruped nor centaur.3
And for the accomplishment of that intention, that is, to look up and behold the heavens, man hath a notable disadvantage in the eye-lid, whereof the upper is far greater than the lower, which abridgeth the sight upwards contrary to those of birds, who herein have the advantage of man; insomuch that the learned Plempius * is bold to affirm, that if he had had the formation of the eye-lids, he would have contrived them quite otherwise.*
The ground and occasion of that conceit was a literal apprehension of a figurative expression in Plato, as Galen thus delivers : to opinion that man is erect to look up and behold heaven, is a conceit only fit for those that never saw the fish uranoscopus, that is, the beholder of heaven, which
3 man could have been, fc.] Why superior mechanical adaptation of the not as well as an ape, if that reason be human hand to the exercise of the arts good; for an ape uses his hand as well and occupations of life. The opinion as man, and yett hee is quadrupes too. quoted by our author that man could not Wr.-Incorrect again. Apes cannot use become quadruped, is incontrovertible. their hands as well as man, because des * And for the accomplishment, &c.] titute of the facility which man possesses This paragraph first added in 2nd edit. for the free use of his hands and arms, 5 T'o opinion, fc.) This is a poore cavil, in the erect position, and because of the for the end of mans lookinge upward is
hath its eyes so placed, that it looks up directly to heaven, which man doth not, except he recline, or bend his head backward; and thus to look up to heaven agreeth not only unto man but asses; to omit birds with long necks, which look not only upward, but round about at pleasure; and therefore men of this opinion understood not Plato when he saith, that man doth sursum aspicere ; for thereby was not meant to gape, or look upward with the eye, but to have his thoughts sublime, and not only to behold, but speculate their nature with the eye of the understanding.
Now although Galen in this place makes instance but in one, yet are there other fishes whose eyes regard the heavens, as plane and cartilaginous fishes, as pectinals, or such as have their bones made literally like a comb, for when they apply themselves to sleep or rest upon the white side, their eyes on the other side look upward toward heaven. For birds, they generally carry their heads erected like a man, and have advantage in their upper eye-lid, and many that have long necks, and bear their heads somewhat backward, behold far more of the heavens, and seem to look above the equinoctial circle; and so also in many quadrupeds, although their progression be partly prone, yet is the sight of their eye direct, not respecting the earth but heaven, and makes an higher arch of latitude than our own. The position of a frog with his head above water exceedeth these ; for therein he seems to behold a large part of the heavens, and the acies of his eye to ascend as high as the tropic; but he that hath beheld the posture of a bittern, will not deny that it beholds almost the
not the same with uranoscopus, to which sayd plainlye, Astronomie causa datos the same is equivocal, bycause this pos- esse homini oculos, but not to other creature, being always at the botom, hee tures, though they have their heads more lookes alwayes upwards, not to heaven, erect then hee, and far better sight.-Wr. but as watching for his foode flooting 7 The posture of a bittern, fc.] Which over his head; the question then is, not proceeds from his timorous and jealous whether any other creatures have the nature, holding his head at hight, for head erect as man, but whether to the discovery, not enduring any man to same ende. — Ir.
come neere : his neck is stretch out, but 6 Understood not Plato, fc.] This is his bill stands like the cranes, herntoo pedanticall and captious: for Plato shawes, &c.—Wr.