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For the use of the navel is to continue the infant unto the mother, and by the vessels thereof to convey its aliment and sustentation. The vessels whereof it consisteth, are the umbilical vein, which is a branch of the porta, and implanted in the liver of the infant; two arteries likewise arising from the iliacal branches, by which the infant receiveth the purer portion of blood and spirits from the mother; and lastly, the urachos or ligamental passage derived from the bottom of the bladder, whereby it dischargeth the waterish and urinary part of its aliment. Now upon the birth, when the infant forsaketh the womb, although it dilacerate, and break the involving membranes, yet do these vessels hold, and by the mediation thereof the infant is connected unto the womb, not only before, but awhile also after the birth, These therefore the midwife cutteth off, contriving them into a knot close unto the body of the infant; from whence ensueth that tortuosity or complicated nodosity we usually call the navel; occasioned by the colligation of vessels before mentioned. Now the navel being a part, not precedent, but subsequent unto generation, nativity, or parturition, it cannot be well imagined at the creation or extraordinary formation of Adam, who immediately issued from the artifice of God; nor also that of Eve, who was not solemnly begotten, but suddenly framed, and anomalously proceeded from Adam.
And if we be led into conclusions that Adam had also this part, because we behold the same in ourselves, the inference is not reasonable; for if we conceive the way of his formation, or of the first animals, did carry in all points a strict conformity unto succeeding productions, we might fall into imaginations that Adam was made without teeth; or that he ran through those notable alterations in the vessels of the heart, which the infant suffereth after birth : we need not maturity, retain.
If so, Adam was cre same work (p. 492,) Dr. B. also discusated with the marks of an earlier stage ses at some length Sir Thomas's chapter of existence, though he had never pass on pygmies, (c. xi, book iv.) See Rel. ed through that stage.
Med. p. 2. § 10, where Adam is called, Sir Thomas's opinion is cited and " the man without a navel."---Ross adopted by Dr. John Bulwer, in his deems the part in question to have been most curious work, entitled Anthropome- intended by the Creator merely for ortamorphosis : Man Transformed : or the nament; in support of which opinion be Artificial Changling, llistorically Pre- cites Canticles vii, 2 !! sented, &c. 4to. 1653. p. 401. In the
dispute whether the egg or bird were first; and might conceive that dogs were created blind, because we observe they are littered so with us. Which to affirm, is to confound, at least to regulate creation unto generation, the first acts of God, unto the second of nature ; which were determined in that general indulgence, increase and multiply, produce or propagate each other; that is, not answerably in all points, but in a prolonged method according to seminal progression. For the formation of things at first was different from their generation after; and although it had nothing to precede it, was aptly contrived for that which should succeed it. And therefore though Adam were framed without this part, as having no other womb than that of his proper principles, yet was not his posterity without the same ; for the seminality of his fabrick contained the power thereof; and was endued with the science of those parts whose predestinations upon succession it did accomplish.
All the navel therefore and conjunctive part we can suppose in Adam, was his dependency on his Maker, and the connexion he must needs have unto heaven, who was the Son of God. For, holding no dependence on any preceding efficient but God, in the act of his production there may be conceived some connexion, and Adam to have been in a momental navel with his Maker. And although from his carnality and corporal existence, the conjunction seemeth no nearer than of causality and effect; yet in his immortal and diviner part he seemed to hold a nearer coherence, and an umbilicality even with God himself. And so indeed although the propriety of this part be found but in some animals, and many species there are which have no navel at all; yet is there one link and common connexion, one general ligament, and necessary obligation of all whatever unto God. Whereby, although they act themselves at distance, and seem to be at loose, yet do they hold a continuity with their Maker. Which catenation or conserving union, whenever his pleasure shall divide, let go, or separate, they shall fall from their
? in a momental navel with his Maker.] (or in an important sense,) in a state of Momental; important. “ Substantially, connexion with his Maker."
existence, essence, and operations; in brief, they must retire unto their primitive nothing, and shrink into their chaos again.
They who hold the egg was before the bird, prevent this doubt in many other animals, which also extendeth unto them. For birds are nourished by umbilical vessels, and the navel is manifest sometimes a day or two after exclusion. The same is probable in all oviparous exclusions, if the lesser part of eggs must serve for the formation, the greater part for nutriment. The same is made out in the eggs of snakes; and is not improbable in the generation of porwiggles or tadpoles, and may be also true in some vermiparous exclusions: although (as we have observed in the daily progress in some) the whole maggot is little enough to make a fly, without any part remaining.
Of the Pictures of the Jews and Eastern Nations, at their
Feasts, especially our Saviour at the Passover.
CONCERNING the pictures of the Jews, and eastern nations at their feasts, concerning the gesture of our Saviour at the passover, who is usually described sitting upon a stool or bench at a square table, in the midst of the twelve, many make great doubt; and (though they concede a table gesture) will hardly allow this usual way of session.9
Wherein, restraining no man's enquiry, it will appear that accubation, or lying down at meals was a gesture used by very many nations. That the Persians used it, beside the testimony of humane writers, is deducible from that passage in Esther.* “ That when the king returned into the place of the banquet of wine, Haman was fallen upon the bed where
# Esther vii.
They who hold, &c.] This paragraph Glasg. 1750.- Jeff. I give this referwas first added in 2nd edition.
ence, though I have not been able to 9 session.] See Fenelon's Letter to avail myself of it. the French Academy; § 8, p. 231.
on Esther was.” That the Parthians used it, is evident from Athenæus, who delivereth out of Possidonius, that their king lay down at meals, on an higher bed than others. That Cleopatra thus entertained Anthony, the same author manifesteth, when he saith, she prepared twelve Tricliniums. That it was in use among the Greeks, the word triclinium implieth, and the same is also declarable from many places in the Symposiacks of Plutarch. That it was not out of fashion in the days of Aristotle, he declareth in his Politicks; when among the institutionary rules of youth, he adviseth they might not be permitted to hear iambicks and tragedies before they were admitted unto discumbency or lying along with others at their meals. That the Romans used this gesture at repast, beside many more, is evident from Lipsius, Mercurialis, Salmasius and Ciaconius, who have expressly and distinctly treated hereof.
Now of their accumbing places, the one was called stibadion and sigma, carrying the figure of an half-moon, and of an uncertain capacity, whereupon it received the name of hexaclinon, octoclinon, according unto that of Martial,
Accipe Lunatâ scriptum testudine sigma:
Octo capit, veniat quisquis amicus erit. Hereat in several ages the left and right hand were the principal places, and the most honourable person, if he were not master of the feast, possessed one of those rooms. The other was termed triclinium, that is, three beds about a table, as may be seen in the figures thereof, and particularly in the Rhamnusian triclinium, set down by Mercurialis.* The customary use hereof was probably deduced from the frequent use of bathing, after which they commonly retired to bed, and refected themselves with repast; and so that custom by degrees changed their cubiculary beds into discubitory, and introduced a fashion to go from the baths unto these.
As for their gesture or position, the men lay down leaning on their left elbow, their back being advanced by some pil
* De Arte Gymnastica.
· That the Persians, &c.] This sentence was first added in the 2nd edition.
graces, and make
low or soft substance: the second lay so with his back towards the first, that his head attained about his bosom; and the rest in the same order. For women, they sat sometimes distinctly with their sex, sometimes promiscuously with men, according to affection or favour, as is delivered by Juvenal.
Gremio jacuit nova nupta mariti. And by Suetonius, of Caligula, that at his feasts he placed his sisters, with whom he had been incontinent, successively in order below him. usually exceed that number in every one, according to the ancient laws, and proverbial observations to begin with the
up their feasts with the muses; and therefore it was remarkable in the Emperor Lucius Verus, that he lay down with twelve, which was, saith Julius Capitolinus, præter exempla majorum, not according to the custom of his predecessors, except it were at public and nuptial suppers. The regular number was also exceeded in the last supper, whereat there were no less than thirteen, and in no place fewer than ten, for as Josephus delivereth, it was not lawful to celebrate the passover with fewer than that number.3
Lastly, for the disposing and ordering of the persons; the first and middle beds were for the guests, the third and lowest for the master of the house and his family, he always lying in the first place of the last bed, that is, next the middle bed, but if the wife or children were absent, their rooms were supplied by the umbræ, or hangers on, according to that of Juvenal.%
Locus est et pluribus umbris. For the guests, the honourablest place in every bed was the first, excepting the middle or second bed, wherein the most honourable guest of the feast was placed in the last place, because by that position he might be next the master of the
? bosom.] See note S, p. 108. ji, 8, 22: “-quos Mæcenas adduxerat
3 the regular number, &c.] This sen umbras,”—“ Porro et conviva ad cenam tence first added in 2nd edition.
dicitur oxidu suum adducere, cum amicum * Juvenal.] Not Juvenal, but Horace,) aliquem non invitatum secum adducit."Epist. lib. i, 8, I. 28. See also Ilor. Sat.
Plut. 7, 6.