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greatly contributed to establish the doctrine | distinct grades; and when we come to the of a common origin of all the languages of African, American, and Oceanic nations, we the globe; and to strengthen, therefore, the must assign a new Adam and Eve to almost hypothesis of the original unity of mankind. every tribe. We may be told that we are
We shall now briefly inquire, in the last refining too much—that original diversity place, what are the principal difficulties in should be inferred only where a well-marked ihe way of this hypothesis, and what the distinction exists—that we should be guided, merit of the arguments by which it is usually therefore, only by the prominent differences, met.
and not perplex ourselves with the subordiThe ground usually taken by those who nate ones. But every one who has tried his uphold the doctrine of numerous original hand at classification, whatever may be the stocks, is the fivily of the characters by objects of his attention, knows full well that which the several races of men are at present a line must be drawn somewhere; and that, distinguished; whence it is inferred that they however easy may be the separation of groups must have been always separated by the when their respective characters show no tensame differences. We have already met this dency to mutual approximation, it becomes argument, by opposing facts; but we shall difficult, if not impossible, when a complete now say a word or two on the results to gradation exists between them. Thus it is which it must necessarily lead, if legitimately very easy to say that the Hindoo must have carried out.
had a different origin from the Saxon or Celt; When it is found, for example, that in the but to which family shall we assign the interior of the African and the American swarthy inhabitants of Southern Europe, or continents, and throughout the scattered isl- the fair-skinned dwellers among the mounands of Oceania, there are numerous tribes tain ranges of Northern India ? The red of people, differing at least as much among Egyptians and the jet black Negroes are disthemselves as the Ethiopian, American, and tinct enough in the paintings left to us by Malayan varieties have been considered to the former; but without going far from the differ from each other, it becomes obvious valley of the Nile, every possible shade of that we must extend our ideas of original transition will be found. With which group diversity of stock to all these subordinate are we to arrange these intermediate variedivisions; and that every race which differs ties? from the rest by any well-marked characters, Such are a few examples of the inconsismust have a distinct parentage assigned to tencies and difficulties which are involved in it. But such an hypothesis would leave the hypothesis of numerous original stocks, utterly unaccountable the similarity of lan- marked by all the diversities of physical guage, tradition, habits of thought, and social character which at present exist. From these condition, which is undoubtedly found to (and we might multiply them almost without exist between nations separated from one limit) there seems no way of escape, save in another by trackless deserts or a wide ex the doctrine that a certain capacity for variapanse of ocean; and the more rigorously it tion exists in the human race, as in the races is applied, the greater are the difficulties and of domesticated animals. We have purposely inconsistencies which it involves. Thus, if, abstained from dwelling on the analogical without regard to historical or philological argument, which is put prominently forward considerations, we assume cranial conforma- by Dr. Prichard, because we have thought tion as a valid ground of specific distinction, it more satisfactory to base our inquiries on we must assign a distinct ancestry to the the phenomena presented by the human race Turks of Europe and to those of Central alone. And we must content ourselves for Asia, to the Magyars of Hungary, and to the the present with the remark, that—whether Ugrians of Asiatic Russia; whilst we should our various breeds of domesticated animals bring together the Negroes of the Guinea have originated from single or similar stocks, coast and the blacks of Papua, and might as maintained by some, or are the result of even find it difficult to exclude the Tahitian the intermixture of several originally distinct or Marquesan islanders from the European species, as supposed by others,—there is division. If we take complexion, again, as adequate historical evidence that, when left our guide, we shall be led into yet greater to themselves and introduced into new conabsurdities; for we must then split up the ditions, they may undergo changes, even Jewish people into half a score of diverse within the course of two or three centuries, races: between the ruddy Saxon and the at least equal in degree to the diversities by black Hindoo we must establish a dozen of which they were previously distinguished
from each other. Ample proof to this ef same peculiarity, and causing them to breed fect is afforded by a comparison of the pres together. In this manner are new and wellent characters of the races of animals intro- marked varieties occasionally produced, even duced into South America by the Spaniards, in our own day, among domesticated animals; and now spread in a wild state over the whole although it would seem as if this tendency continent, with those of their domesticated had well nigh exhausted itself. Now it canancestors. These present a striking contrast, not but be admitted that the human race not merely in the character of their integu- | possesses a strong tendency to spontaneous ments, but in the configuration of their skele- variation. How else are we to account for tons, and not unfrequently, also, in their the endless diversity of form and feature exhabits and instincts. Wide as are the phys- hibited by the individuals of any one communiical differences between the cultivated Euro- ty, subjected for ages to the same climatic and pean and the barbarous Negro or the Aus- social influences ? Moreover, we may obtralian savage, they are not greater than serve it not only in the ordinary diversities those which have been certainly produced by which are every day offering themselves to the agency of external conditions, within a our notice, but in extraordinary modifications very limited time—almost, indeed, under our of rarer occurrence, though of great signifiown observation—in the ox, sheep, hog, &c.,
Thus, infants are occasionally born of South America.
with six fingers on each hand and six toes on It may be argued, however, that al- each foot; and this peculiarity is often found though a certain modification may be allowed to descend through successive generations. to have been effected in the characters of In case those who possess it were to be exminor subdivisions of the human race by the clusively matched together, there can be no agency of external conditions, yet the ex- reasonable doubt but that a permanent sixtreme or typical forms, of whose existence in fingered and six-toed race of men would be the remotest periods of the history of our produced; whilst, on the other hand, by free race we have adequate evidence, cannot with intermixture with the surrounding mass, the any probability be supposed to have thus six-fingered race, however originated, tends originated, and must be referred to distinct to merge in the prevailing five-fingered type. parentage at the beginning. In support of Now, if we turn our attention to the probthis argument it may be urged that, although able condition of the human population at complexion and cranial conformation within an early period of its history, we shall at a certain extent are altered by climatic influ- once see how much it would favor the perpetence and habits of life, yet that such influences uation of any such spontaneous variety; for tend merely to change one variety into an- its scantiness and want of settled habits other, or to reduce them all to a common type; would tend to isolate different families, or and that we have no evidence that new vari- very small tribes, from each other, and would eties could spring up in our race under any occasion continual intermarriages even among such agency. This is a purely physiological very near relatives; sv that the force of cirargument, to be discussed upon physiological cumstances would do that which is now often grounds; and if we cannot meet it by posi- accomplished by intentional interference, in tive disproof, we think that we can bring a the multiplication of breeds of animals. And strong weight of analogical evidence to bear if it be urged that the diversities which now against it. For it is a well-known fact, that occasionally present themselves are not comall races of animals which exhibit a capacity parable in amount with those which exist be. of modification from external agencies, pre-tween the most widely separated types of sent at the same time a tendency to variations humanity, it may be fairly replied, that we for which such agencies will not account, and should naturally expect this tendency to which we are obliged, in our ignorance, to spontaneous variation to have a limit; and term spontaneous. It is in this manner that that we might anticipate that its most renew breeds are every now and then originated markable manifestations should have ocamong domesticated animals. Individuals curred at an early period of the history of are frequently born with some peculiarity of the human race, as we have every reason to organization which distinguishes them from believe that they did in all analogous intheir fellows: and if this peculiarity should stances—such as those of our domesticated be considered in any way advantageous, animals and cultivated plants. every care is taken render it permanent,
But lastly it has been argued that, admitby selecting those among the offspring of ting the possibility of all which we have this peculiar individual which present the urged, the lapse of time necessary to bring
about such changes as those required in any this topic. It is too interesting a question, hypothesis of the single origin of the human however, to pass by altogether; and we may races, is far greater than the received chro- state our own conclusion, drawn from a nology admits ; the evidence of extreme di- comparison of the geographical, physiologi, versity of races being at least coeval with the cal, and glottological considerations involved earliest records. An objection founded upon in it, that some part of High Asia was the the authenticity of the Mosaic chronology centre from which the world was peopled; comes with an ill grace from those who re- and that the race still inhabiting that region fuse their assent to the Mosaic account of the most nearly represents the original stock. origin of the human race from a single pair; All the early migrations of which we have and in the present state of critical inquiry, it any traditional evidence, appear to have proscarcely needs a serious refutation. For ceeded from this region as their centre; and there is no more reason to suppose that the its connections with all other lands are such book of Genesis was intended to give us an as are possessed by no other region. The exact chronology, than that it was designed Mongolian type of conformation seems to be to teach us geology or astronomy.
All that which is at the same time most suscepwriters who have entered upon the investiga-tible both of improvement into the highest tion of primæval bistory, have felt a difficulty European form, and of degradation into the in reconciling the proofs of the early exist- prognathous Papuan or Australian. And ence of powerful empires and high grades of the more closely and extensively the affinities civilization, with the ordinary chronology of language are studied, the more is it found founded
the Mosaic records; whilst the that the most ancient inhabitants of every fragmentary character of these records, de part of the globe communicate with the priving them of all claim to be regarded even nations of High Asia, or with some of their as affording a continuous genealogy, has been acknowledged offsets. increasingly felt and acknowledged by un We must not conclude without expressprejudiced biblical critics. The whole ten- ing our high sense of the value of the labors dency of modern geological inquiry, more of Dr. Prichard ; who has unquestionably over, is to lengthen the period which has done more than any other single individual elapsed since the commencement of the re to place Ethnology on a scientific basis. cent epoch; so that without carrying the We have seen how many departments of origin of man one step further back in geo- inquiry must be prosecuted, and this not logical time, we are quite free to assign any superficially, but profoundly, to warrant moderate number of thousands of years that even the simplest conclusion ; and it is not we may think necessary, for the diffusion of too much to say that Dr. Prichard has acthe race, and for the origination of its va- quitted himself in each—whether Physical rieties. Ethnology is in no state at present Geography, Anatomy, Physiology, Psyfor dogmatical conclusions: and so far are chology, History, or Philology-as if it we from presenting our own as such, that alone had occupied his attention. Not that we should be glad if our readers would com we would claim for him the highest place pare what we have said upon the “varieties among the votaries of any one of these of complexion in the human race," with the sciences; but we are sure that he rank opposite views put forth in a recent number as facile princeps among those who have of the Ethnological Journal. The subject attempted to bring them all into mutual rein all its branches is one not of revelation but lation. We should be giving a very erroof science: and, on this and similar subjects, neous view of his labors, however, if we our most zealous theologians need not be represented them as merely directed to the afraid of being found in the company of Dr. maintenance of the position he has taken up Henry Moore; who, in his Defence of the regarding the single origin of the race.
In Moral Cabbala," has cited, with approbation, his larger work he has essayed to bring tothe judgment of Bodinus—that “the unskil-gether, in a condensed form, all the most ful insisting of our divines upon the literal important information that can be collected sense of Moses has bred many hundred thou- from the various sources we have indicated, sands of atheists.".
illustrative of the present condition and past It might, perhaps, be safer in the present history of the races of mankind; and whilst state of the inquiry, to refrain from specu- deducing from these materials his own conlating as to the primary condition of the clusions, he gives his readers the most ample race, and the centre of its diffusion; and Dr. means of forming a judgment for themPrichard has cautiously held his peace on selves—the whole evidence on each point
being candidly stated without disguise or sup-, by savage and unrelenting fierceness, are pression. Although composed in the inter- gentle, and tender, and affectionate to their vals of laborious professional occupation, this young. The grim lion fondles with paternal work might well be supposed to be the result softness his playful cubs; and the savage of the labor of a life uninterruptedly devoted bear has been known to interpose her own to the investigation. Originating nearly body between the deadly musket and her forty years since in an academical thesis, it helpless offspring. But ihis feeling in anihas become the standard of ethnological mals lasts only for a season. After they science; and will remain so, we feel assured, have nourished and brought up their
young, so long as the life of its accomplished author these go out from their parents, all further shall be spared to engraft upon it the re ties between them are broken up, and they sults of the inquiries now so extensively and know each other no more. How different vigorously prosecuted.
is this from human connections! The fond of the smaller work it will be enough to mother watches over the long and helpless say that it affords a more concise and popular period of infancy, instils into early childhood view of the subject, for the use of those who lessons of wisdom and virtue, and feels her might be deterred from entering upon it by hopes and affections increase with every the bulk and profundity of the “Physical year that brings an increase of reason. Nor History;" those departments, however, being are such family ties severed by death. The dwelt upon in most detail, which most sup- child, on its part, returns the care and afport the doctrine of the Unity of the Race. fection of its parents, and when old age and We shall be happy if, by making Dr. Prich- second childhood come upon them, the ard's writings better known among our children then feel it their greatest happiness countrymen, we contribute towards their ob- to repay in acts of kindness and attention the taining that place in our scientific literature, debt of gratitude which is justly due. What which they have long held in the estimation a moral beauty is thus thrown over the comof the learned of Germany.
mon instinctive affections, and how greatly superior appears man's nature to that of the mere brute.- British Quarterly.
AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING in BRUTES AND Human Beings.—One of the strongest feelings of animals is that of affection for their DICKENS IN AFRICA.—Perhaps no author offspring, and indeed so intense is this im- ever sprung into popularity so suddenly and pulse among the greater number, that it may universally as Dickens. That popularity may be said to exceed the care which they em be ascribed to the sympathy and geniality of ploy for their own preservation, or the in- Boz's style, and the thorough nationality and dulgence of their own appetites. Among genuineness of his portraitures. An anecdote insects and soine other of the inferior tribes, will illustrate the influence of his works upon the care and solicitude of providing for their foreigners and absentees. “Mr. Davy, who young engrosses the better half of their ex- accompanied Colonel Cheney up the Euphraistence; for they labor during the prime of tes, was for a time in the service of Mehemet life to provide a comfortable nest and proper Ali Pacha. Pickwick 'happening to reach food for their offspring, which they are never Davy while he was at Damascus, he read a destined to see, death overtaking them be part of it to the Pacha, who was so delighted fore they can enjoy the pleasure of behold. with it that Davy was, on one occasion, called ing their future family. Many timid animals up in the middle of the night to finish the that shrink from danger while they are single reading of the chapter in which he and the and alone, become bold and 'pugnacious Pacha had been interrupted. Mr. Davy read, when surrounded by their young.' Thus the in Egypt, upon another occasion, some passadomestic hen will face any danger and en- ges from these unrivalled Papers’ to a counter any foe in order to protect her brood blind Englishman, who was in such ecstasy of chickens ; and the lark and linnet will with what he heard, that he exclaimed he allow themselves to be taken in their nest was almost thankful he could not see he was rather than desert the young which lie pro- in a foreign country ; for that while he listtected under their wings. Even those ani ened, he felt completely as though he were mals whose general nature is characterized again in England.'
From Bentley's Miscellany.
When considering the imaginative litera- | ing to the Good Fairy who delighted us in ture of England during the past half cen the
young days when å
book was a book," tury, the historian to come, —especially if | --being called to the pleasant duty of prothere be anything of the Salique law-giver nouncing an éloge (as they say in France) in his composition, --will possibly be sur- upon the authoress of “ Častlé Rackrent, prised by the value of the contributions and the “ Absentee,” and “ Vivian,” and made to it by women. It is pleasant mean Basil Lowe,” and “Harry and Lucy," while for contemporary chroniclers to reflect the excellent and incomparable Maria Edgehow many among these have been allowed worth. by “ Time and Change” to live to the full Our éloge, however, shall not be, “after enjoyment of their virtuous and bright repu the manner of the French," a piece of untation—to have seen one fashion pass and mitigated flattery. No one has more closely another succeed, and the illustrations of and systematically addressed herself to the truth and beauty which they originated, as understanding than the delightful novelist clear and as little likely to wane as at the whom we shall attempt to characterize; in moment of being given forth to the world, the case of no one, therefore, is the keenest amidst all the fevers and tremors of virgin intellectual appreciation more of a necessity. authorship. The authoress of “ The Can- The Della Cruscans did well to rhapsodiže terbury Tales” has lived to become a classic; over one another's Della Cruscanisms; the Jane Porter, to read the long list of bis class-novelists must look to be propped by torical novels of which her own and her sis class-panegyric, or assailed by class-preter’s were the predecessors; Joanna Baillie, judice ;—the romantic, to be romantically though
approached with compliments of the super
lative degree. We will try to be “ fair and " Retired as noontide dew,"
honest” with one, the whole scope and
tissue of whose authorship has been to dedelightful example among those who have fend fairness and honesty by the inculcation been the equal and chosen friends of men of of truth and high principle. genius, and yet have kept, not acted the By Miss Edgeworth's own preface to the keeping of their womanly simplicity,-has third edition of the Memoirs of her Father, been searched out on the Hampstead Hill, we are reminded that eighty-two years have by the voices of the worthiest of the world elapsed since she was born, being the daughbringing her their precious and honest trib- ter of Richard Lovell Edgeworth, by the utes. And here, now that we are at the first of four wives, born in England, and end of a period of novelists,-now that the until the age of thirteen, with little excepspasmodic manufacturers of horrors have tion, brought up in this country. So far as had their day,--now that the Silver Fork can be gathered from the record already people have said their say," and can hardly quoted Maria was less rigidly trained accordfind a reader in the Porter's black chair, or ing to system than some of her brothers and in the drowsy Abigail, who sits up waiting sisters; one of whom was brought up acfor the return of Lady Anne from Almack's cording to the canons of Rousseau, and --now that the last school, that of “ The others, it may be divined, on plans which her Wooden Ladle,” with its tales of jails and own reference to her father's work on “ Prachospital anatomies, and garret graces, and tical Education" explicitly points out were, kennel kindlinesses, begins to tire, and its in many of their details, proved to be untenasentimentality to be proved “a hollow ble, if not fallacious. Time and space may thing,”—here do we find ourselves, return thus have been given for an originality to de