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numbers. So in the prophecy of Jonah, both in the Hebrew and Latin text, it is said, “Yet forty days and Nineveh shall be overthrown;" but the Septuagint saith plainly, and that in letters at length, gris nusgas, that is, "yet three days and Nineveh shall be destroyed.” Which is a difference not newly crept in, but an observation very ancient, discussed by Austin and Theodoret, and was conceived an error committed by the scribe. Men therefore have raised different computes of time, according as they have followed their different texts; and so have left the history of times far more perplexed than chronology hath reduced.
Again, however the texts were plain, and might in their numerations agree, yet were there no small difficulty to set down a determinable chronology or establish from hence any fixed point of time. For the doubts concerning the time of the judges are inexplicable ; that of the reigns and succession of kings is as perplexed; it being uncertain whether the years both of their lives and reigns ought to be taken as complete, or in their beginning and but current accounts. Nor is it unreasonable to make some doubt whether in the first ages and long lives of our fathers, Moses doth not sometime account by full and round numbers, whereas strictly taken they might be some few years above or under; as in the age of Noah, it is delivered to be just five hundred when he begat Sem; whereas perhaps he might be somewhat above or below that round and complete number. For the same way of speech is usual in divers other expressions : thus do we say the Septuagint, and using the full and articulate number, do write the translation of seventy; whereas we have shewn before the precise number was seventy-two. So is it said that Christ was three days in the grave; according to that of Matthew, “As Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth :” which notwithstanding must be taken synecdochically, or by understanding a part for a whole day; for he remained but two
Scribe.] Writing y for P, which in the second transcript. — Wr. might easily bee, not in the original, but
nights in the grave : for he was buried in the afternoon of the first day, and arose very early in the morning on the third ; that is, he was interred in the eve of the sabbath, and arose the morning after it."
1 after it.] Before day: the whole that is but 1 day and night of æquibeing scarce 34 houres while he was in the grave, which is not the one halfe of noctial revolution. Or else in our Saviour's three days and three nights, nor can be
sense, Jo. xi. 9, where by the day salved synechdochicallye.
Christe understands, the very day-light, 'Tis strange to see how all the nation
or natural day, caused by the presence of expositors, since Christe, as yf they of the sun; to the which night is always were infected with a disease of supinity, opposed as contradistinct, as is manifest thinke they have abundantly satisfied from that very place. For as itts al wayes the texte, by telling us, that speech of midday directly under the O, soe there Christe comparinge himself to Jonas, is midnight alwayes opposite to midmust be understood synechdochically, noone through the world. And these 2 which is : 1. not only a weak interpreta- have runn opposite round the world, tion ; 2. but ridiculous to Jews, Turks, simul et semel every 24 houres since the and Infidels; 3. and consequently dero- creation, and soe shall doe, while time gatory to the trueth; who expressly shall bee noe more. I say therefore that puts in the reddition, 3 dayes and 3 thoughe in respect of Jesus' grave in the nights, by an emphaticall expression. garden he lay but 36 houres in the eartbe Which as itt was punctually fortold, the yet in respect of the world for which he express time of 3 dayes and 3 nights; suffered, there were 3 distincte dayes and soe itt was as punctually performed (us- nights actually in being, while hee lay que ad apices) for as Jonas was 3 days in the bowels of the earthe: (which is and 3 nights in the whale, which admits
to be distinctly noted to justifie of him, noe synechdoche ; soe the sonn of man
who did not, could not, æqui vocate. was in the grave 3 dayes and 3 nights Friday night in Judæa, and a day opwithout any abatement of a moment. posite therto in the other hemisphere, That which begat this error was, a mis- just 12 houres; Saturday 12 houres in take of the dayes and nights, spoken of Judæa, and the opposite night 12 hours; Jonas. And from thence not only un- Saturday night in Judæa, and the opposite warrantably but untruly applyed to day elsewhere at the same time. And Christ's stay in the grave. Wee trust
hee that denyes this, hath lost his sense: therefore distinguish of dayes and nights, for I ask were there not actually 3 essenand take them either in Moses' sense,
tiall dayes and 3 nights (sub coelo) during for the whole revolution of the to the his sepulture. And yf this cannot be eastern pointe after 24 houres : which denyed by any but a madman, I aske most men by like contagion of error,
againe did Christe suffer for Judæa only, call the natural day, wheras itt is rather
or for the whole world ? least of all for to bee cald artificiall
, as being compound- Judæa, which for his unjust death was ed of a day and a night, wheras the exterminate and continues accursed. Soe night is properly noe parte univocall of that henceforth wee shall need no sya day, but a contradistinct member there- nechdoche to make good the prophetick
Now in this sense yf the days and speech of him that could not lie: who nights bee conceived ; , itt is impossible to sayde, sic erit Filius hominis in corde make good the one halfe of 3 dayes and
terræ tribus diebus et tribus noctibus : 3 nights by any figurative or synechdo- and this was truly fulfilled usque ad mochical sense : for from the time of his en- menta, and therefore I dare believe it, terring, very neer 6 at even on Friday to
and noe Jew or Turk can contradict itt. 6 at even on Saturday are but 24 houres: (Hee that made the several natures of to which adde from 6 at even to 3 or 4 day and night in this sense ; sayd hee next morne (for itt was yet darke, when
would lye in the grave 3 of these dayes Mary Magd. came and saw the stone
and 3 nights. )-Wr. remooved) viz. 10 houres more, they
This is ingenious, and to its author it will make in all but thirty foure houres,
seems abundantly satisfactory, proceed
Moreover, although the number of years be determined and rightly understood, and there be without doubt a certain truth herein, yet the text speaking obscurely or dubiously, there is oft-times no slender difficulty at what point to begin or terminate the account. So when it is said, Exod. xii, the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years, it cannot be taken strictly, and from their first arrival into Egypt, for their habitation in that land was far less; but the account must begin from the covenant of God with Abraham, and must also comprehend their sojourn in the land of Canaan, according as is expressed Gal. iii, “The covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law which was 430 years after cannot disannul.” Thus hath it also happened in the account of the seventy years of their captivity, according to that of Jeremy, “This whole land shall be a desolation, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years."* Now where to begin or end this compute, ariseth no small difficulty; for there were three remarkable captivities, and deportations of the Jews. The
• Chap. XX.
ing on the hypothesis that as our Lord home Friday, Saturday, and Sundaysuffered for the whole world, the duration this might be thought to imply considerof his suffering must be understood with able portions of the day of Friday and of reference to the whole earth. The Dean Sunday-but certainly it would not be adds to the two nights and one day which necessary to the accuracy of such a report elapsed in Palestine,—the corresponding that he should have started immediately two days and one night, which elapsed at after midnight of Thursday, and returuthe antipodes of Judea. But this is ed at the same hour on Sunday. And liable to objection. It is just as truly yet he would otherwise not have been synechdochical as the interpretation of Sir from home on Friday, Saturday, and Thomas :-only that it takes two points Sunday—but only during parts of those on the earth's surface instead of one for days. With the Jews common parlance the whole. Besides the ingenuity is need. would only require that our Redeemer less. The Jews were in the habit of should have been in the heart of the speaking synechdochically in that very earth, from the eve of the (Jewish) sabrespect that they speak of each part of bath, however late, to the morning of a day and night (or of 24 hours) as a the first day, however early, in order to day and night-vúzonega. So that if justify the terms in which they would Jonah was in the deep during less than universally have spoken of the duration 48 hours, provided that period comprised, of his abode there—as comprising three in addition to one entire 24 hours, á days and three nights. We may observe portion of the preceding and of the fol. too, that three days are uniformly spoken lowing 24 hours, then the Jews would of as the time of our Lord's abode in the say that he had been in the deep 3 day- grave, whether it is spoken of typically nights or 3 days and 3 nights. As if we or literally. Thus he says of himself, should say of a person who had left “I do cures to day and to morrow, and home on Friday afternoon and returned thc third day I am perfected." on Sunday morning, that he was from
first was in the third or fourth year of Joachim, and first of Nabuchodonozor, when Daniel was carried away; the second in the reign of Jeconiah, and the eighth year of the same king; the third and most deplorable in the reign of Zedechias, and in the nineteenth year of Nabuchodonozor, whereat both the temple and city were burned. Now such is the different conceit of these times, that men have computed from all; but the probablest account and most concordant unto the intention of Jeremy is from the first of Nabuchodonozor unto the first of king Cyrus over Babylon; although the prophet Zachary accounteth from the last. “0 Lord of hosts, how long ! wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem, against which thou hast had indignation these threescore and ten years ? "* for he maketh this expostulation in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, wherein he prophesied, which is about eighteen years in account after the other.
Thus also although there be a certain truth therein, yet is there no easy doubt concerning the seventy weeks, or seventy times seven years of Daniel; whether they have reference, unto the nativity or passion of our Saviour, and especially from whence, or what point of time they are to be computed.
Chap. i, 12.
nativity or passion.] The learned et Epochis, cap. xi, which was publishit thinke they have reference (that is of this last year 1649, and is a work wortheir determination] to neither of them. thye of a diligent reader. Wr. For most of the learned conceive, that On referring to Rev. T. H. IIorne's those 70 weeks, or seven times seventy analytical view of Daniel, I find the fol[viz. 490 years) ended with the destruc- lowing brief summary of this period. tion of the citye ; which was 70 yeares Its commencement “is fixed (Dan. ix, after the nativitye, and 38 after the pas- 25,) to the time when the order was ission of Christe : and then 'twill bee noe sued for rebuilding the temple in the hard matter to compute the pointe from seventh year of the reign of Artaxerxes. whence those 490 yeares must bee sup- (Ezra vii, 11,) seven weeks, or fortyposed to begin : which wee shal find to nine years, was the temple in building bee in the 6th yeare of Darius Nothus; (Dan. ix, 25); sixty-two weeks, or four at what time the temple being finished hundred and thirty-four years more, by Artaxerxes commaund, formerly given bring us to the public manifestation of A0. Regni 200. the commaund for the the Messiah, at the beginning of John building of Jerusalem also was given by the Baptist's preaching; and one prothis Darius Nothus, Ao. Mundi, 3532, phetic week or seven years, added to which agrees exactlye with Scaliger's this, will bring us to the time of our irrefragable computation. But to see Saviour's passion, or the thirty-third this difficult question fully decided, and year of the Christian æra,—in all 490 in a few lines, I can give no such direc- years."--Introduction, fr. vol. iv, p. 1, tion, as that which Gregorye hath latelych. vi, $ 4. given us in his excellent tract de Æris
For thus it is delivered by the Angel Gabriel, “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people;” and again in the following verse; “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem,unto the Messiah the prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks, the street shall be built again, and the wall even in troublesome times; and after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off." Now the going out of the commandment, to build the city, being the point from whence to compute, there is no slender controversy when to begin. For there are no less than four several edicts to this effect, the one in the first year of Cyrus," the other in the second of Darius, the third and fourth in the seventh, and in the twentieth of Artaxerxes Longimanus ; although as Petavius accounteth, it best accordeth unto the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, from whence Nehemiah deriveth his commission. Now that computes are made uncertainly with reference unto Christ, it is no wonder, since I perceive the time of his nativity is in controversy, and no less his age at his passion. For Clemens and Tertullian conceive he suffered at thirty; but Irenæus a father nearer his time, is further off in his account, that is, between forty and fifty.
Longomontanus, a late astronomer, endeavours to discover this secret from astronomical grounds, that is, the apogeum of the sun ; conceiving the eccentricity invariable, and the apogeum yearly to move one scruple, two seconds, fifty thirds, &c. Wherefore if in the time of Hipparchus, that is, in the year of the Julian period, 4557, it was in the fifth degree of Gemini, and in the days of Tycho Brahe, that is, in the year of our Lord, 1588, or of the world 5554, the same was removed unto the fifth degree of Cancer; by the proportion of its motion, it was at the creation first in the beginning of Aries, and the perigeum or nearest point in Libra. But this conceit how ingenious or subtile soever, is not of satisfaction; it being not determinable, or yet agreed
3 know, &c.] Dan. ix, 25.
These dates however different from * the one in the first year, &c.] A.M. those assigned by the most eminent of 3419; 3430 ; 3492 ; 3505.--Wr. our more recent chronologists.