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evidence of its vigour, and therefore, saith Aristotle, * they that hear it, spookuvaữow ws Tegov, 'honour it as somewhat sacred, and a sign of sanity in the diviner part, and this he illustrates from the practice of physicians, who in persons near death, do use sternutatories, or such medicines as provoke unto sneezing, when if the faculty awaketh, and sternutation ensueth, they conceive hopes of life, and with gratulation receive the signs of safety.† And so is it also of good signality, according to that of Hippocrates, that sneezing cureth the hiccough, and is profitable unto women in hard labour, and so is it good in lethargies, apoplexies, catalepsies, and comas. And in this natural way is it sometime likewise of bad effects or signs, and may give hints of deprecation; as in diseases of the chest, for therein Hippocrates condemneth it as too much exagitating; in the beginning of catarrhs, according unto Avicenna, as bindering concoction; in new and tender conceptions, as Pliny observeth, for then it endangers abortion.
The second way was superstitious and augurial, as Cælius Rhodiginus bath illustrated in testimonies as ancient as Theocritus and Homer; as appears from the Athenian master, who would have retired because a boat-man sneezed ; and the testimony of Austin, that the ancients were wont to go to bed again if they sneezed while they put on their shoe. And in this way it was also of good and bad signification; so Aristotle hath a problem, why sneezing from noộn unto midnight was good, but from night to noon unlucky. So Eustathius upon Homer observes, that sneezing to the left hand was unlucky, but prosperous unto the right; so, as Plutarch relateth, when Themistocles sacrificed in his galley before the battle of Xerxes, and one of the assistants upon the right hand sneezed, Euphrantides, the soothsayer, presaged the victory of the Greeks, and the overthrow of the Persians.
Thus we may perceive the custom is more ancient than commonly conceived, and these opinions hereof in all ages, not any one disease, to have been the occasion of this salute and deprecation. Arising at first from this vehement and
affrighting motion of the brain, inevitably observable unto the standers by; from whence some finding dependent effects to ensue, others ascribing hereto as a cause what perhaps but casually or inconnexedly succeeded, they might proceed unto forms of speeches, felicitating the good, or deprecating the evil to follow.
That Jews Stink.
That Jews stink* naturally, that is, that in their race and nation there is an evil savour, is a received opinion we know not how to admit, although we concede many questionable points, and dispute not the verity of sundry opinions which are of affinity hereto. We will acknowledge that certain odours attend on animals, no less than certain colours; that pleasant smells are not confined unto vegetables, but found in divers animals, and some more richly than in plants; and though the problem of Aristotle enquires why no animal smells sweet beside the pard, yet later discoveries add divers sorts of monkeys, the civet cat and gazela, from which our musk proceedeth. We confess that beside the smell of the species there may be individual odours, and every man may have a proper and peculiar savour, which although not perceptible unto man, who hath this sense but weak, is yet sensible unto dogs, who hereby can single out their masters in the dark. We will not deny that particular men have sent forth a pleasant savour, as Theophrastus and Plutarch report of Alex
* That Jews stink] The Jews anxious Howell, in a letter written to Lord ly observing the prohibited eating of Clifford, in reply to his enquiries respectblood keepe their flesh covered with ing the Jews, does not hesitate to adopt onyons and garleek till itt putrifie, and the common opinion as one so well known contracte as bad a smell as that of rot as to need no proof. “As they are," tenes from those strong sawces; and soe says he, “the most contemptible people, by continual use thereof emit a loathsom and have a kind of fulsome scent, no savour, as Mr. Fulham experimented in better than a stink, that distinguisheth Italye at a Jewish meeting, with the them from others, so they are the most hazard of life, till he removed into the timorous people on earth, &c.” Familiar fresh air. Teste ipso fide dignissimo.-Wr. Letters, book 1, $ 6, letter xv, p. 252.
ander the Great, and Tzetzes and Cardan do testify of themselves. That some may also emit an unsavory odour, we have no reason to deny; for this may happen from the quality of what they have taken, the fætor whereof may discover itself by sweat and urine, as being unmasterable by the natural heat of man, not to be dulcified by concoction beyond an unsavory condition; the like may come to pass from putrid humours, as is often discoverable in putrid and malignant fevers; and sometime also in gross and humid bodies even in the latitude of sanity, the natural heat of the parts being insufficient for a perfect and thorough digestion, and the errors of one concoction not rectifiable by another. But that an unsavory odour is gentilitious or national unto the Jews, if rightly understood, we cannot well concede, nor will the information of reason or sense induce it.
For first, upon consult of reason, there will be found no easy assurance to fasten a material or temperamental propriety upon any nation; there being scarce any condition (but what depends upon clime) which is not exhausted or obscured from the commixture of introvenient nations either by commerce or conquest; much more will it be difficult to rnake out this affection in the Jews; whose race however pretendded to be pure, must needs have suffered inseparable commixtures with nations of all sorts; not only in regard of their proselytes, but their universal dispersion; some being posted from several parts of the earth, others quite lost, and swallowed up in those nations where they planted. For the tribes of Reuben, Gad, part of Manasses and Naphthali, which were taken by Assur, and the rest at the sacking of Samaria, which were led away by Salmanasser into Assyria, and after a year and half arrived at Arsereth, as is delivered in Esdras; these I say never returned, and are by the Jews
5 For the tribes, fc.] The subsequent be found in the countries of their first history of the ten tribes, who were car- captivity." In support of which opinion ried into captivity at the fall of Samaria, he cites the following passage from a has ever remained and must remain a speech of King Agrippa to the Jews, in matter of conjecture.It is however the reign of Vespasian ;-"What, do you most probable that our author's supposi- stretch your hopes beyond the river tion is correct. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, Euphrates?-Do any of you think that is satisfied “that the greater part of your fellow-tribes will come to your aid the ten tribes, which now exist, are to out of Adiabene? Besides, if they would
as vainly expected as their Messias. Of those of the tribe of Judah and Benjamin, which were led captive into Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, many returned under Zorobabel ; the rest remained, and from thence long after, upon invasion of the Saracens, fled as far as India; where yet they are said to remain, but with little difference from the Gentiles.
The tribes that returned to Judea, were afterward widely dispersed; for beside sixteen thousand which Titus sent to Rome under the triumph of his father Vespasian, he sold no less than an hundred thousand for slaves. Not many years after, Adrian the emperor, who ruined the whole country, transplanted many thousands into Spain, from whence they dispersed into divers countries, as into France and England, but were banished after from both. From Spain they dispersed into Africa, Italy, Constantinople, and the dominions of the Turk, where they remain as yet in very great numbers. And if, (according to good relations,) where they may freely speak it, they forbear not to boast that there are at present many thousand Jews in Spain, France, and England, and some dispensed withal even to the degree of priesthood; it is a matter very considerable, and could they be smelled out, would much advantage, not only the church of Christ, but also the coffers of princes.
Now having thus lived in several countries, and always in subjection, they must needs have suffered many commixtures; and we are sure they are not exempted from the common
come, the Parthian will not permit it. Christian Researches in Asia, p. 239. “Joseph. de Bell. lib. ii, c. 28,--a proof, The Samaritan traditions however as the Dr. remarks, that the ten tribes might lead to the opinion that a conwere still in captivity, in Media, under siderable remnant of the Israelites avoithe Persian princes, during the 1st ded captivity, and were left on the soil century of the Christian era, 700 years of Palestine. The singular fact that they after their transplantation. Again be have preserved the Mosaic law in the adduces a passage from Jerome, written ruder and more ancient character, strongin the 5th century, in his notes only confirms this hypothesis, which deHosea ;—"unto this day the ten tribes rives additional support also from various are subject to the Kings of the Persians, other considerations.-See History of the nor has their captivity ever been loosed." Jews, (Fam. Lib.) ii, 10. He says also, “the ten tribes inhabit at 6 The tribes, &c.] The subject of this this day the cities and mountains of the paragraph is fully treated in the course Medes,” tom. vi, p. 80. To this day, of the History of the Jews, referred to continues Dr. B., no family, Jew, or in the preceding note : the last chapter Christian, is permitted to leave the Per- of which gives a very elaborate and sian territories without the king's per- careful estimate of the present number mission.-See Dr. Claudius Buchanan's of Jews in various countries.
contagion of venery contracted first from Christians. Nor are fornications unfrequent between them both; there commonly passing opinions of invitement, that their women desire copulation with them rather than their own nation, and affect Christian carnality above circumcised venery. It being therefore acknowledged, that some are lost, evident that others are mixed, and not assured that any are distinct, it will be hard to establish this quality upon the Jews, unless we also transfer the same unto those whose generations are mixed, whose genealogies are Jewish, and naturally derived from them.
Again, if we concede a national unsavouriness in any people, yet shall we find the Jews less subject hereto than any, and that in those regards which most powerfully concur to such effects, that is, their diet and generation. As for their diet, whether in obedience unto the precepts of reason, or the injunctions of parsimony, therein they are very temperate, seldom offending in ebriety or excess of drink, nor erring in gulosity or superfluity of meats; whereby they prevent indigestion and crudities, and consequently putrescence of humours. They have in abomination all flesh maimed, or the inwards any way vitiated, and therefore eat no meat but of their own killing. They observe not only fasts at certain times, but are restrained unto very few dishes at all times; so few, that whereas S. Peter's sheet will hardly cover our tables, their law doth scarce permit them to set forth a lordly-feast; nor any way to answer the luxury of our times, or those of our fore-fathers. For of flesh their law restrains them many sorts, and such as complete our feasts : that animal, propter convivia natum,* they touch not, nor any of its preparations or parts, so much in respect at Roman tables, nor admit they unto their board, hares, conies, herons, plovers or swans. Of fishes they only taste of such as have both fins and scales, which are comparatively but few in num
• Quanti est gula, quæ sibi totos ponit apros ! Animal propter convivia natum.
indigestion and crudityes,] This hee who comes fasting into a great cruditye of indigestion is soe cleerly dis- schoole shall soone perccave itt, to his cernable in the breath of children; that smell, most odious.— Wr.