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accumulation acres Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount average capital capitalist cause cent circulating capital circumstances commodity competition condition considerable consumed consumption cost of production cottier cultivation degree demand depends diminished division of labour duction effect employed employment England equal exchange exchange value exertion exist expense farmer farms favourable fertility fixed France greater habits hectares human hundred quarters improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland kind labouring class land landlord Law of Value less limited manufacture manure material means meme ment metayer mode necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant permanent persons political economy population portion possession present principle produce productive labour proportion purchase rate of profit remuneration rent saving says Sismondi society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus tenant things tion trade unless unproductive wages wealth whole yield
Стр. 273 - with all its chances, and the present state of society with all its sufferings and injustices ; if the institution of private property necessarily carried with it as a consequence, that the produce of labour should be apportioned as we now
Стр. 440 - ample, it is for no other reason than because capital bears a greater proportion to population. It is not the absolute amount of accumulation or of production, that is of importance to the labouring class ; it is not the amount even of the funds destined for distribution among the labourers : it is the proportion between
Стр. 440 - 3. Wages depend, then, on the proportion between the number of the labouring population, and the capital or other funds devoted to the purchase of labour ; we will say, for shortness, the capital. If wages are higher at one time or place than at another, if the subsistence and comfort of the class of hired labourers are
Стр. 313 - modern period. The farther we look back into history, the more we see all transactions and engagements under the influence of fixed customs. The reason is evident. Custom is the most powerful protector of the weak against the strong ; their sole protector where there are no laws or government adequate to the purpose. Custom
Стр. 341 - his own master ; and he, and every member of his family, have the strongest motives to labour. You see the effect of this in that unremitting diligence which is beyond that of the whole world besides, and his economy, which is still greater. The Germans, indeed, are not so active and lively as the English.
Стр. 273 - it, almost in an inverse ratio to the labour—the largest portions to those who have never worked at all, the next largest to those whose work is almost nominal, and so in a
Стр. 340 - which must make the inquirer pause before he admits the dogma of our land doctors at home, that large farms worked by hired labour and great capital can alone bring out the greatest productiveness of the soil and furnish the greatest supply of the necessaries and conveniences of life to the inhabitants of a country.
Стр. 317 - therefore it is true as a general proposition, that there are not two prices at one time for the same thing : there is at each time and place a market price, which can be quoted in a price-current. But retail price, the price paid by the actual consumer, seems to feel very slowly and imperfectly the
Стр. 101 - in disregard of a fact so evident, it long continued to be believed that laws and governments, without creating capital, could create industry. Not by making the people more laborious, or increasing the efficiency of their labour ; these are objects to which the government can, in some degree, indirectly contribute. But without any increase in
Стр. 42 - ed by the various modes of conduct which society may think fit to adopt, are as much a subject for scientific enquiry as any of the physical laws of nature. The laws of Production and Distribution, and some of the practical consequences deducible from them, are the subject of the following treatise. BOOK I. PEODUCTION. BOOK I.