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From hence, therefore, we may observe that these descriptions, the most authentic of any, are neither agreeable unto one another, nor unto the scutcheons in question. For though they agree in Ephraim and Judah, that is, the ox and the lion, yet do they differ in those of Dan and Reuben, as far as an eagle is different from a serpent, and the figure of a man, hart, or mandrake, from three bars wave. Wherein notwithstanding we rather declare the incertainty of arms in this particular,” than any way question their antiquity; for hereof more ancient examples there are than the scutcheons of the tribes, if Osyris, Mizraim, or Jupiter the Just, were the son of Cham; for of his two sons, as Diodorus delivereth,
remarks: -" The four living creatures Chichester, derives the practice of heare the four gospels. The lion denotes raldry from Gen. i, 14. Let them be MARK, in whom the voice of a lion, roar for signs,'—which he refers to heraldic ing in the wilderness, is heard; the voice signs.' of one that crieth in the wilderness, fc. Sylvanus Morgan begins with the creMatthew, who has the resemblance of ation; deducing from the principles of a man, endeavours to shew us the family nature" his Sphere of Gentry, which he of Mary, from whom Christ took flesh; divides into four books, the first entitled he speakes of him as a man; the book Adam's shield, or nobility native; the of the generations, fc. LUKE, who re- 2nd, Joseph's coat, or nobility dative, lates the priesthood of Zecharias offer- &c. In the latter he gives a curiously ing sacrifice for the people, &c. has the engraven representation, and a descripresemblance of a calf. John, like an tion of Joseph's whole achievement; his eagle with outstretched wings soaring coat being per fesse imbatled Argent and aloft, speaks concerning the Word op Gules out of a Well a Tree growing PreGod, &c." But here we find various per, ensigned with a Helmet of a Knight opinions ; for while St. Jerome, in his thereon, out of a crown Mural Gules, a Commentary on Matthew, and Gregory Wheatsheaf Or; his Mantles being of in his 4th Homily on Ezekiel, give the three sorts: the outmost being that of the same version as Victorinus, St. Augus- gown, being cloth of gold lined with Ertine assigns the man to Mark, and the mine, Erminees, Erminois, and Erminets; lion to Matthew. And the dean, in the the next being that of the Cloak, accompreceding note, follows those who re- panying him in all his adversities, being gard Matthew's man to have been an lined Vaire, Vairy, and Cuppa; the outangel.
side Purple: the third being the Manile the incertainty of arms in this par- for his funeral, being mantled Sable, linticular.] Not a few of our antiquarian ed Argent; his Motto, Nec Sorti nec writers, theologians, as well as heralds, Fato: having his wife's armes in an Inhave been anxious to trace the origin of Escutcheon, she being the daughter and heraldry to the Bible. Bishop Hall, in heir of Potiphar, Prince and Priest of his Impresse of God, says, “If the tes On: his Sword and Girdle on the left tament of the patriarchs had as much side. Thus he is a publick person, credit as antiquity, all the patriarchs had conferring honours by Nobility Dative their armes assigned them by Jacob : to his brethren!!"-Sphere of Gentry, Judah a lyon, Dan a serpent, Nepthali an book ii, p. 72. Alas! for poor Joseph's hinde, Benjamin a wolf, Joseph a bough, coat of many colours, to be thus blazonand so of the rest.” Works, fol. 1648, ed ! p. 406, E.
Master Morgan, in setting forth the In Mr. Jefferson's copy occurs the fol- Camp of Israel, seemeth not less exactly lowing MS. note. “Sir John Prestwick, informed as to the precise bearing of each in his MS. history of the noble family of tribe. (Ibid. p. 78.)
the one for his device gave a dog, the other a wolf. And, beside the shield of Achilles, and many ancient Greeks, if we receive the conjecture of Vossius, that the crow upon Corvinus' head was but the figure of that animal upon his helmet, it is an example of antiquity among the Romans.
But more widely must we walk if we follow the doctrine of the Cabalists, who in each of the four banners inscribe a letter of the tetragrammaton, or quadriliteral name of God; and mysterizing their ensigns, do make the particular ones of the twelve tribes, accommodable unto the twelve signs in the zodiack, and twelve months in the year ; but the tetrarchical or general banners of Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan,
JUDAH bare Gules, a Lyon couchant or,
Issachar's Asse between two burthens girt,
And Neptuali's Hind trips o'er the flowry plains.
MANASSEH's Tree its branches doth impart.
BENJAMIN's Wolfe in the field gules resides,
Simeon doth beare the Sword: and in that manner
Unfortunately, however, as our author several other writers have taken pains to shrewdly remarks, the" descriptions" of establish the same theory. General Valthe conoscenti are not "agreeable unto lancy, in his chapter on the astronomy of one another." Andrew Favine, in his the ancient Irish; i. e. Collectanea de ReTheater of Honor and Knighthood, fol. bus Hibernicis, vol. vi, ch. ix,) proposes 1623, p. 4, perfectly agrees with Mor a scheme, which Dr. Hales has adopted, gan as to the antiquity of armes and with some alterations, in his Chronology, blazons, which he does not hesitate to vol. ii. At still greater length has Sir say “ have been in use from the creation Wm. Drummond investigated the subof the world.” But when he descends ject, in a paper on Gen. xlix, in the Clasto particulars, their disagreement is in- sical Journal, vol. iii, p. 387. But here stantly apparent. To say nothing of again the authorities are at issue. Sir tinctures, half the bearings are different. William thus arranges his zodiack:Favine makes Judah's lyon rampant in- Reuben, Aquarius ; Simeon and Levi, stead of couchant; Reuben bears an arm Pisces; Judah, Leo; Zebulun, Capried man, instead of the bars wavy ; in corn; Issachar, Cancer; Dan, Scorpius ; Ephraim's standard he omits the hart; Gad, Aries ; Asher, Libra ; Naphthali, to Simeon he assigns two swords instead Virgo; Joseph, Taurus; Benjamin, Geof one ; to Gad a sword instead of a ban- mini ; Manasseh, Sagittarius. General ser; (though I suspect the description Vallancy on the other hand assigns to of Morgan intended a sword, but the Simeon and Levi the sign Gemini, to artist, misunderstanding his doggrel, has Zebulon, Cancer ; to Issacher, Taurus ; drawn a banner;) to Manasseh a crown to Naphthali, Aries; to. Joseph, Virgo ; ed sceptre instead of a tree; and to Dan, and to Benjamin, Capricorn ; omitting ears of corn instead of a cup of gold. Gad, Asher, and Manasseh. Dr. Hales
5 do make the particular ones, &c.] also omits Manasseh, but places Gad in Browne most probably alludes to thc Pisces, Asher in Virgo, and Joseph in opinion of Kircher on this point. But Sagittarius. There are other variations.
unto the signs of Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricornus; that is, the four cardinal parts of the zodiack and seasons of the year.
Of the Pictures of the Sybils.
The pictures of the sybils are very common, and for their prophecies of Christ in high esteem with Christians; described commonly with youthful faces, and in a defined number. Common pieces making twelve, and many precisely ten ; observing therein the account of Varro, that is, Sibylla Delphica, Erythræa, Samia, Cumana, Cumæa, or Cimmeria, Hellespontiaca, Libyca, Phrygia, Tiburtina, Persica. In which enumeration I perceive learned men are not satisficd, and many conclude an irreconcilable incertainty; some making more, others fewer, and not this certain number. For Suidas, though he affirm that in divers ages there were ten, yet the same denomination he affordeth unto more; Boy
• Recius de Cælesti Agricultura, lib iv. Some have given Levi an open bough. the probability of bis favourite theory, The banner of Gad, which in Morgan he commences by endeavouring to prove bears a lion, is also given green, and with- that the patriarchs were tinctured with out any device. Reuben has sometimes polytheism, and addicted to divination a mandrake, instead of the bars or the and astrology; and arrives, in the space armed man. Dan's serpent is sometimes of half a dozen sentences, at the absurd nowed, sometimes curled. Manassch has and revolting conclusion, that Jacob was sometimes an ox, and Ephraim an uni an astrologer, who believed himself ancorn or a bough. But enough of this. der the influence of the planet Saturn ! Further examination of the various fanci. To wbat lengths will not some men go in ful speculations of critics and antiquaries, support of a favourite hypothesis, howwhether heraldic or astronomical, will ever fanciful! What would be our feelonly confirm our author's conclusion, ings of indignation against him who “of the incertainty of arms," and the should demolish the classical remains of irreconcilable discrepancy of those who Grecian antiquity, to make way for the have written on the subjects of the pre- vagaries of modern architecture ? Less sent chapter ;-quot homines, tot sen- deep by far, than when we are asked to tentiæ ; and how should it be otherwise sacrifice the hallowed and beautiful simin a case where nothing can be known, plicity of Scripture narrative to the base and any thing may therefore be conjec- figments of rabbinical tradition, or the tured ? Before I close this note, however, gratuitous assumptions of such critics as I must be allowed to protest against Sir Sir Wm. Drummond. Wm. Drummond's mode of conducting 6 But more widely, fc.) First added his enquiry. With a view of enhancing in 2nd edition.
sardus, in his tract of Divination, hath set forth the icons of these ten, yet addeth two others, Epirotica and Ægyptia ; and some affirm that prophesying women were generally named sibyls.
Others make them fewer: Martianus Capella two; Pliny and Solinus three ; Ælian four; and Salmasius in effect but seven. For discoursing hereof in his Plinian Exercitations, he thus determineth ; Ridere licet hodiernos pictores, qui tabulas proponunt Cumanæ, Cumææ et Erythrææ, quasi trium diversarum sibyllarum ; cùm una eademque fuerit Cumana, Cumæa, et Erythræa, ex plurium et doctissimorum authorum sententia. Boysardus gives us leave to opinion there was no more than one; for so doth he conclude, In tanta scriptorum varietate liberum relinquimus lectori credere, an una et eadem in diversis regionibus peregrinata, cognomen sortita sit ab iis locis ubi oracula reddidisse comperitur, an plures extiterint : and therefore not discovering a resolution of their number from pens of the best writers, we have no reason to determine the same from the hand and pencil of painters.
As touching their age, that they are generally described as young women, history will not allow; for the sibyl whereof Virgil speaketh, is termed by him longæva sacerdos, and Servius, in his comment, amplifieth the same. The other, that sold the books unto Tarquin, and whose history is plainer than any, by Livy and Gellius is termed anus ; that is, properly no woman of ordinary age, but full of years, and in the days of dotage, according to the etymology of Festus, * and consonant unto the history, wherein it is said, that Tarquin thought she doated with old age. Which duly perpended, the licentia pictoria is very large; with the same reason they may delineate old Nestor like Adonis, Hecuba with Helen's face, and time with Absolom's head. But this absurdity that eminent artist, Michael Angelo, hath avoided, in the pictures of the Cumean and Persian sybils, as they stand described from the printed sculptures of Adam Mantuanus.?
* Anus, quasi 'Avolls, sine mente. 7 Mantuanus.] On the subject of this Abbé Pluche, llist, du Ciel, Vol. i, p. chapter, the origin of the Sybils, see the 263.—Jeff.
Of the Picture describing the death of Cleopatra.
The picture concerning the death of Cleopatra, with two asps or venomous serpents unto her arms or breasts, or both, requires consideration : 8 for therein (beside that this variety is not excusable) the thing itself is questionable; nor is it in
8 The picture, fc.) “An ancient en was cleared off by certain eminent checaustic pictute of Cleopatra has lately mists of Florence. Parts of the colouring been discovered, and detatched from a were scraped off and analysed by three wall, in which it had been hidden for
or four persons.
Formal attestations centuries, and supposed to be a real por were made by them before the constitrait, painted by a Greek artist. It is tuted authorities, and the documents had done on blue slate. The colouring is the stamps of authorized bodies and signafresh, very like life. She is represented tures. The colours were found to be all applying the aspic to her bosom." Ex- mineral, and few in number. The red was tract from a Letter from Paris ; Phil. the synopia of Greece; another laky red, Gaz. Nov. 27, 1822.-Jeff.
put over the red mantle Cleopatra wore, The preceding notice refers in all pro was of a nature not discovered ;-It had bability to the painting which was after- the look of Venetian glazed red lake, wards brought over to England by its of the crimson colour ;-the white was a possessor, Signor Micheli, who valued it calx, but I forget of what nature;--the at £10,000. He caused an engraving of yellow was of the nature of Naples yelit to be executed, which I have had an low-it seemed a vitrification ; – there opportunity of seeing, in the hands of R. was also yellow ochre ;- the black was R. Reinagle, Esq. R. A. by whose kind- charcoal. The green curtain was esness I have also been favoured with the teemed terra verd of Greece, passed over following very full and interesting histo- with some unknown enriching yellow ry and description of this curious work colour. The hair was deep auburn coof art, in compliance with my request: lour, and might be mangenese ;-- the
“17, Fitzroy Square, Dec. 2, 1834. curls, elaborately made out, were finished “Sir,—The painting was done on a hair by hair, with vivid curved lines on species of black slaty marble-was broke the lighted parts, of the bright yellow en in two or three places. It was said golden colour. The necklace consisted by the Chev. Micheli, the proprietor, of various stones set in gold : the amulet who brought it from Florence to this was of gold, and a chain twice or thrice country, that it had been found in the round her right wrist. She wore a crown recesses of a great wine cellar, where with radiating points, and jewels between other fragments of antiquity had been de- each;-also a forehead jewel, with a large posited. That it was in a very thick pearl at the four corners, worn lozengecase of wood nearly mouldered away. ways on her forehead ; part of her front That it got into a broker's hands, by hair was plaited, and two plaits were the major domo of the house or palace brought round the neck, and tied in a where it was discovered, having sold a knot of the hair ;-the red mantle was parcel of insignificant lumber, so called, fastened on both shoulders-no linen was in which this painting was found. It seen. She held the asp in her left hand; was generally incrusted with a sort of it was of a green colour, and rather large. tartar and decomposed varnish, which its head was fanciful, and partook of the