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accumulation actual Adam Smith agriculture appears bour bullion capitalists circumstances command commerce commodities consequence considerable considered consumers consumption corn and labour corn laws corn wages cost of production crease cultivation demand and supply demand for labour diminished diminution duce effects effectual demand estimated exchangeable value fall of profits fertility foreign greater important improvements increase of wealth kind labour employed labouring classes land landlord maintenance of labour Malthus mand manufactures means measure of value modities money price money wages natural natural price necessary object obtained obvious occasioned peck period political economy portion power of purchasing powers of production price of corn price of labour principle productive labour proportion quantity of labour quarters rate of profits raw produce rent revenue Ricardo rise society soil suppose take place things tion tivation tural value in exchange value of money wages of labour Wealth of Nations wheat whole produce
Сторінка 85 - The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.
Сторінка 117 - The word VALUE, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called ' value in use;' the other, * value in exchange.
Сторінка 223 - The natural price of labour is that price which is necessary to enable the labourers, one with another, to subsist and to perpetuate their race, without either increase or diminution.
Сторінка 181 - If all land had the same properties, if it were unlimited in quantity, and uniform in quality, no charge could be made for its use, unless where it possessed peculiar advantages of situation. It is only, then, because land is not unlimited in quantity and uniform in quality, and because in the progress of population, land of an inferior quality, or less advantageously situated, is called into cultivation, that rent is ever paid for the use of it.
Сторінка 179 - Every extensive country may thus be considered as possessing a gradation of machines for the production of corn and raw materials, including in this gradation not only all the various qualities of poor land, of which every large territory has generally an abundance, but the inferior machinery which may be said to be employed when good land is further and further forced for additional produce. As the price of raw produce...
Сторінка 389 - No EXTENSION of foreign trade will immediately increase the amount of value in a country, although it will very powerfully contribute to increase the mass of commodities, and therefore the sum of enjoyments.
Сторінка xl - Nor is it at all incredible, that a book which has been so long in the possession of mankind should contain many truths as yet undiscovered. For, all the same phenomena and the same faculties of investigation, from which such great discoveries in natural knowledge have been made in the present and last age, were equally in the possession of mankind several thousand years before- And possibly it might be intended, that events, as they come to pass, should open and ascertain the meaning of several...
Сторінка 222 - ... labour in the other. Or if the one species of labour requires an uncommon degree of dexterity and ingenuity, the esteem which men have for such talents, will naturally give a value to their produce, superior to what would be due to the time employed about it. Such talents can seldom be acquired but in consequence of long application, and the superior...
Сторінка 428 - Were those high duties and prohibitions taken away all at once, cheaper foreign goods of the same kind might be poured so fast into the home market, as to deprive all at once many thousands of our people of their ordinary employment and means of subsistence.
Сторінка 128 - ... world. This will in some measure account for the different value of money in different countries ; it will explain to us why the prices of home commodities, and those of great bulk, though of comparatively small value, are, independently of other causes, higher in those countries where manufactures flourish.