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pliments with patteraroes. And from Serjt. M'Clelland's evidence that one of the inhabitants was sent to the Fort, as well as the Serjeant could understand, by the priests of the church for which the salutes were fired to let him know when to commence the salute ; that the same man returned the following day wishing the salute to be put off three quarters of an hour ; that the Serjeant had to send a man to ascertain the time when the procession went out of the church ; that the FIRING OF SHOTS, with the ringing of bells, were part of church ceremonies, and that patteraroes (misnamed petards) had been observed in front of one of their churches.
Thus it is proved by my letter of instructions, and by the evidence, that I was sent to co-operate with the Roman Catholic churches in their religious rites ; to perform not a military service but parts of the Roman Catholic ceremonies ; that I should have had to consult with perhaps the lowest of their servants, and to send to learn from anybody that I could, when their procession was to set out; and be subject to such requests as must disgust any man acquainted with military service. I ask if these details respecting the co-operation, standing alone, are not perfectly disgusting to the feelings of any officer who can appreciate military service.
Having proved that I was sent to perform a religious service, and to co-operate with the religious views of the Roman Catholics,-to fulfil their particular wishes,—I have to substantiate the second part of my argument, namely, That in the religious services which I was applied for and ordered to assist in, there were acts to be committed in co-operation with rites for the commemoration of an object most repugnant to my feelings and principles as a Protestant Christian, which I assert would have been violated. And that these are not merely private opinions, but the acknowledged principles of the church of England; forming and acknowledged also as integral principles of the British constitution.
I wish the Court would bear in mind the difference between a titular and a tutelar saint. Protestants, who keep saints' days, either religiously or nationally, call those saints titular, that is, named after. When they are kept religiously, it is done in commemoration of the example which their lives furnish, and nothing more, as the forms of our prayers on those days shew. When saint's days are kept nationally, at and by particular places, as St. George's and other days, they are but named after the saints, which is all we have to do with them : but a tutelar saint, or protecting mediator and interceding saint, is a very different thing in the minds of those who consider them possessed of those powers.
Erpunged. 1 The prominent objects in the order handed to me, at which a Protestant Christian will take offence, are the celebration of a TUTELAR Saint. The image worship of the procession, and firing the Mass salute ;* these are considered by Protestants to be great offences against the honour of God, and to be destructive of all the best interests of mankind. It will be sufficient for my purpose to bring under the notice of the Court that principal object of the order, viz. the TUTELAR Saint and some particulars respecting images, which all Protestant Christians agree in considering to be idolatrous.
The idolatry consists in a man fixing his mind and heart on some creature, with such a belief, feeling, and practice, which makes it evident he practically ascribes to that creature Divine attributes, or that Divine attributes abide in it; thus virtually raising a creature to an equality with God, and virtually debasing God to an equality with our fellow-creatures.
There is such a distance and difference between any, the most exalted creature, and God, the Creator of all things; and such an obligation for all creatures to own this difference at all times; and to feel that while he is infinite, boundless, possessing and sustaining all things, we and all creatures are but finite, dependent, and limited in all things; that, whenever we worship, we must feel and acknowledge this difference, that God may have the glory which is due to him. Also that as all we are, and have, and can have, must proceed from him, and be continued to us by his power and mercy only; we are compelled to give him all our adoration, all our affections and thankfulness, all our trust and dependence, and all our hope; so that none of these ascriptions may in any manner, or on any account, be given to any other being; for he requires, and justly requires, them all. 1. It is revealed to us that in the unity of the Godhead or Deity there are Three Persons of one substance, power, and eternity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and that Jesus Christ, both God and man, is the only Mediator and Intercessor for sinners.
Now all Protestant Christians acknowledge that these principles are completely violated by the worship and rites with which I was called by the terms of the order to co-operate, and which co-operation is also proved by the evidence.
When a man looks to his tutelar saint, for the protection and blessings hoped for through his mediation and intercession, he then shews that he is not considering the saint as one of God's finite creatures; but that he is arraying him, in his own mind, with the omnipresent, omniscient,
* The nature of that worship at the Mass for which I had to fire, of Roman Catholic bell. tolling, and of the Image processions, will be shewn in the Appendix.
Expunged. and omnipotent attributes which belong alone to the Most High God. The saint is in heaven, the man on earth ;-how then can the former hear the supplications of the latter, much less the supplications of millions in all parts of the world, who may be calling on him to pray for them at the same time, unless he were omniscient and omnipresent, and nigh unto every man, as Jesus Christ our God and Saviour is; by whom we are sustained and kept in life, and breath, and all things :—who having borne our nature, and suffered our temptations, and atoned for our sins as a man, he feels for us as a man ; and being at the same time a Person in the Deity, with all power in heaven and on earth, he hears, and helps, and applies, his merits for our salvation as God.
The word of God assures us there is but this one Mediator, Jesus Christ, our Lord and our God.
Therefore, when men apply to a TUTELAR saint, they turn from the only Being that can hear and help to one that cannot.
When man can do such things, and fall down before their images to worship them as referred to the beings represented,—what is this but idolatry ? for they have no more reason to believe the saint can hear or help, than that the image of him can hear or help; and yet it is thought that even some of their images called miraculous can help, to which pilgrimages are made from long distances, and particular offerings are made to them for the cures and other deliverances supposed to be obtained through their peculiar virtue or power. What then can be more evident than that the attributes and powers which belong alone to the great Triune Jehovah, and to our blessed Redeemer and Mediator, are given to tutelar or mediatory and protecting saints, making them, in these respects, equal with the Almighty, making them as Gods before him ; and thus debasing him in their minds, through a false humility, to an Jequality with our fellow-creatures. | For nothing more can be ascribed to God in these respects, than is ascribed to these tutelar saints; and no more glory in these respects are given to God than is given to these, his creatures. This dishonour will be the more apparent when we consider that the Godhead is not a Being of parts or passions, but that he is a Being of perfect unity, the whole Deity being concerned in (what we call) one attribute, and one attribute including the whole Deity. Give a saint but one attribute in the Godhead, and you virtually give him the Godhead itself.
God is a Spirit, and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth. If men require images to assist their devotions, it is evident they do not practically see God present in his sustaining power lof themselves, and feel their continual obligations to his power and goodness. No man that feels his sinfulness, and knows his need of the
Expunged. jatonement of Jesus Christ, to satisfy the justice and holiness of God, will require a crucifix, to remind him of the redemption completed on Calvary, for him and every true pénitent; nor will he require the emblem of a dove, to remind him there is a Holy Spirit, if he has but experienced the sinful workings of his own heart, which, being open to the Almighty, will fill him with shame for what has passed there, and lead him to pray for that new and better, and Holy Spirit, which our Saviour freely offers to all, who will call upon him for it.
Thus all true religion being spiritual, in the understanding, heart, and spirit, any image or saint practices shew that they who use such things practically deny and dishonour the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ;-for who, feeling his obligations to, or need of, the aid of a kind and powerful Father, to whom there was free access, would think of addressing his thankfulness, or his wants, to an upper servant? or who wanting to address a parent, known to be present, would begin speaking to his picture?
As these practices are contrary to the reason of mankind, so are they to the revealed will of God. He has commanded all men not to do such things under peril of his highest displeasure :-saying, I am the Lord thy God, thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make to thee any graven image, or the likeness of any thing which is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth; thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them ; for I the Lord |thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them who HATE ME, and shewing mercy unto thousands of them who love me, and keep my commandments.
Our Saviour, when tempted to worship another Being, says, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only thou shalt serve.
When the centurion fell down at St. Peter's feet to worship him, he said, Stand up, I also am a man. When St. Paul and Barnabas had miraculously cured the man who had been a cripple from his birth, and the priests and people would have performed sacrifice to them, they rent their clothes, and ran in among them, crying out, “ Why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities to serve the living God.”
And when St. John fell down at the feet of the angel, to worship him, he exclaimed, “ See thou do it not, I am thy fellow-servant ; toorship God.”
As belief of the presence of God, with the love of God, leads to a cheerful obedience to his command, and to a fear to offend him, or any of his creatures, on his account; so a false religion, occupying the mind with a creature instead of the true God, destroys those motives which prompt men to do what
Expunged. is good, and to avoid what is evil. The moral guilt of breaking the first commandment is not to be alone measured by the dishonour due to the attributes of God: but there is to be added the evil it brings with it, of destroying the moral obligations of all those other commands which the Almighty intends for the well-being of mankind; and of leaving men to sin in this stage of their existence with a fancied impunity. For should evil tempers or temptation lead a man to do what is wrong ; if he does not fear God who is always present, and whose retribution is sure ; how can he be expected to fear a saint who cannot see, or man who may not see, and whose detection is always uncertain ?
St. Paul shews in the first chapter of Romans the consequence to society of men not liking to retain God in their knowledge, saying, he “ gave them up to a reprobate mind, being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness ; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity ; whisperers, backbiters, HATERS OF God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful; who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.”
As all the accompaniments of false religion, their pageantry, music and bells, cannon, &c. have the effect of stimulating the false feelings of the worshippers, and of lulling or overpowering the understanding, and preventing it exercising itself, either on the just requirements of God, or on the misleading objects before it; I consider that we are thus made accessories in a very remarkable manner, stimulating them in their rebellion against the Almighty, and to all those dreadful consequences to the community which result from it.
Would it not be a fearful thing to behold the subjects of a good and wise Sovereign, in defiance of the natural senses, judgment, and feelings of our nature, and in opposition to express commands, persist in insulting him to his face; giving his privileges, rights, and honors, to some distinguished fellow-subject, thus raising them to an implied equality with him? And would it not be a fearful aggravation, both of the insult to His Majesty, and to the evils this conduct must produce in the State, that the leaders of this people had succeeded in making thousands in every quarter to believe these acts were doing their Sovereign a peculiarly great honor and service, and were parts of their bounden duty :-or to see the children or servants of a wise and affectionate parent, or master, having their thoughts and affections mainly occupied with some distinguished brethren, or fellow-servants, delighting in their society and councils more than in his; and daily occupied in paying them a re
delighting having the