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and in the history of Heliodore,* of a Moorish queen, who upon aspection of the picture of Andromeda, conceived and brought forth a fair one. And thus perhaps might some say was the beginning of this complexion, induced first by imagination, which having once impregnated the seed, found afterward concurrent co-operations, which were continued by climes, whose constitution advantaged the first impression. Thus Plotinus conceiveth white peacocks first came in. Thus many opinion that from aspection of the snow, which lieth along in nothern regions, and high mountains, hawks, kites, bears, and other creatures become white; and by this way Austin conceiveth the devil provided, they never wanted a white-spotted ox in Egypt; for such an one they worshipped, and called Apis.
Thirdly, it is not indisputable whether it might not proceed from such a cause and the like foundation of tincture, as doth the black jaundice, which meeting with congenerous causes might settle durable inquinations, and advance their generations unto that hue, which were naturally before but a degree or two below it. And this transmission we shall the easier admit in colour, if we remember the like hath been effected in organical parts and figures; the symmetry whereof being casually or purposely perverted, their morbosities have vigorously descended to their posterities, and that in durable deformities. This was the beginning of Macrocephali, or people with long heads, whereof Hippocrates* hath clearly delivered himself: Cùm primum editus est Infans, caput ejus tenellum manibus effingunt, et in longitudine adolescere cogunt ; hoc institutum primum hujusmodi, naturæ dedit vitium, successu verò temporis in naturam abiit, ut proinde instituto nihil amplius opus esset ; semen enim genitale ex omnibus corporis partibus provenit, ex sanis quidem sanum, ex morbosis morbosum.
Si igitur ex calvis calvi, ex cæsiis cæsii, et ex distortis, ut plurimum, distorti gignuntur, eademque in cæteris formis valet ratio; quid prohibet cur non ex macrocephalis macrocephali gignantur ? Thus as
• Vide plura apud Tho. Fienum, de viribus imaginationis.
+ De Aere, Aquis, et Locis.
Aristotle observeth, the deers of Arginusa had their ears divided; occasioned at first by slitting the ears of deer. Thus have the Chinese little feet, most Negroes great lips and flat noses ; and thus many Spaniards, and Mediterranean inhabitants, which are of the race of Barbary Moors (although after frequent commixture), have not worn out the Camoys* nose unto this day.
Artificial Negroes, or Gypsies, acquire their complexion by anointing their bodies with bacon and fat substances, and so exposing them to the sun. In Guinea Moors and others, it hath been observed, that they frequently moisten their skins with fat and oily materials, to temper the irksome dryness thereof from the parching rays of the sun. Whether this practice at first had not some efficacy toward this complexion, may also be considered.8
Lastly, if we still be urged to particularities, and such as declare how, and when the seed of Adam did first receive this tincture; we may say that men became black in the same manner that some foxes, squirrels, lions, first turned of this complexion, whereof there are a constant sort in divers countries; that some choughs came to have red legs and bills; that crows became pied. All which mutations, however they began, depend on durable foundations; and such as may continue for ever. And if as yet we must farther define the cause and manner of this mutation, we must confess, in matters of antiquity, and such as are decided by history, if their originals and first beginnings escape a due relation, they fall into great obscurities, and such as future ages seldom reduce unto a resolution. Thus if the administration of angels, and that they dispersed the creatures into all parts after the flood, as they had congregated them into Noah's ark before, it will be no easy question to resolve, how several sorts of animals were first
* Flat Nose.
8 Artificial Negroes, fc.] First added same species. The chough and the pied in the 3rd edition.
crow, are distinct species. The former some choughs, fc.] This, however, (corvus gracula), has always red legs is not a parallel case to the varieties ex and bills; the latter (corvus caryocatacisting among different individuals of the tes) is always pied.
dispersed into islands, and almost how any into America. How the venereal contagion began in that part of the earth, since history is silent, is not easily resolved by philosophy. For whereas it is imputed unto anthropophagy, or the eating man's flesh, that cause hath been common unto many other countries, and there have been cannibals or men-eaters in the three other parts of the world, if we credit the relations of Ptolemy, Strabo and Pliny. And thus if the favourable pen of Moses had not revealed the confusion of tongues, and positively declared their division at Babel; our disputes concerning their beginning had been without end, and I fear we must have left the hopes of that decision unto Elias.*
And if any will yet insist, and urge the question farther still upon me, I shall be enforced unto divers of the like nature, wherein perhaps I shall receive no greater satisfaction. I shall demand how the camels of Bactria came to have two bunches on their backs, whereas the camels of Arabia in all relations have but one ? How oxen in some countries began and continue gibbous or bunch-backed? What way those many different shapes, colours, hairs, and natures of dogs
Elias cum venerit, solvet dubium.
I had not revealed the confusion, &c.] Adam was white ? Job answered, “How The question which forms the subject of you know Adam white? We think Adam this and the two following chapters, ap- black; and we ask how you came to be pears to me to be very much of the same white ? A question which it is not proclass as those adverted to in the present bable the Dr. was able to answer. passage: questions utterly incapable of Mo. Rev. vol. xxxviii, p. 541. Mr. solution, in the absence of positive infor- Payne Knight, in his work On Taste, mation. We know the proximate cause p. 15, is of the same opinion, that Adam of the different complexions existing in Paradise was an African Black !! among the blacker and tawny varieties Dr. Pritchard has also endeavoured to of the human race, to be the different shew that all men were originally Nehues of the colouring matter contained groes. Blumenbach on the other hand in the rete mucosum ; but as to the ori- supposes the original to have been Cauginating cause, we can scarcely arrive at casian. The influence of climate has even a probable conjecture. There have been the most generally assigned cause existed various opinions as to the original of the blackness of Negroes,-by some complexion of mankind. Not only have of the greatest naturalists both in ancient the Negroes deerned themselves the and modern times; for example by Pliny, “fairer,” describing the devil and all Buffon, Smith, and Blumenbach. But terrible objects as being white; —but it is a theory which surely a careful inthey have contended that our first pro- vestigation of facts will be sufficient to genitor was, like themselves, black. Job overthrow. In addition to our author's Ben Solomon, an African prince, when observations to this effect, see those of in England, was in company with Dr. the English editors of Cuvier's Animal Watts. The Dr. enquiring of him why Kingdom, vol. i, p. 174. he and his countrymen were black, since Nor is the difficulty as to the originat.
came in?? How they of some countries became depilous, and without any hair at all, whereas some sorts in exces3 abound therewith ? How the Indian hare came to have a long tail, whereas that part in others attains no higher than a scut? How the hogs of Illyria, which Aristotle speaks of, became solipedes or whole-hoofed, whereas in other parts 3
ing cause of the varieties in the human from direct experiments on himself and race confined to the mere question of on a Negro's skin, lays it down as evicomplexion. It extends to the variations dent, that the power of the sun's rays in hair and beard—to the configuration to scorch the skins of animals is destroyed of the head-to the character and ex- when applied to a dark surface, although pression of countenance—the stature and the absolute heat, in consequence of the symmetry of the body-—and to the still absorption of the rays, is greater.' Sir more important-differences in moral and Humphry Davy explains this fact by intellectual character. But of what use saying, that the radiant heat in the is it to exercise ingenuity as to the rea- sun's rays is converted into sensible heat.' sons of these particular variations? We With all deference to the opinion of this see that the most astonishing variety per- great man, it by no means explains why vades and adorns the whole range of the surface of the skin was kept compa• creation. Let us be content to resolve ratively cool. From the result of the it into the highest cause to which we can experiments detailed, (in Dr. Stark's paascend, the will of that Being who has per) it is evident, that if a black surface thus surrounded himself with the glory absorbs caloric in greatest quantity, it of his own works.
also gives it out in the same proportions I subjoin some remarks by Mr. Bray- and thus a circulation of heat is as it ley, bearing on a part of the subject. were established, calculated to promote
In an elaborate paper by Dr. Stark, the insensible perspiration, and to keep on the influence of colour on heat and the body cool. This view is confirmed odours, published in the Phil. Trans. for by the observed fact of the stronger 1833, are contained some observations odour exhaled by the bodies of black and experiments which tend to throw people."-Br. considerable light upon this subject. Dr. what way those many, &c.] Rev. Franklin, it is stated by the author of Mr. White, in his delightful Natural the paper, from the result of his experi. History of Selborne, describes a very cuments with coloured cloths on the ab- rious breed of edible dogs from Chinasorption of heat, drew the conclusion, “such as are fattened in that country for " that black clothes are not so fit to wear the purpose of being eaten: they are in a hot sunny climate or season as white about the size of a moderate spaniel ; of ones, because in such clothes the body is a pale yellow colour, with coarse bristling more heated by the sun, when we walk hair on their backs, sharp upright ears, abroad and are at the same time heated and peaked heads, which give them a by the exercise; which double heat is very fox-like appearance. They bark apt to bring on putrid, dangerous fevers;" much in a short, thick manner, like that soldiers and seamen in tropical foxes; and have a surly savage demeanclimates should have a white uniform; our, like their ancestors, which are not that white hats should be generally worn domesticated, but bred up in sties, where in summer; and that garden walls for they are fed for the table with rice-meal fruit trees would absorb more heat from and other farinaceous food.” On the being blackened.
subject of canine varieties Sir W. Jardine "Count Rumford and Sir Evrd. Home, in a note refers to “some very interest. on the contrary," Dr. Stark continued, ing observations, the fifth number of
come to a conclusion entirely the re the Journal of Agriculture, by Mr. J. verse of this. The count asserts, that if Wilson." he were called upon to live in a very 3 in other parts.) Not in all, for about warm climate, he would blacken his skin Aug. 1625, at a farm 4 miles from Winor rear a black shirt; and Sir Everard, chester, I bebeld with wonder a great VOL. III.
they are bisulcous, and described cloven-hoofed, by God himself? All which, with many others, must needs seem strange unto those that hold there were but two of the unclean sort in the ark; and are forced to reduce these varieties to unknown originals.
However therefore this complexion was first acquired, it is evidently maintained by generation, and by the tincture of the skin as a spermatical part traduced from father unto son; so that they which are strangers contract it not, and the natives which transmigrate, amit it not without commixture, and that after divers generations. And this affection, (if the story were true) might wonderfully be confirmed, by what Maginus and others relate of the emperor of Ethiopia, or Prester John, who, derived from Solomon, is not yet descended into the hue of his country, but remains a Mulatto, that is, of a mongrel complexion unto this day. Now although we conceive this blackness to be seminal, yet are we not of Herodotus' conceit, that their seed is black. An opinion long ago rejected by Aristotle, and since by sense and enquiry. His assertion against the historian was probable, that all seed was white; that is, without great controversy in viviparous animals, and such as have testicles, or preparing vessels, wherein it receives a manifest dealbation. And not only in them, but (for ought I know) in fishes, not abating the seed of plants; whereof at least in most, though the skin and covering be black, yet is the seed and fructifying part not so: as may be observed in the seeds of onions, piony, and basil. Most controvertible it seems in the spawn of frogs and lobsters, whereof notwithstanding at the very first the spawn is white, contracting by degrees a blackness, answerable in the one unto the colour of the shell, in the other unto the porwigle or tadpole; that is, that animal which first proceedeth from it. And thus may it also be in the generation and sperm of Negroes; that being first and in its naturals white, but upon separation of parts, accidents before invisible be
heard of swine, whole footed, and taller mitled, as in that of the “ chough" and then any other that ever I sawe.-Wr. “pied crow," just before ; viz. the con.
In several of the examples in this founding of species with varieties. paragraph, the same error has been com