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original is önvágrov, in Latin, denarius, and with the Romans did value the eighth part of an ounce, which, after five shillings the ounce, amounteth unto sevenpence halfpenny of our money.
Lastly, whereas it might be conceived that they ate the passover, standing rather than sitting, or lying down, according to the institution, Exodus xii, “Thus shall you eat with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand;" the Jews themselves reply, this was not required of succeeding generations, and was not observed but in the passover of Egypt. And so also many other injunctions were afterward omitted : as the taking up of the paschal! lamb from the tenth day, the eating of it in their houses dispersed, the striking of the blood on the door-posts, and the eating thereof in haste;—solemnities and ceremonies primitively enjoined, afterward omitted; as was also this of station: for the occasion ceasing, and being in security, they applied themselves unto gestures in use among them.
Now in what order of recumbency Christ and the disciples were disposed, is not so easily determined. Casalius, from the Lateran triclinium, will tell us, that there being thirteen, five lay down in the first bed, five in the last, and three in the middle bed ; and that our Saviour possessed the upper place thereof. That John lay in the same bed seems plain, because he leaned on our Saviour's bosom. That Peter made
1 the third in that bed, conjecture is made, because he beckoned unto John, as being next him, to ask of Christ who it was that should betray him? That Judas was not far off, seems probable, not only because he dipped in the same dish, but because he was so near that our Saviour could hand the sop unto him.
Now in what order, fc.] This paragraph was added in 2nd edition.
Of the Picture of our Saviour with Long Hair. Another picture there is of our Saviour described with long hair,” according to the custom of the Jews, and his description sent by Lentulus unto the senate.3 Wherein indeed the
? Another picture, &c.] A very beau- is that said to have been received by tiful head of our Saviour has recently Abgarus, King of Edessa, mentioned by been engraved in mezzotint, by J. Rogers. Evagrius. Eusebius gives a letter sent It is a copy from a gem, said to have by the said Abgar to Jesus Christ, probeen executed by order of Tiberius Cæ- fessing the conviction which the Redeemsar, and subsequently to Pope Innocenter's miracles had wrought in his mind VIII by the emperor of the Turks as a of the divine character of our Lord, and ransom for his brother.
entreating him to come to Edessa and Another error has been noticed by cure a disease under which the king some commentators in representing our had long laboured ;-together with our Lord with a crown of long thorns, Lord's answer, declining to come, but whereas it is supposed to have been made promising to send a disciple to heal the of the acanthus, or bears-foot, a prickly king. For these letters see Hone's Apocplant, very unlike a thorn. See Dr. ryphal New Testament.
In his EveryAdam Clarke, in loc.
day Book, Jan. 13th, he gives a wood3 his description sent by Lentulus, &c.] cut of the portrait. In the London Or rather said to have been sent by Len- Literary Gazette of Nov. 29, 1834, is a tulus, &c.; for this letter is now known much better account of the circumstance, to have been a forgery. The supposed in a review of Baron Hubboff's History author was a Roman governor of Syria; of Armenia, published by the Oriental of whom it was pretended that he was a Translation Society. I subjoin his account follower of our Lord, and that he gave a of the picture. Abgar sent a painter description of his person in a letter to to take the likeness of the Saviour, if he the senate. This was however obviously would not vouchsafe to visit Edessa. The insupposeable at a period when the go- painter made many vain attempts to draw vernors of provinces addressed the em a correct likeness of our Saviour. But peror, and no longer the senate; to say Jesus, being willing to satisfy the desire nothing of the style, which is by no of King Abgar, took a clean handkermeans Augustan. The fact is, as has chief and applied to his countenance. been remarked to me, that when publick In that same hour, by a miraculous opinion had been made up as to the pro- power, his features and likeness were bable appearance of our Lord's person, represented on the handkerchief.” The this letter comes out to settle the point. picture thus miraculously produced, is In No. 7026-4 of the Harleian MSS, is said to have been the means of deliverpreserved a copy of this letter, on vellum, ing the city from the siege laid to it by in the beautiful handwriting of the cele- Chosroes, the Persian, 500 years afterbrated German dwarf. Math. Buchinger, wards. Thaddeus went to Edessa after which he sent to his patron, Lord Ox• Christ's ascension and healed Abgar. ford. It contains also a portrait agreeing See also Mr. W. Huttman's Life of with the description given in the letter. Christ, where will be found a copious This letter has been translated into Eng. account of the portrait of Jesus Christ, lish, and occurs, Christ. Mag. 1761, published in prints, coins, &c. Mr. p. 455, and other places.
Huttman spells the name of the King of Perhaps the most celebrated of the re- Edessa, Agbar. puted original portraits of the Redeemer,
hand of the painter is not accusable, but the judgment of the common spectator: conceiving he observed this fashion of his hair, because he was a Nazarite ; and confounding a Nazarite by vow, with those by birth or education.
The Nazarite by vow is declared, Numbers vi; and was to refrain three things, drinking of wine, cutting the hair, and approaching unto the dead; and such an one was Sampson. Now that our Saviour was a Nazarite after this kind, we have no reason to determine; for he drank wine, and was therefore called by the Pharisees, a wine-bibber; he approached also the dead, as when he raised from death Lazarus, and the daughter of Jairus.
The other Nazarite was a topical appellation, and appliable unto such as were born in Nazareth, a city of Galilee, and in the tribe of Napthali. Neither, if strictly taken, was our Saviour in this sense a Nazarite, for he was born in Bethlehem in the tribe of Judah ; but might receive that name because he abode in that city, and was not only conceived therein, but there also passed the silent part of his life after his return from Egypt; as is delivered by Matthew, “And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, he shall be called a Nazarene." Both which kinds of Nazarites, as they are distinguishable by Zain, and Tsade in the Hebrew, so in the Greek, by Alpha and Omega : for, as Jansenius observeth, where the votary Nazarite is mentioned, it is written, Nalagaños, as Levit. vi and Lament. iv. Where it is spoken of our Saviour, we read it, Nazwgaños, as in Matthew, Luke, and John; only Mark, who writ his gospel at Rome, did Latinize and wrote it Ναζαρηνός. .
* Jans. Concordia Evangelica.
Of the Picture of Abraham sacrificing Isaac.
In the picture of the immolation of Isaac, or Abraham sacrificing his son, Isaac is described as a little boy;" which notwithstanding is not consentaneous unto the authority of expositors, or the circumstance of the text. For therein it is delivered that Isaac carried on his back the wood for the sacrifice, which being an holocaust or burnt-offering to be consumed unto ashes, we cannot well conceive a burthen for a boy; but such a one unto Isaac, as that which it typified was unto Christ, that is, the wood or cross whereon he suffered, which was too heavy a load for his shoulders, and was fain to be relieved therein by Simon of Cyrene."
Again he was so far from a boy, that he was a man grown, and at his full stature, if we believe Josephus, who placeth him in the last of adolescency, and makes him twenty-five years old. And whereas in the vulgar translation he is termed puer, it must not be strictly apprehended, (for that age properly endeth in puberty, and extendeth but unto fourteen,)
4 as a little boy.] More absurd re to the subject to which it relates : as when presentations have been made of this it relates to a lord and master it signifies event. Bourgoanne notices a painting a servant, and is to bee soe translated : in Spain where Abraham is preparing to where itt relates to a father itt signifyes a shoot Isaac with a pistol! Phil. Rohr, sonne. The old translation is therefore (Pictor Errans,) mentions one in which herein faulty, which takes the word in Abraham's weapon was a sword. the prime grammatical sense for a child,
s too heavy a load, fc.] Some paint- which is not always true. In the 4th ers have accordingly represented Christ cap. of the Acts, vers, 25. itt renders and Simon of Cyrene as both employed Δαβίδ του παιδός σου, David pueri tui, in carrying the cross.some have sup- and in the 27th małðá cou'Insowv puerum posed as Lipsius notices, that only a part (probably the transverse portion) of the
tuum Iesum, in both places absurdly:
which Beza observed and corrected ; rencross was borne by our Lord.—Lipsii dering the first by the word servant, and Opera, vol. iii, p. 658.
the later by the word sonne rightlye and puer.] In the Greeke the word (rais]is ambiguous and, as wee say, po
learnedlye..Wr. lysemon, signifying diverselye according
but respectively unto Abraham, who was at that time above six score. And therefore also herein he was not unlike unto him, who was after led dumb unto the slaughter, and commanded by others, who had legions at command; that is, in meekness and humble submission. For had he resisted, it had not been in the power of his aged parent to have enforced; and many at his years have performed such acts, as few besides at any. David was too strong for a lion and a bear; Pompey had deserved the name of Great; Alexander of the same cognomination was generalissimo of Greece; and Annibal, but one year after, succeeded Asdrubal in that memorable war against the Romans.
Of the Picture of Moses with Horns,
In many pieces, and some of ancient bibles, Moses is described with horns. The same description we find in a silver medal; that is, upon one side Moses horned, and on the reverse the commandment against sculptile images. Which is conceived to be a coinage of some Jews, in derision of Christians, who first began that portrait.8
The ground of this absurdity was surely a mistake of the Hebrew text, in the history of Moses when he descended from the mount, upon the affinity of kæren and karan that, is, an horn, and to shine, which is one quality of horn. The vulgar translation conforming unto the former; Ignorabat quòd cornuta esset facies ejus.* Qui videbant faciem Mosis esse cornutam. But the Chaldee paraphrase, translated by Paulus Fagius, hath otherwise expressed it: Moses nesciebat quòd multus esset splendor gloriæ vultus ejus. Et viderunt
• Exod. xxxiv, 29, 30.
7 In many pieces, &c.] And in Michael Angelo's Statue of Moses in St. Peter's at Rome.
8 The same description, c.] This sentence was first added in 2nd edition.