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as the solemn advocate of Christian liberty in this enlightened age ?

The Reviewer asserts that the earliest reformers have not to answer for this obnoxious clause. There is reason, he thinks, to believe that it was surreptitiously inserted after their time; and yet however this surreptitious insertion formed no objection to its adoption on the restoration of the church in 1660! We have not, unfortunately, either Prettyman or Neal at hand to consult, but we have read the Reviewer's statement with some surprise. Adam says, on the authority of Broughton, that the authenticated original of the Thirty-nine Articles was destroyed in the fire of London ; and that the copy now at Cambridge was the private copy of Archbishop Parker ; which is allowed however, to be the most authentic extant.*

We have at length arrived at the arguments, which are to prove, beyond all contradiction, that the articles of the church are Calvinistic. We consider of very

little importance to this question, what may have been the individual opinions of the Reformers. We believe that it was their intention in drawing up the articles not to give their own opinions, in which we may reasonably suppose there might not have been perfect conformity, but to make such a statement of doctrines as could be fairly drawn from the scriptures, should be sufficiently explicit against the church of Rome, and yet should

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* R. Adam's Religious world, vol. ii. p. 369.—Broughton's Hist. Library, vol. i. p. 84. Selden and Heylin both assert the genuineness of the clause to which the Reviewer objects. It was in the copy of articles adopted in 1552, though surreptitiously erased in subsequent editions.

leave no room for dissention among themselves, on points, at least, with which they were then conversant. This is the opinion of many of the ablest divines both of the English Church and of the Episcopal Church in America.* The question is simply, are the articles of the church Calvinistic ? It is very easy to overthrow the whole superstructure of what the Reviewer is pleased to call the 66 unanswerable reasoning” of Mr. Sparks; nay, we might by the same process prove the articles to be Arminian. The doctrines of the depravity of man and of universal redemption are both explicitly laid down in the articles : if then it is true that all men are born into the world depraved, and incapable of salvation ; and if there has been 6 made a perfect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the sins of the whole world, both original and actual,” then it is a natural and necessary consequence, that all persons are made capable of salvation ; they have been perfectly redeemed, entire satisfaction has been made for all their

* The framers of the articles, “ holy men, did prudently pres discover, that differences of judgment would unavoidably happen in the church, and were loth to unchurch any, and drive them off from an eucharistical communion, for such petty differences; which made them pen the articles in comprehensive words ; to take in all, who, differing in branches, meet in the root, of the same religion.” Fuller's. Hist. p. 72. quoted in Bishop White's Comparative Views, vol. ii. p. 23. It may be of importance to remark that Fuller was a Calvinist. To the same effect, say the editors of the Christian Observer, whose sentiments on this controversy, are well known. "Our Reformers, whatever might be the private opinions of some of them on disputed points, framed the articles with a view to include all pious Christians, without exacting a full and precise conformity to their own particular tenets. "? Christian Observer, vol, xix. p. 51.-Note.

sins; and they must retain this condition. If it is said that we entirely omit to notice the article on predestination, we reply, in the same manner, does Mr. Sparks neglect all notice of the article on universal redemption; nay, more, he draws inferences in direct contradiction to its express terms. Do our readers need any thing more to show the absurdity of this piece of unanswerable reasoning ? Did they ever hear of a man's being called upon to subscribe to doctrines which were matter of inference only? Suppose we were to infer that these writers are Mahometans, because they agree with them in a point or two which might be named, would they think us justified ?*

But that our readers may have an opportunity of deciding for themselves on this point, that they may see how cautious is the language of the Church, and with


* Mr. Sparks's premises, as founded on the articles, are false. The doctrine of depravity is not laid down either in the articles or homilies in stronger terms than in the third point of Arminianism ; and the article on predestination no where speaks of 6 CERTAIN number of the elect. The language of the article is extremely guarded in this respect. See Bishop White's Comparative Views, vol. ii. p. 30. The paucity of the extracts of the Reviewer from the Homilies, to support his construction of the 17th article would be, in such a work, we think, conclusive evidence against the opinion that the Reformers intended to express that doctrine distinctly. We conceive, however, that even they have no reference to the doctrine, and as a plain proof of it, we give the following from the same Homily:-"Our Saviour Christ testifieth of poor men, that they are dear unto him, and that he loveth them especially ; for he calleth them his little ones, by a name of tender love : he saith they be his brethren. And St. James saith, that God hath chosen them to be the heirs of his kingdom.” Will it be pretended, therefore, that all the subjects of alms giving were God's chosen ones




what an even hand she holds the balance between the rival systems of Calvinism and Arminianism, we will set before them side by side, the Articles of the Church which are referred to, and the 6 five points” of the other systems, taken from R. Adam's Religious World Displayed. Calvinism.

Articles of the Church. Arminianism. 1. God has 17th.-Predestination unto life 1. God from chosen a cer

is the everlasting purpose of God. all eternity, tain number in whereby (before the foundations determined to Christ to eter- of the earth were laid) he hath bestow salvanal glory be- constantly decreed by his coun- tion on those fore the foun- sel, secret to us, to deliver from whom he foredation of the and damnation, 'those

saw would

perworld, accord- whom he hath chosen in Christ out severe unto the ing to his im- of mankind, and to bring them end in their mutable pur- by Christ to everlasting salvation faith in Christ pose, and of as vessels made to honour. Jesus; and to his free grace Wherefore they which be endued inflict and love, with with so excellent a benefit of lasting punishout the least God, be called according to God's ments on those foresight of purpose by his spirit working in who should faith, good due season : they through grace continue in unworks, or any obey the calling : they be justi- belief, and recondition per- fied freely : they be made the sist to the end formed by the sons of God by adoption : they his divine assiscreatures; and walk religiously in good works, tance : so that that the rest of and at length by God's grace, election mankind he they attain to everlasting felicity. conditional and was pleased to As the godly consideration of reprobation in pass by, and or- Predestination, and our election like manner, dain them to in Christ is full of sweet, pleasant the result of dishonour and and unspeakable comfort to god- foreseen infiwrath for their ly persons, and such as feel in delity and persins, to the themselves the workings of the severing wickpraise of his spirit of Christ, mortifying the ness, vindictive jus- works of the flesh, and their tice.

earthly members, and drawing up their minds to high and heavenly things, as well because it doth greatly establish, and confirm their faith of eternal salvation to be enjoyed through Christ, as because it dotb ferrently kindle

was ex


Articles of the Church. Arminiarism. their love towards God: so for curious and carnal persons, lacking the spirit of Christ, to have continually before their eyes the sentence of God's predestination, is a most dangerous downfall, whereby the devil doth thrust them either into desperation, or into wretchlessness of most unclean living, no less perilous than desperation.

Furthermore, we must receive God's promises in such wise as they be generally set forth to us in holy scripture: and in our doings that will of God is to be followed, which we have pressly declared unto us in the

word of God. 2. Jesus Christ Art. 31. The offering of Christ 2. Jesus Christ by his suffer- once made, is that perfect re- by his sufferings and death, demption, propitiation and satis- ings and death, made an atone- faction for all the sins of the whole made an atonement only for world, both original and actual, ment for the the sins of the and there is none other satisfacs sins of all manetect. tion for sin, but that alone. * kind and of

every individual in particular ; none, however, but those who believe in him, can be partakers of their divine benefit.

*“ When the question concerning the extent of the design of the death of Christ,” says Bishop White on the authority of Brandt,-—66 came on in the synod of Dort, in the 74th session ; two of the English deputies Ward and Davenant maintained that it was for all mankind, while the Bp. of Landaff and Goad affirmed it to be partial, and when the 31st article of their church was brought into view the Bishop interpreted it as being intended for all sorts of men. Balquanquall, the representative of the Scotch church, spoke at large for the partiality of redemption." The good

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