« НазадПродовжити »
Albert of Sardinia, his famous Letter bearing the motto 'Se no, no!' (If not, not !), urging the new monarch to adopt a different course from that of bis predecessors, and concluding thus—Posterity will proclaim you either the first among men, or the last of Italy's tyrants. Choose !
During 1832 and the greater part of '33 Mazzini remained at Marseilles, as head of the new Italian party, actively propagating his principles and organizing his followers. The progress of the association was rapid. Its doctrines were soon spread throughout Italy. This, says Mazzini, a
Was effected by means of a considerable pecuniary outlay, and through the devotion of a valuable class of men, for the most part eminently Italian--the merchant-sailors. These men were workeil upon, and accepted their mission with enthusiasm. By actively organizing relations at every point where communication is most frequent with the peninsula, regular transmissions were effected; the packets were confided to heroic youths, who braved every risk to carry them to their destination, they were finally distributed throughout the country; and in spite of “espionnage," severe penalties, e and a thousand acts of imprudence, their circulation was immense, and their effect also. ...... Organization commenced at every point. In the twinkling of an eye the chain of communication was formed from one extremity to the other of the peninsula. Everywhere the principles of La Giovine Italia were preached; everywhere its standard was recognized and hailed. Its members continued to incrcase; its emissaries were continually meeting each other, crossing from province to province. Every day the demand for its publications became louder ; presses were set up in some parts of the interior, where small publications, dictated by local circumstances, or reprints of what was sent from Marseilles, were thrown off. Fear was unknown. There was no doubt of success. All this was the result of principles; and all effected by some young men without great means, without the influence of rank, without material force.'
Of this work Mazzini was the soul. To get rid of him, no matter by what means, became now the object of the Italian despots and their worthy ally, the Citizen King
'Persecutions commenced; and ... on the part of France. They were directed, under vulgar pretexts, against the nucleus of the association at Marseilles. Engagements were entered into with the Italian governments, to destroy the Journal; but the French had a hard-necked race to deal with. They commenced by chicanery, but were baffled; they arbitrarily expelled the director; the director concealed himself; by shutting himself up he escaped the police, and pursued his labours.'!
the formula of an oath or declaration of political belief; a method of recognition, especially for the envoys of the association; a branch of cypress for a symbol, in memory of the martyrs, and as an image of constancy; and the words ‘Now and ever' (ora e sempre) for device. Mazzini's Letters on the State and Prospects of Italy, in the Monthly Chronicle of 1839.
• Reprinted in Paris in 1847.
d Letters on the State and Prospects of Italy. • Charles Albert punished with imprisonment and with the galleys the introduction, possession, or perusal of these works. Two years' imprisonment and a fine was the punishment for not denouncing the possessor.-Letters on Italy.
Letters on Italy.
For many months Mazzini thus evaded the order to quit France, in spite of the most vigorous measures of the police. 6 At length he left, and took up his abode at Geneva; continuing the publication of his paper. In 1834, as head of La Giovine Italia, he planned the expedition into Savoy, which took place in the beginning of February, and failed in consequence of the treachery of Ramorino, whom the Savoy patriots had chosen as their general. h In this expedition Mazzini enrolled himself as a private soldier. For his part in this affair he was sentenced to death by Charles Albert.
Immediately upon the failure of this attempt, he founded the association of Young Europe,' to form the nucleus of a brotherly alliance of the Peoples, to counteract the Holy Alliance' of Despotisms. I In the same year he published
7 As a sample of these measures, and specimen of governmental morality, take the following. On the 31st of May, 1833, two spies of the Duke of Modena (Lazzareschi and Emiliani) were stabbed in a quarrel, in open day, at Rhodez, in the South of France, by an Italian exile named Gavioli. Advantage was immediately taken of the deed, to connect it with Mazzini; and the next week (June 8th) appeared in the non-official part of the
Moniteur' a forged antedated document, purporting to be the decree of a secret meeting of Young Italy, sentencing Emiliani and others to death, and Lazzareschi to whipping, and signed Mazzini, President- La Cecilia, Secretary. The object was to draw Mazzini from his concealment. It only drew from him a denunciation of the forgery, through the columns of the 'Gazette des Tribunaux.' The bad French and wretched style of the composition proved it not to be his. Of course it was not produced at Gavioli's trial, which took place at the assizes of Aveyron on the 30th of November, wben a verdict of 'homi. cide sans préméditation '-unpremeditated homicide- was returned. (Gazette des Tri. bunaur, December, 8th, 1843). True, however, to the villainous principle which always actuates the party of Order'-—'Calumniate! calumniate ! something will be sure to stick;' the jesuit press reproduced the slander in 1836, when the Swiss Diet wished to expel Mazzini. It was again refuted. And again revived by Gisquet, the French ex-Prefect of Police, in his Memoirs. Against him Mazzini brought an action in the French Courts. An impudent evasion obtained a verdict for the defendant. He pleaded that there was more than one Mazzini in the world; and that as the prosecutor was, as all admitted, a man of the highest moral character, he could not be the Mazzini referred to in the 'Moniteur.' And this thrice-exploded calumny was raked up yet again by the English Government, in 1844, when Mazzini was instrumental in exposing the post-office rascality throagh which the noble brothers Bandiera met their death.
We might add_through the treachery of Louis Philippe as well as that of Ramorino. The same Ramorino was one of Charles Albert's generals in the campaign of 1849; played again the same game, they said 'against’ the King, and was shot by him for it: either as a punishment or a provision. i The following was the 'Act of Fraternity' of the Association,
Liberty-Equality-Humanity. We the undersigned, men of progress and liberty, believing in the cquality and brotherhood of men and the equality and brotherhood of nations : believing also, -
That the human race is destined to advance in a course of continual progress, under the empire of the universal moral law, in the free and harmonious development of its faculties, and the accomplishment of its mission in the universe;
That this can only be effected by the active concurrence of all its members freely associated;
That free associations can only exist among Equals, since all inequality implies a violation of independence, and every violation of independence impairs the freedom of concert;
Thai Liberty, Equality, and Humanity are equally sacred, -that they are the three neces.
I a pamphlet in French, ‘De l' Initiative Revolutionnaire.' (Of the Revolutionary Initiative). In July, 1835, he commenced at Bienne (Canton of Berne) a newspaper in German and French, under the title of "La Jeune Suisse' (Young Switzerland), all the leaders of which emanated from his pen. During the same year he issued a pamphlet in French, ‘Ils sont partis,' (They are gone) written on the occasion of the Polish and other exiles being expelled from Switzerland; and likewise his ' Foi et Avenir' (Faith and Future).
sary elements in every satisfactory solution of the problem of society,—and that wherever any one of them is neglected from undue regard to the two others, the attempt to solve this problem must prove a failure :
Being satisfied,--that, although the objects at which the human race aim are necessarily the same, and the general principles, which direct their progress essentially similar, there are nevertheless, a thousand different ways by which the common purpose may be effected;
Being satisfied,--that each man and each nation has a peculiar mission in which its individuality consists and through which it concurs in accomplishing the mission of the race in general;
Being satisfied, finally,--that associations of men and nations ought to combine security for the full accomplishment of the individual mission with the certainty of concurring in that of the general mission of the race:
Strong in our rights as men, strong in our consciences and in the duty which God and Humanity impose upon every one who is willing to devote his arm, his mind, bis whole being, to the sacred cause of the progress of nations :
We have formed ourselves into national associations, free and independent of each other, intended as the germs of:
Young Poland, Young Italy, and Young Germany: Having met together in council to promote the general good, with our hands upon our hearts, and in full confidence of a successful result, have agreed upon the following declaration :
1.-Young Germany, Young Poland, and Young Italy, republican associations, intended to effect the same general object, and having a common belief in Liberty, Equality, and Progress, hereby unite themselves into one brotherhood, now and for ever, for all purposes belonging to the common object.
II.-A declaration of the principles that constitute the moral law, as applied to nations, shall be drawn in common, and signed by the three national committees. It shall specify the belief, the object, and the general course of proceeding of the three associations; and no association can act otherwise than in conformity to this declaration without a culpable violation of the Act of Fraternity.
III--In all matters not concerning the declaration of principles, and not of general interest, the three associations are severally free and independent of each other.
IV.-An alliance, offensive and defensive, is hereby established among the three associations, as representatives of the nations to which they respectively belong; and each of them shall be authorized to claim the aid and coöperation of the others in every important enterprise for the promotion of the common object.
V, --The assembling of the three committees or their delegates shall constitute the Committee of Young Europe.
VI.--The members of the three associations shall regard each other as brothers, and discharge towards each other the duties belonging to that relation.
VII. - The Committee of Young Europe sball agree upon a badge to be worn by the members of the three associations, and a motto to be placed at the head of their proclamations.
VIII.---Any other nation, which may desire to unite in this alliance may do so by agreeing to and siguing, through its representatives, the present Act.
Done at Berne, (Switzerland,) April 15th, 1834. (Here follow the signatures— J. Mazzini, J. and A. Ruffini, Charles Stolzman, etc., etc.).
k Recently reprinted in Paris.
In 1837 he arrived in England, to remain here till 1847. During that period, in addition to his never-remitted exertions as head and heart of the Italian revohutionary party, we find him largely contributing to the first English and French Reviews,' still pursuing his Italian literary labours, and also taking an active part in the anniversary meetings of the Poles, whether in commemoration of their own or the Russian republican martyrs (Pestel, Bestujeff, Kokhowski, Mouravïeff, Reeleieff, etc.); and proving himself not only the active and capable patriot, but also the accomplished scholar, the most eloquent orator, the noble of world-wide sympathies.
On the 10th of November, 1840, he founded a Gratuitous Elementary School for the poor Italians (principally the music-boys and sellers of casts) in London. Here, notwithstanding his other labours, he was a constant and patient worker: the Sunday evening lectures on Morals, History, etc., being mostly delivered by himself. By these poor boys he was revered almost as a God, and loved as a father. One of them, returning to Italy, travelled expressly to Genoa to tell Mazzini's Mother what her Son had done for him.
Simultaneously with the opening of this school, he established an Italian paper called the ' Apostolato Popolare' (The Popular Apostolate), twelve numbers of which appeared at irregular intervals, between November, 1840, and October, '43. The Apostolato contains a series of his ablest articles, on the Duty of Man towards God and Humanity ; besides Letters to the Italian Youth, articles on Italian Unity and on the influence of political institutions on the education of the People, and biographical notices of great men (dead or living) of all nations.
In 1842 he superintended an edition, in four Volumes, of Dante's Divine Comedy—La Comedia di Dante Alleghieri, Illustrato da Hugo Foscolo, o from a Manuscript found after Foscolo's death. To this also Mazzini wrote the preface.
In 1845 he published his ‘Italy, Austria, and the Pope, a letter to Sir James Graham'; and in the same year ‘Ricordi dei Fratelli Bandiera e dei loro Compagni di Martirio'-(Records of the Brothers Bandiera and their Companions in martyrdom),-a work which, perhaps more than any other, shows the power with which this Exile can sway the hearts of bis countrymen in bondage.
On the 31st of January 1846, he issued his Address to the Swiss Confederation (printed in Italian, French, and German) in reprobation of the practice of Sviss enlistment in the service of the Pope and other of the Italian tyrants.
Toward the close of 1846, in consequence of the Allied Powers destroying the
1 The Westminster Review, the Monthly Chronicle, Tait's Magazine, the People's Journal, La Revue Indépendante, etc. Articles npon the State of Italy; upon European Democracy; criticisms on Goethe, Carlyle, Byron, George Sand, etc.; music and biography, etc.; far too varied to enumerate.
* This excellent School still exists at 5, Greville Street, Hatton-Garden, London, supported by voluntary donations from the Italians themselves and also from the English Publie.
These articles were reprinted in Italian, at Florence, in 1848, in a little volume entitled 'Prose di Giuseppe Mazzini,' to be had of Rolandi, Berners Street, London,
• Also published by Rolandi.
independence of Cracow, he suggested, and in the beginning of 1847 materially aided in, the formation of the Peoples' International League :' an English society, which established itself in London, to enlighten the British Public as to the actual political position of foreign countries, with a view to creating an efficient public opinion in favour of the oppressed nations. To this work Mazzini devoted considerable time, zeal, and money. The draft of the Council's Address was furnished by him; and he also contributed au admirable pamphlet (printed by the League) on the Swiss Question, ably extricating the real bearings of the Sonderbund from the jesuitical complications with which it had been surrounded.
In September, 1847, he addressed his Letter to Pope Pius (the Reforming Pope, as easy liberals then delighted to call him), urging that hope of Christendom to become indeed a reformer, the servant of all, to be ready either 'to glorify God if triumphant, or if succumbing to repeat with resignation the words of Gregory VII.--"I die in exile because I loved justice and hated iniquity.”
‘But to do that, to accomplish the mission with which God has intrusted you, two things are necessary,—to be a believer and to unify Italy. ... ... Be a Believer! Abhor being only a king, a politician, a statesman. Have no covenant with error, do not contaminate yourself with diplomacy, nor make conditions with fear, with expediency, with the false doctrine of legality, which is but a lic invented in the absence of Faith, Take no counsel but from God, from the inspirations of your own heart, and from the imperious necessity of rebuilding a temple to Truth, Justice, and Faith. ... ... Unify Italy, your country! and for that you will not need to work, but only to bless those who will work for you, in your name. Surround yourself with the men who best represent the national party. Do not beg alliances from Princes! Seek to win the alliance of our people. Say to yourself -—" Italian unity ought to be a fact in the nineteenth century." That will be enough: the rest shall be done for you.'
Alas for the pearls that must be thrown before swine. The answer to this appeal was alliance with Austria, betrayal of Italy, French intervention, and the lies of Thiers and Company over the ruins of Rome.
In the end of 1847 Mazzini made a short visit to Paris. He was in London when the news arrived of the French Revolution, and on the 29th of February left for France. On the 5th of March he founded at Paris, the ‘Italian National Association. On the breaking out of the Milanese insurrection, he proceeded to Italy, reëntering his native land after an exile of seventeen years. As he crossed the frontier the officers knew him; he heard his own words quoted, his name pronounced. When he entered Milan people crowded around him, kissing bim, snatching at his hands, and shedding tears of joy. The Provisional Goverument sent for him: he was compelled to harangue the people from the palace windows. Charles Albert sent for him. But the Republican could not grasp hands with the Traitor. How Mazzini acted in Italy under most trying circumstances, how he aided even that old ill genius of his country, the assassin of Ruffini, rather than by disunion destroy the hope of Italy, how even when the King had sold the revolution he did not despair,—all this is matter of bistory and need hardly be given here. But the following, which shows the qualities of the man, can not be spared.
It was the eve of the betrayal of Milan. Garibaldi was at Bergamo with some 4000 Lombard Republican Volunteers. Believing that Charles Albert, still at the head of 40,000 men, would defend Milan, he conceived the audacious